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This is for CHAPTA 25, the test is


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in 1867 the Hungarian nobility restored the constitution of 1848 and used it to dominate both the Magyar peasentry and the minority population
Red Shirts
Volunteers in Garibaldi's army
Economic custom union of German states, founded in 1818 by Prussia. Eliminated internal tarriffs
Giuseppe Mazzini
Italy idealistic patriot; preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal suffrage and the will of the people
Local assemblies in Russia
"Blood and Iron"
Refers to Prussian tactics brought about by Otto Van Bismarck; his unification of Germany was through a policy of "blood and iron"
Louis Kossuth
Leader of the Hungarians, demanded national autonomy with full liberties and universal suffrage in 1848
Giuseppe Garibaldi
An Italian radical who emerged as a powerful independent force in Italian politics. He planned to liberate the Two Kingdomes of Sicily
Great German party at the Frankfurt Assembly. "Big Germans"
A secret society; designated to overthrow Bonapartist rulers; liberal patriots
The federal council of Austrian gvt
Franco-Prussian War
1870-71, war between France and Prussia; seen as German victory; seen as a struggle of Darwinism; led to Prussian being the most powerful European nation. INstigated by Bismarck; France seen as agressor
Little German party at the Frankfurt Assembly. "little Germans"
policy imposing Russian customs and traditions on other people
idea created by J.G. Herder to identify the national character of Germany, but soon passed to other countries
Constitutional monarchy
Monarch rules with limitations by the constitution-written or unwritten
Italian period of history from 1815 to 1850
Popularly elected parliament in Germany. Very little power
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian war. Alsace and Lorraine given to Germany
Ems Dispatch
A message from William I of Prussia to Napolean III which brought France into the Franco-Prussian war
Syllabus of Errors
1864. Pope Pius IX denounced rationalism, socialism, and separation of church and state
Persecution of minorities, esp. the Jews in Russia
Otto Von Bismarck
Prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of Germany under his rule
Napolean III
original Napolean's nephew; consolidated conservative gvt. and the ideals of nationalism
base ideas of liberty and equality
Alexander II
Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated serfs; assasinated
Pride in one's nation, group, or traditions; a desire for independence
Ausgleich, 1867
Refers to the compromise of 1867 which created the dual monarchy of Austria and Hungary
Carlsbad Decrees
1819, it discouraged liberal teachings in southern Germany. Censorship imposed by Metternicj
Political theory, advocated by Bismarck, that national success justifies any means possible. Very Machiavellan
Count Camillo Cavour
Endorsed the economic doctrines of the middle class. Worked for a secret alliance with Napolean III against Austria. Worked to unite Italy
Frankfurt Assembly
1807-82 personified the romantic revolutionary nationalism. Attempted to unify Germany
A mvt. to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877
Leopold II
King of Belgium, sent Henry Stanley to Africa

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