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AP US Progressive Era Terms


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John Dewey
the "father" of progressive education, he published "The School and Society" (1899) to suggest the need for an education that was practical and useful. He insisted that education should be child centered and that schools should build character, teach good citizenship, and be instruments of social reform.
George W. Norris
in 1910, he led progressive insurgents in the House of Representatives, to strip Speaker Joseph Cannon of his control of the Rules Committee. Thereafter, party caucuses made committee appointments. This curtailed some of the arbitrary power of the Speaker of the House.
ashcan artists (Name them, also)
an early twentieth century school of artists who supported progressive political and social reform. They turned to city streets, the slums, and the working class for subject matter. Robert Henri, John Sloan, George Luks.
Eugene V. Debs
labor leader who ran for president in 1900 on the Socialist ticket; he polled fewer than 100,000 votes. When he ran again in 1904, he got more than 400,000, and in later elections still more.
William Haywood
an organizer of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), an openly anticapitalist labor organization. Although he was sometimes dramatic in his leadership, he was unable to build a large membership.
Industrial Workers of the World
this militant labor organization founded in 1905 attracted mostly recent immigrants and espoused a class-conscious program and ideology. Its members were known as Wobblies.
Sigmund Freud
his psychoanalytical theories attracted numbers of Americans, especially after G. Stanley Hall invited him and some of his disciples to lecture at Clark University in 1909.
Abe Ruef
shrewd lawyer who ruled one of the most powerful and dissolute political machines in the nation in San Francisco after 1901.
Samuel M. "Golden Rule" Jones
he was the progressive reform mayor of Toledo, Ohio at the turn of the twentieth century. He, like other reform mayors, launched a massive assault on dishonesty and inefficiency in urban government.
Tom L. Johnson
progressive mayor of Cleveland, whose administration Lincoln Steffens called the best in the United States.
Seth Low
progressive mayor of New York who improved public transportation system and obtained passage of the tenement house law of 1901 in New York.
Robert M. La Follette
an uncompromising foe of corruption in government who became reform governor of (and later senator from) Wisconsin. He had faith in people’s ability, once informed, to do the right thing. He founded the Wisconsin Idea of including scholars and experts in the administration of state government.
Holden v. Hardy
the United States Supreme Court upheld the Utah mining law of 1896 in this 1898 case.
Lochner v. New York
in 1905, the Supreme Court declared that a New York ten-hour act for bakers deprived the bakers of the liberty of working as long as they wished and thus violated the Fourteenth Amendment
Hammer v. Dagenhart
after Congress passed a federal child labor law in 1916, the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in this case in 1918.
Muller v. Oregon
a 1918 Supreme Court case in which Louis Brandeis, lawyer for the Consumers’ League, prepared a brief stuffed with biological and sociological evidence showing that long working hours were dangerous to health. The Court’s decision encouraged states to enact legislation to protect women and limit child labor.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
the tragic death of 150 women employees at this New York factory in 1911, caused by locked doors and the absence of fire escapes, led to the passage of stricter building codes and factory-inspection laws to protect workers.
Louis D. Brandeis
a lawyer, was the first Jewish member of the Supreme Court. When practicing law, he was a defender of the rights of labor and working people, exemplified in his "_____ brief" in the case of Muller v. Oregon.
Charles Evans Hughes
a progressive Republican, was that party's presidential nominee in 1916. Later, he was a secretary of state and chief justice of the Supreme Court.
"Seven Sisters" Laws
seven bills passed in 1913 by the New Jersey legislature under Woodrow Wilson that tightened the state’s loose controls over corporations, which had won New Jersey the unenviable reputation of being "the mother of trusts."
AWSA (American Women's Suffrage Association)
focused on the vote question alone.
NWSA (National Women’s Suffrage Association)
led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, this was a progressive women’s rights organization that campaigned for women’s right to vote and the unionization of women workers.
NAWSA (National American Women’s Suffrage Association)
in 1890 the two major women’s groups combined to form this.
Carrie Chapman Catt
emerging new leader (after Stanton and Anthony) who combined superb organizing abilities and political skills with commitment to broad social reform.
Alice Paul
the dynamic radical feminist who led the Women's party's campaign for an equal-rights amendment to the Constitution in the 1920s.
Alva Belmont
wealthy reformer who headed the Congressional Union, which shifted the suffrage campaign back to the national level.
Newlands Act
passed in 1902, this legislation funneled the income from federal land sales in the West into federal irrigation projects, a keystone in President Roosevelt’s favorite progressive concern, conservation.
Elkins Railroad Act
passed in 1903, this act strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission’s hand against the railroads by making the receiving as well as the granting of rebates illegal and by forbidding the road to deviate in any way from their published rates.
Northern Securities
in 1902, President Roosevelt ordered the Justice Department to bring suit against the Northern Securities Company, a railroad monopoly. The Supreme Court dissolved the company, ruling that it violated the Sherman Antitrust Act. The case helped earn Roosevelt the title of "trustbuster."
Elbert H. Gary
chairman of the board of U.S. Steel who, at a White House conference with Roosevelt in 1905, reached a "gentlemen’s agreement" whereby promised "to cooperate with the Government in every possible way."
United Mine Workers
in June of 1902, they laid down their picks and demanded higher wages, an eight-hour day, and recognition of the union.
John Mitchell
leader of the United Mine Workers
George F. Baer
the spokesman of the Reading Railroad owners who was inept at public relations.
Elihu Root
a Cabinet member who worked out the details with J. P. Morgan while cruising the Hudson River on Morgan’s yacht to grant the miners a 10% wage increase and a nine-hour day starting March 1903.
Alton B. Parker
Democrats' nominee, who was a conservative judge in New York, to run against Roosevelt in 1904.
Hepburn Act
the 1906 act that put teeth in the regulatory power of the Interstate Commerce Commission. It gave the commission power to inspect railroad companies’ records, set maximum rates, and outlaw free passes, which were often used to influence politicians.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Congress passed this act upon Roosevelt’s pressure, which forbade the manufacture and sale of adulterated and fraudulently labeled products.
Panic of 1907
struck the financial world in October 1907; started with a run on several important New York trust companies and spread to the Stock Exchange when speculators found themselves unable to borrow money to meet their obligations.
Mann-Elkins Act
passed in 1910 by Taft, this act empowered the ICC to suspend rate increases without waiting for a shipper to complain and established the Commerce Court to speed the settlement of railroad rate cases.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
a protectionist tariff bill signed by President William Howard Taft, although he personally favored downward revision of U.S. tariffs. His action alienated many congressional progressives from his administration.
Richard A. Ballinger
Taft’s secretary of the interior, a less than ardent conservationist; returned to the public domain certain water-power sites that the Roosevelt administration had withdrawn on the legally questionable ground that they were to become ranger stations.
Gifford Pinchot
the nation's chief forester and an avid conservationist, became involved in a dispute with President Taft's secretary of the interior, Richard Ballinger, in 1910. The dispute centered around the disposition of public domain lands in Alaska which Ballinger wanted to cede to mining interests, a move he opposed and ultimately lost.
New Freedom v. New Nationalism
(New Freedom) in the 1912 presidential campaign, Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson ran on this platform contending that the government could best serve the public interest and provide social justice by breaking up the trusts and restoring competition to the economy. Using existing laws.
(New Nationalism) in 1912, running on the Progressive party ticket, Theodore Roosevelt campaigned on this comprehensive progressive platform for economic and social legislation. It called for *expanding* federal power to regulate big business and enacting social-justice legislation. Creating new laws.
Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act
this 1913 reform law lowered tariff rates and levied the first regular federal income tax.
Federal Trade Commission Act
created in 1914 by Congress to replace the Bureau of Corporations, this nonpartisan commission investigated and reported on corporate behavior, and was authorized to issue cease and desist orders against unfair trade practices.
Clayton Antitrust Act
legislation passed in 1914 that strengthened existing antitrust laws. It outlawed interlocking directorates, exempted labor unions from antitrust laws, and limited the use of injunctions in labor disputes.
Gentlemen's Agreement
in 1906, the Japanese government agreed not to issue passports to Japanese workers intending to migrate to the United States. President Roosevelt reciprocated by getting the San Francisco school board to end its discriminatory segregation of Japanese students.
William Dillingham
Senator of Vermont who headed a commission appointed by Congress to study the immigration question; the commission labored for more than two years and brought forth a 41-volume report that led in 1913 to a bill restricting the number of newcomers to be admitted and reducing especially the influx from eastern and southern Europe.
Oswald Garrison Villard, Jane Addams, John Dewey, William Dean Howells
respectively: newspaperman, social worker, philosopher, and novelist, who all founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909, the centennial of the birth of Abraham Lincoln. The organization was dedicated to the eradication of racial discrimination.
The Crisis
the NAACP's journal, edited by Du Bois, also a national officer of NAACP.
Carter G. Woodson
in 1915, he founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History; the following year he began editing the Journal of Negro History, which became the major publishing organ for scholarly studies on the subject.
William Monroe Trotter
a caustic critic of Booker T. Washington, like his Harvard classmate W. E. B. Du Bois. He opposed Washington’s call for black accommodation to white prejudice. He led a delegation of African Americans to Washington, D.C., to protest the government’s segregation policy.
Richard Hofstadter
historian who suggested that the status revolution was an explanation of the progressive movement; numbers of moderately prosperous businessmen, together with members of the professions and other educated people, felt threatened by the increasing power and status of the new tycoons, many of them coarse, domineering, and fond of vulgar display.
McClure's & Cosmopolitan
The main magazines for muckraking writing
Isadora Duncan
Famous dancer who belonged to bohemian colony in Grenwich Village; met an untimely death when strangled by her scarf
Robert Weibe said the Progressive ere was...
a "search for order"
1) Made public aware of problems
2) McClure's & Cosmopolitan
3) Coined by Theodore Roosevelt
Ida Tarbell
"History of Standard Oil Company"
Lincoln Steffens
"Shame of the Cities"
Upton Sinclair
Wrote "The Jungle". He was a socialist trying to expose the problems of the working class through his book.
David Phillips
"Treason of the Senate"

Attempt to expose links between Government and corporations.
1) Oversimplified
2) Wide range of people made contradictory
3) not anti-capitalist or revolutionary
4) no concern for blacks
5) belief in the basic goodness of humanity; need to reform gov't
6) International Workers of the World
Members of the IWW (Industial Workers of the World)
IWW Founders
Eugene V. Debs, William Haywood, Mary Harris Jones, Daniel De Leon
IWW characteristics
radical, anti-capitalist, socialistic
Max Eastman
one of the bohemian group who edited and published their newspaper, "The Masses"

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