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Soc. Stu. Chapter 11


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Many people settled on the _____ peninsula as well as the many small ____.
Peloponnesus; islands
Most ancient Greek people were ______.
Which seas surround Greece? What is it centered on?
Ionian, Aegean, Mediterranean; Aegean
How did the geography of Greece effect the development of the early civilizations?
it divided Greece into closely knit communities; sometimes rivalries between two communities erupted and turned into wars; sea was gateway to the outside world's people, products, and ideas
Tell a little about some of the landforms you would find in Greece.
rugged mountains, bays, inlets, small islands, (etc.)
Greece has a climate similar to ______.
Farmers raised crops ____. Tell about the planting/harvesting seasons.
year-round; spring and summer=tending vineyards and olive groves; fall=harvested grapes, olives, planted wheat and barley
What were the two main Greek crops? Why those specific crops?
grapes and olives; hilly terrain=ideal for grape/olive growing
Grain was:
A) very common
B) scarce at times
C) steadily flowing through Greece
B; less than 1/4 of the land was flat enough for grain to grow
Tell about earliest Greek civilization. Achievements, leader, trade, (etc.)
on island of Crete; leader: King Minos; 2000-1400 BC called Minoan Age; developed writing system; created fine artwork; great sailors; traded with Egypt, Phoenicia, and Mesopotamia; master builders; underground plumbing; running water; capital: Knossos
Tell about the palaces the Minoans built.
had maze-like series of rooms centered around a courtyard; built 4,000 yrs ago, but still quite advanced
Tell about the development and fall of the Mycenaean civilization.
people started to settle on the mainland; started building cities on hilltops; largest was Mycenae; captured rich trade routes; established colonies; gradually became more powerful; defeated Minoans; became dominant civilization; 1400-1100 BC: Mycenaean Age; started to decline; fell to invaders; many citizens fled
What were the Mycenaean's achievements? Who did the learn them from?
built ships; built palaces Minoan style; adopted their writing system; the Minoans
Who moved into the area after the Mycenaeans civilization collapsed?
the Dorians
What did the fall of the Mycenaeans begin?
the Dark Age
What happened during the Dark Age?
1100-800 BC; trade came to standstill; written language disappeared; live in isolated villages
When did the Greeks start to write again after the Dark Age?
800 BC using the Phoenician alphabet
Describe the rise of city-states and some of their problems.
population increased during Dark Age; villages grew to cities; trade grew with villages; leaders arose; as they grew, sometimes didnt have enough farmland to support people; began to fight over boundaries, (etc.); many colonists left city-states to find new ones
The period of time when city-states flourished is often call the:
Age of Expansion
What is a city-state?
a self-governing unit made up of a city and its surrounding villages and farmland
What are some of the problems with some of the growing city-states?
some city-states grew too large they couldn't feed everyone; food shortages caused unrest and discontent; farmers suffered; lost their land to wealthy; many sold themselves into slavery
____ stole control from the nobles, but surprisingly they were quite popular because:
Tyrants; they promised to reform laws, aid the poor; promoted building projects; religious festivals, and allowed people to have a say in government
What did the tyrants contribute to the development of democracy?
taught citizens that by uniting behind a leader, they could gain power
Who was the tyrant that was driven out and not replaced?
Did everyone like the democracy in Athens? Who? Why?
no; some wealthy citizens thought it gave too much power to the poor citizens, but most liked system
Describe the different aspects of Athen's government before and after 500 BC.
council of 500 random citizens; assembly voted on laws about every 9 days; in law courts, jurors were citizens; interpreted laws and decided whether guilty or innocent; AFTER: institutions open to more people and administered more fairly; government now paid people for services (jurors, etc.); now everyone could afford to take part; most successful democracy (in Greece)
True or false: Athens was the only Greek city-state that developed a democracy.
What were the requirements to become a citizen in Athens? (before and after 451 BC)
1.) male
2.) over age 18
3.) father had to be citizen for the son to be one
4.) father and mother's father had to be citizens
Name the type of Athenian people and the amount that contributes to the population. (all amounts are approximate)
citizens (45,000/300,000)
wives and chilren (145,000/300,000)
metics or forigners (35,000/300,000)
slaves (75,000/300,000, or rest)
Tell more details about the Athenian metics.
came from other parts of the Mediterranean; many merchants, artisans, (etc.); could not vote or hold public office
Did Athenian women have any rights?
no; could not own land (married or single)
What was the main economic activity in Athens?
Tell about how the tenant farmer system worked in Athens.
sometimes when a person owned too much land for them to handle, would use tenent farmers or slaves; tenant farmers would lease plots of land from owner and pay rent in crops
Why did the Athenians stop trading using barter? What replaced it?
as Athens became a trading center (600 BC), barter became inconvenient; silver coins
What did the use of coins in Athens help?
made trade easier; allowed purchase of any product; therefore spurred economy
True or False (then explain/add details): Wealthy people in Athens would hold their wealth for only a few generations, then lost it.
true; wealthy citizens were expected to contribute huge amounts of money to government projects; cost of government was high; after about 3 generations, lost all their wealth
What was good about Athenians not holding their wealth for long periods of time?
kept money flowing; gave work to merchants and craftsmen
The Olympics was originally a religious festival honoring the god _____.
What was the purpose of myths and legends?
they told the role of the gods; explained natural phenomanons
Tell about Zeus' role.
father of the gods; rules entire world; stern, commanding and powerful; set standards of justice; made sure everyone followed them; controlled weather; punished with bolts of lightning
The brother of Zeus, Poseidon, is the god of the ___.
Zeus' wife, ____, is the goddess of ____.
Hera; marriage
a system of government in which people rule, either directly or through elected representatives
a system of government in which a monarch-king, queen, or emperor-is the sole and absolute ruler
a system of government in which a few people rule
a ruler who has total power, not limited by a constitution or by other officials
a system of trading in which people exchange goods or services directly, without the use of money
one of five elected officials who supervise the kings of ancient Sparta
a state slave in ancient Sparta
a place of worship such as a church, temple, or mosque
a serious drama in which the hero is brought to defeat by a character flaw
a humorous play that has a happy ending
True or False: The gods worshiped differed from city-state to city-state.
False; everyone worshiped Zeus and his family of gods
During the Dark Age, written language disappeared. How do we still know Greece's early history?
oral tradition; IMPORTANCE OF HOMER'S ODYSSEY!!! he was the 1st (or most impacting) person who wrote down anything about what Greece was like before the Dark Age, after the Dark Age
How did the Greeks worship their gods?
prayed to specific gods for different needs; made (animal) sacrifices before sports, long voyages, (etc.); built sanctuaries in areas of worship
Ares, Zeus' son, was the god of ____.
____, the god of wine, was another of Zeus' sons.
Apollo was the god of: He also drove the ___ _____.
light/health/healing/prophecy; sun chariot
Olympia is a sanctuary to ___. Details.
Zeus; birthplace of Olympics; thought gods liked watching games
True or False: Delphi is a sanctuary to Hera.
false; Apollo
Why did some people leave their valuables at Delphi?
site so sacred, no one would even think about robbing it
Why is Delphi so famous?
famous oracle; Priests interpreted predictions that were hard to understand; people often got clouded advise; people came from near or far for advise
Tell about the story of the oracle at Delphi.
in war against Persia; military officials sought advise; oracle said "wooden walls" would save Athens; thought this meant to build more wooden ships; these ships allowed Athenians to escape from Salasaris and defeat the Persians.
____ is another famous sanctuary to Apollo. (HINT: also his birthplace)
True or False: The Olympic Games was the only athletic compitition held in honor of a god.
false; Apollo had one, along with many others
True or False: Eleusis was the site of the sanctuary to Demeter.
Who is the god/goddess of grain?
Farmers would make annual _____ to Demeter every ____ and ____ season.
pilgrimages; planting; harvest
People would have special religious practices toward the goddess Demeter. What does this show?
the importance of agriculture
Twice a year, writers would compose plays for a special festival, dedicated to _____.
One of the most _____ contributions of the Greeks were the ____ performed at the festival for the wine god.
lasting; plays
____ were the most popular form of play.
Tell a little about the Greek play festival.
most told stories about gods or heroes; combined religion with entertainment; plays presented from dawn to dusk; 3 days of tragedies; 1 day for comedies; all businesses closed for it; in open-air ampitheater; city released prisoners from jail so they could watch; jury of citizens judged plays; awarded ivy crowns to winning plays
Tell about the legend of Phidippides.
was fastest runner in Athenian troops; ordered to run to Sparta to ask for assistance in Persian war; due to religious festival, could not come for 5-7 days; Athenian general decided to attack without assistance; attacked Persiansin Marathon; won; Phidippides ran back from battle; spread good news then dies
Tell about the Dorians rule in Sparta.
ruled for about 100 yrs; enslaved former inhabitants; people in nearby towns still free, but forced to serve in army; slave population a LOT > citizen population; feared uprising of slaves; built strong army; some spent all of life in military
Tell about the Spartan government.
began as monarchy; 2 tribes=2 leaders; gradually had 30 man senate; kings still had little more power; senators had to be > or = to 60; members elected by citizens; all citizens belonged to assembly that couldn't propose laws, only vote on them; senate and ephors proposed laws
Why isn't the Spartan government considered a democracy?
even if assembly voted against law, often ignored vote; power was really in hands of a few families; families dominated senate and controlled ephors
What were the requirements to become a citizen in Sparta?
1.) male
2.) landowner
3.) > 30 yrs
What occupations could Spartan men have?
only soldiers
The ____ around Sparta provided trade/craft items.
True or False (and add details): The Spartans tried to explore technology as much as they could, so they could relax as much as possible.
false; led very simple lives; luxury items were forbidden for long time
How was the Spartan land distributed?
every citizen recieved plot of land from government; helots farmed it and received some crops as wages; gave rest of crops to owner; owner gave some to government
A Spartan lost their citizenship if they could not pay for their _____.
meals (government provided citizen with daily meals)
What happened when a Spartan baby was born?
government came to inspect it; considered unhealthy, left in cave to die; wanted only babies that would grow to strong adults
Make a "timeline" of how a Spartan boys' life would be like.
age 7: leave parents to live in barracks with other boys; government takes over education and controls life; training harsh; emphasized physical skills; slept on floor; wore light clothes; beaten, even if obedient
Age 18: devote time to army
Age 30: completes military training; gains full citizenship; eats with soldiers no matter what (marrige)
Did Spartan girls get educations? Athenian girls?
yes; thought girls had to be strong to bear healthy kids; no; learned most from mothers
The Spartans thought _____ made boys stronger.
Tell a little about Spartan entertainment.
had chorus contests at religious festivals; dance contests
Make a "timeline" of an Athenian boys' life.
Age 7: began school; lived at home; learned reading, writing, arithmetic, poetry, music, dance; devoted some time to athletics
Age 18: joined army for 2 yrs of military training
Age 20: at graduation, recieved shield and spear; joined reserve force (called to duty during war)
An Athenian's education continues throughout their life. Why is this statement true?
because of rich culture; would discuss myths, gods, poetry (Homer); watched plays; (etc.)
True or False: During the 300s BC, wealthy adults could continue schooling.
____ is famous for military background.
What did it's strong military background do?
Sparta; stregnthen society
Athens is famous for its ______ and _____.
democracy; freedom
Tell about Persia.
built empire in Middle East; stretched from Egypt to Indus River; brought region under one empire/ruler; began to extend boundaries toward Greece (about 500 BC)
Tell about the Persian War at Marathon.
the Persians (or King Darius) wanted to punish Athens for sending aid to the struggling city-states near the border of Greece that were fighting against Persians; Athens won; Persians fled unwillingly
Tell about the second Persian War (Xerxes).
returned 10 yrs later after 1st war under rule of Xerxes; Persians=200,000 soldiers; Greeks=a lot less; Athenians bounded with Spartans; sent 7,000 men to guard Thermopylae (mountain pass); Greek traitor led Persians over secret path; attacked Greeks from behind; most fled to island Salamis (in the boats that the oracle talked about); about 300 Spartans saved the rest and fought to the death; Persians burned much of Athens
Tell about the battle at Salamis.
about 1 month after battle at Thermopylae; Greek ships clustered at island; Persians divided fleet and sent some around to cut off Greeks; these boats did not arrive in time for battle; Greeks left island; Persians sailed between a passage; Persians prepared to attack; Greeks turned around and attacked 1st; Greeks sank about 1/2 of Persian fleet
What happened in the last Persian battle?
at Plataea; Greeks overwhelmed Persians; defeated them
The early Greeks traded with: How? What did this cause?
Sicily, Black Sea (grains), Egyptians, (etc.); by sea (location); extensive contacts with advanced cultures led to spread of ideas that spurred development of Greek civilization

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