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WYHS Euro Word Quiz 2

Terms

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Cathars
A medieval French dualist heretical sect, aka Albigensians
Concordat
A formal agreement, especially between the pope and a gov't, for the regulation of church affairs
Boers
Dutch settlers in south Africa
Berlin Airlift
The airborne military operation formed to supply Berlin's Western-occupied sectors during the Soviet Union's 1948 Berlin blockage
Cahiers
Lists of public grievances sent to the French Estates General in 1789
Compurgation
A Germanic legal oath taken by 12 men testifying to the character of the accused
Commonwealth of Independent States
A loose confederation of several former republics of the disintegrated Soviet Union founded in 1991
Central Powers
World War 1 alliance including Germany, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire
Chartists
English reformers of the 1830-40s who demanded political and social rights for the lower classes
Balance of Power
The policy of creating alliances to control powerful states
Complutensian Polyglot Bible
A bible written in 1520 that had 3 columns comparing Hebrew, Greek, and Latin versions of the Bible
Corn Laws
British laws that imposed tariffs on grain imports
Baroque
An artistic style of the 16th/17th centuries stressing "rich ornamentation and dynamic movement"
Boxers
A 19th century Chinese secret that believed in the spiritual power of the martial arts and fought the Chinese Christians and foreigners in China
Commune
A medieval or early modern town, or a semi-independent city gov't/socialistic society in 19th/20th centuries
Arete
Greek word referring to the valued virtues of manliness, courage, and excellence
Capitularies
Royal laws issued by Charlemagne and Carolingians
Congress of Vienna
The peace conference held in 1814-15 in Vienna after Napoleon's defeat
Bessemer Process
A method for removing impurities from molten iron
Bastille
The royal prison symbolizing the old regime that was destroyed in the French Revolution
Brezhnev Doctrine
Formed in 1968 by a USSR leader, named Brezhnev; a policy that justified Soviet involvement in order to ensure the survival of socialism in another state
Balkans
States in the Balkan Peninsula, including Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, and Yugoslavia
Conservatism
Political ideology that resisted change in favor of tradition and viewed society as an organism that evolved slowly over time
Blitzkrieg
Means "lightening war," a rapid air/land attack used by the Germans in World War 2
Centuriate Assembly
An aristocratic ruling body in ancient Rome that made the laws
Comecon
The economic organization of communist eastern Europe states during the Cold War
Burschenschaften
Liberal nationalist German Student Union during the early nineteenth century
Axis
A World War 2 alliance made up mainly of Germany, Italy, and Japan
Astrolabe
A tool used to determine the altitudes of celestial bodies (sun, moon, etc.)
Capitalism
An economic system allowing freedom of market with private/corporate ownership of the means of production/distribution that are operated for profit
Copernican Revolution
The ___ is the change from an earth-centered to a sun-centered universe initiated by Copernicus in the 16th century
Assignats
Paper money issued in the National Assembly during the French Revolution
Bolshevik
Means "majority faction," the Leninist wing of the Russian Marxist Party, later the Communist party
Cold War
The global struggle between alliances headed by the US and the Soviet Union during the late 20th century
Baby Boom
The increase of births following World War 2
Bastard Feudalism
Late medieval corruption of the feudal system replacing feudal loyalty with cash payments
Committee of Public Safety
Ruling committee of 12 leaders during the French Revolutionary period of the Terror
Chancellor
A prime minister in Germany
Berlin Wall
Barbed wire put up by the Soviets between East and West Berlin in order to stop refugees from entering West Germany
Autocrat
An authoritarian ruler
Bailiffs
French officials hired by the king to collect taxes and represent his interests
Common market
The European Economic Community, a union of western European nations initiated in 1957 to promote common economic policies
Blackshirts
Mussolini's black-uniformed Fascist paramilitary forces in the 20s/30s
Bauhaus
An influential school of art emphasizing clean, functional lines founded in Germany by the architect Walter Gropius just after World War 1
Carbonari
A secret society of revolutionaries in 19th century Italy
Bedouin
An Arab of any of the nomadic tribes of the deserts of North Africa, Arabia, and Syria
Cartel
An alliance of corporations designed to control the market place
Classical style
A 17th/18th century cultural style emphasizing restraint and balance, following models from ancient Greece and Rome
Conciliar movement
The belief that the Catholic Church should be led by councils of cardinals rather than popes
Concert of Europe
The alliance of powers after 1815 created to maintain the status quo and coordinate international relations
Baroque
In music, a style marked by strict forms and elaborate ornamentation
Boyar
A Russian noble
Continental System
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between continental Europe and Great Britain
Constitutional monarchy
Gov't in which the monarch's powers are limited by a set of fundamental laws
Chancellor
A high-ranking official
Caravel
A small, light sailing ship used by the Spanish and Portuguese in the 15th/16th centuries
Brownshirts
hitler's brown-uniformed paramilitary force in the 20s/30s
Caliph
Means "successor to the prophet" given to Muslim rulers who combined political authority with religious power
Consuls
The appointed chief executive officers of the Roman Republic
Checks and balances
A balanced division of governmental power among different institutions
Cabinet system
Gov't by a prime minister and heads of gov't bureaus developed by Britain during the eighteenth century
Bourgeoisie
Middle class in modern industrial society
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
New ruled nationalizing and governing the clergy enacted during the French Revolution
Balance of Power
Distribution of power among states

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