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mpcs history midterm

Terms

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what did paleontologists study?
they studied culture
what is oligarchy?
ruled by a small group of citizens, based on wealth or ability, ruling gorup controls military
What was the achievement of the Homohabilis?
first to make stone tools
Who is Pericles and what are his goals?
statesman who led Athens in much of its Golden Age. 3 goals for Athens:1)strengthen Athenian democracy 2)hold and strengthen empire 3)glorify Athens
What is the purpose of pyramids?
resting place after death
What is the advantage of the Chinesed system of writing?
Each character stood for 1 syllable or unit of language no contrast between spoken or written language. People in all parts of China could learn the same system of writing, even if their spoken language was different
What is polytheism?
belief in more than 1 god
What is a ziggurat?
pyramid shaped monument; "mountain of god"
Who is Draco?
nobleman who came to power, developed a legal code based on the idea that all Athenians were equal
What is a monarchy?
ruled by a king, rule is hereditary, rulers claim divine right
Peloponnesian War: What:
?
what is direct democracy?
ruled by citizens, rule based on citizenship, majority rule decides vote
Who are the Dorians?
they spoke a dialect of Greek, less-advanced than the Mycenaeans and their economy collapsed
What is slash and burn farming?
the process of cutting down an area of trees or grasses and burn them to clear a field for more room to farm. The ashes make the soil fertile
What is the Neolithic Revolution?--old/new stone age
Neolithic Age-people learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops, raise animals/new stone age
Ur
earliest city in Sumer, highly sophisticated civilization
Who was Mary Leaky?
Maary Leaky found footprints from bings called australopithecines;creatures that walked upright and were also called hominids.
Who are the Mycenaeans?
Indo-European people who settle on the Greek mainland
Who are the Minoans?
seafaring people who dominated trade in the eastern Mediterranean
Who was involved in the Persian Wars?
Persians and Athenians
What was the result of the Persian Wars
?
what is aristocracy?
ruled by nobility, rule is hereditary, social status and wealth support ruler's authority
What was the achievement of the Neanderthals?
burial rituals
Who are the rulers of the Nubian Empire?
Egypt dominated Nubia and Kush, Piankhi captured teh Egyptian throne
Who is Hinduism's founder?
Cannot be traced back to 1 founder
What is dynasty?
series of rulers from a single family
What is the purpose of Pharaohs?
thought to be as splendid and powerful as the gods
what did Archaeologists study?
they studied artifacts
Who are the rulers of the Persian Empire?
King Cyrus-->Cambyses-->Darius
What is Judaism?
religion of the Jews, 1 of the world's major religions
What are the 3 types of scientists?
Archaelologists, Anthropologists, Paleontologists
Who are the rulers of the Assyrian Empire?
accquired large empire, Sennocherib became king-->Ashurbanipal
What are the advantages/disadvantages of living here?
had a strong civilization
WHat was the result of the Battle of Troy?
Troy won and the Mycenaeans civilization collapsed
Who is Moses? What is he known for?
man who led the Hebrews out of slavery
during the Stone Age, what inventions were made?
invention of tools and language
What is theocracy?
type of government in which a rule is based on religous authority
What was the Hominid development?
Australopithecines-->Homo habilis-->Homo erectus-->neanderthal-->Cro Magnon
What is Buddhism?
?
What was the mandate of Heaven?
a just ruler had divine approval, known as the mandate of heaven. a wicked king could lose the mandate and the right to rule
Who is Solomon? What is he known for?
Most powerful of Hebrew kings, son of David
Who are the Indo-Europeans?
group of namadic people who may have come from the steppes
What is cultural diffusion?
proces in which a new idea or a product spreads from 1 culture to another
WHo are the Hittites?
occupied Anatolia, group of Indo-European speakers
Who is Abraham? What is he known for?
man chosen by God to be the "Father of the Hebrews", called his God Yahweh
What were the characteristics of these hominid groups?
homohabilis-1st made stone tools, homoerectus-"upright man," developed early technology, Neanderthal-1st to have ritual burials, tried to explain and control their world, Cromagnon-skeletal remains are identical to modern humans, planned their hunts, fully modern humans created art, Homosapiens- "wise men" larger brains, neanderthal, cromagnon are early forms of homosapiens
Sumer
oen of the first civilizations, located in Mesopotamia
What type of state did Athens want?
wanted a democracy
What was the battle of Troy over?
a Trojan prince kidnapped a Greek King's wife
What is feudalism?
a political system in which nobles, or lords are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king
what are the 5 characteristics of a civilization?
1)advanced cities 2)specialized workers 3)complex institutions 4)record keeping 5)advanced technology
What was the achievement of the Homosapiens?
larger brains
Who is Solon?
introduced for reaching Democratic reforms, they stated that no citizen should own another citizen
What was the achievement of the Homoerectus?
used intelligence to develop technology
What is Hinduism?
collecting religous beliefs that developed slowly over time
What type of state did Sparta want?
wanted a military state
Where were the Olympic games held?
they were held every 4 years at the site where Zeus threw a thunderbolt from Mt. Olympus. It landed at the site that is now known as Olympia
What were some Sumerian inventions?
Arithmetic and geometry, architectural innovations, cuneiform
What is the Fertile Crescent?
Southwest Asia;s region of curved shape and rich land, became know as Mesopotamia
Who was in the Battle of Troy?
Mycenaeans against Troy
Who is Yahweh?
The God of the Hebrews, had power over all people
What is the Paleolithic Revolution?--old/new stone age
Paleolithic Age-earlier and longer part of the Stone Age/Old Stone Age
Who are the Phoenicians?
most powerful traders along the Mediterranean
Why were there Olympic games?
honored the gods
Who was involved in the Peloponnesian War?
War between Athens and Sparta
Who is Buddhism's founder?
Sidahar the Guatama
Who is Pheidippides?
sent by army leaders to Athens during Persian War to say Athens won and to not give up thier land without a fight. He died after a long run.
Who are the rulers of the Egyptian Empire?
ruled by the Hyksos, then rulers of the New Kingdom wanted to strengthen the empire, Hatshepsut-->Thutmose III-->Ramses II
What is cuneiform?
"wedged shape", scribes invented this writing
What is the Delian League and why was it set up?
An alliance formed by several Grek city-states. Members pressed the war against the Persians, Athens later became leader
Who is Hammurabi?
emperor of Babylon who put together a code of laws
What are the advantages/ disadvantages of living here?
between Tigris & Euphrates rivers, good soil, unpredictable flooding, nearly defenseless, natural resources were limited
Compare and contrast Hinduism and Buddhism
?
Who was Homer?
a great story teller who was blind and composed epics-most famous was the Iliad
Who is Cleisthenes?
broke up the power of the nobility by organizing citizens into 10 groups based on where they lived
what was the the achievement of the Cromagons?
indentical to modern humans
Who was Donald Leaky?
he found a female Hominid skeleton(Lucy)
What is the purpose of hieroglyphics?
more flexible system of writing than pictures

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