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AP Humen Geo.- Cities and Urban Land Use


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gated communities
restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests
the internal physical attributes of a place; including its absolute location, its spatial character and physical setting
rank-size rule
in a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
edge cities
a term introduced by american journalist joel garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the united states away from the central business district (CBD) toward the loci of economic activity at the urban fringe (extensive amounts of office and retail space, frew residential areas, modern buildings, less than 30 years old)
in ancient greece, public spaces where citizens debated, lectured, judged each other, planned military campaingns, socialized, and traded
the focal point of ancient roman life combining the functions of the ancient greek acropolis and agora
new urbanism
outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs
the external locational attributes of a place; its relative location or regional position with reference to other nonlocal places
concentric zone model
a structural model of the american central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center
central business district (CBD)
the downtown heart of a central city, marked by high land values, a concentrtion of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings
region of great cities located between the tigris and euphrates rivers; chronologically the first urban hearth, dating to 3500 bc, and which was founded in the fertile crescent
leadership class
group of decision-makers and organizers in early cities who controlled the resources, and often the lives, of others
urban sprawl
unrestricted growth in many american urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning
indus river valley
chronologically, the third urgan hearth, dating to 2200 bc
social stratification
one of two components, together with agricultural surplus, which enables the formation of cities; the differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige
rapid change in the racial composition of residential blocks in american cities that occurs when real estate agents and others stir up fears of neighborhood decline after encouraging people of color to move to previoulsy white neighborhoods
informal economy
economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that government's gross national product (GNP)
the rehabilitation of deteriorated, often abandoned, housing of low-income inner-city residents
functional zonation
the division of a city into different regions or zones for certain purposes or functions
agricultural village
a relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture
sunbelt phenomenon
the movement of millions of americans from northern and northeastern states to the south and southwest regions of the united states
mcgee model
developed by geographer t.g. mcgee, a model shoing similar land-use patterns among the medium-sized sities of southeast asia
world city
dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy
first urban revolution
the innovation of the city, which occurred independently in five seperate hearths
a subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city
spaces of consumption
areas of a city, the main purpose of which to encourage people to consume goods and services; driven primarily by the global media industry
primate city
a country's largest city-- ranking atop the urban hierarchy-- most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital city as well
urban realm
a spatial generalization of the large, late-20th-century city in the united states
homes bought in many american suburbs with the intent of tearing them down and replacing them with much larger homes often referred to as mcmansions
literally "high point of the city." the upper forified part of an ancient greek city, usually devoted to religious purposes
griffin-ford model
developed by geographers ernst griffin adn larry ford, a model of the latin american city showing a blend of traditional elemetns of latin america culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene
zoning laws
legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of building and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas
homes referred to as such because of their "super size" and similarity in appearance to other such homes; homes often built in place of tear-downs in american suburbs
the entire build-up, nonrural area and its population, including the most recently constructed suburban appendages
huang he and wei
rivers is present-day china; chronoligically the fourth urban hearth, extablished around 1500 bc
nile river valley
chronologically the second urban hearth, dating to 3200 bc
disamenity sector
the spatial trajectory through which cultural traits or other phenomena spread
area of city with a relatively uniform land use
conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics
urban morphology
the study of the physical form and structure of urban places
movement of millions of american sfrom northern and northeastern states to the south and southwest regions of the united states
central place theory
theory proposed by walter christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another
the transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economy activity
agricultural surplus
one of two components, together with social stratification, that enable the formation of cities; agricultural productionin exess of that which the producer needs for his or her own sustenance and that of his or her family and which is then sold for sonsumption by others
unplanned slum of development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard
central city
the urban area that is not suburban; generally, the older or original city that is surrounded by newer suburbs
trade area
region adjacent to every town and city within which its influence is dominant
chronologically the fifth urban herath, dating to 200 bc

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