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Robert Owen/ New Harmony
Scottish industrialist and philanthropist founded another experimental community in Indiana in 1825, named New Harmony, was supposed to be a " Village of cooperation", where every resident worked and lived in total equality, but the community was an economic failure, but its vision inspired other Americans.
Sylvester Graham
American clergyman whose advocacy of a health regimen emphasizing temperance and vegetarianism found lasting expression in the graham cracker, a household commodity in which lay the origin of the modern breakfast-cereal industry.
Liberty Party
was a political party in the United States in the 1840s. The party was an early advocate of the abolitionist cause. It broke away from the American Anti-Slavery Society due to grievances with William Lloyd Garrison's leadership. The Liberty Party nominated James G. Birney for President in 1840 and 1844. The party did not attract much support. In 1848, the party met in Buffalo, New York, with other groups to form the Free Soil Party.
Dorthea Dix
A New England teacher and author who spoke against the inhumane treatment of insane prisoners, ca. 1830's. People who suffered from insanity were treated worse than normal criminals. Dorothea Dix traveled over 60,000 miles in 8 years gathering information for her reports, reports that brought about changes in treatment, and also the concept that insanity was a disease of the mind, not a willfully perverse act by an individual.
Shakers/ Mother Anne Lee
also redefined gender roles in their society founded in the 1770's, named after their unique religious ritual, in which members of the congregation shook themselves free of sin while performing a loud chant and dance, they also hade the idea of celibacy, where no one could be born into the faith, but had to choose Shakersim voluntarily. Importantly, they endorsed the idea of sexual equality, but women exercised greatest power
Civil Disobedience
in 1849 Emerson argued in an essay "Resistance to Civil Government", (wrote while in jail, due to failure to pay taxes to govt that allows slavery)that a government that required an individual to violate his/ her own morality had no legitimate authority, and that the proper response was passive resistance or a public refusal to obey unjust laws.
Phrenology/ Orson & Lorenzo Fowler
were leading phrenologists (the shape of the head can determine character, personality traits, and criminality) together with associates Samuel Wells and Nelson Sizer, ran the phrenological firm and publishing house Fowlers & Wells in New York City. Lorenzo spent much of his life in England where he set up the famous phrenological publishing house, L.N Fowler & Co., where he gained considerable fame with his phrenology head (a china head showing the phrenological faculties), which has become a symbol of the discipline.
to this group, nature was not just a setting for economic activity as many farmers, miners and others believed , but the so9urce of deep, personal human inspiration, the vehicle through which individuals could best realize the truth within their own souls, and that spirituality came not from formal religion but from the natural world.
Mormonism/ Joseph Smith
reported to being visited by an angel and given golden plates in 1840; the plates, when deciphered, brought about the Church of Latter Day Saints and the Book of Mormon; he ran into opposition from Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri when he attempted to spread the Mormon beliefs, and he was killed by those who opposed him.
Oneida/ John Humphrey Noyes
established in 1848, in upstate New York, established by "Perfectionists", residents rejected traditional notions of family and marriage, and all were "married" to all other residents, sexual behavior was , children were raised communally, and women were liberated from the demands of male "lust", and from traditional bonds of family. (economic success due to selling of silverware and steel traps)
Personal Liberty Laws
pre-Civil War laws passed by Northern state governments to counteract the provisions of the Fugitive Slave Acts and to protect escaped slaves and free blacks settled in the North, by giving them the right to a jury trial.
Oliver Holmes
An anatomy teacher at Harvard Medical school who was regarded as a prominent poet, essayist, novelist, lecturer and wit from 1809-1894. Poem " the Last Leaf" in honor of the last "white Indian" at the Boston Tea Party, which really applied to himself
Brigham Young
A Mormon leader that led his oppressed followers to Utah in 1846. Under Young's management, his Mormon community became a prosperous frontier theocracy and a cooperative commonwealth. He became the territorial governor in 1850. Unable to control the hierarchy of Young, Washington sent a federal army in 1857 against the harassing Mormons.
Elija Lovejoy
American newspaper editor and martyred abolitionist who died in defense of his right to print antislavery material in the period leading up to the American Civil War.
American Anti- Slavery Society
an abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan. Frederick Douglass was a key leader of the society and often spoke at its meetings. William Wells Brown was another freed slave who often spoke at meetings. By 1838, the society had 1,350 local chapters with around 250,000 members, and while it promoted the greater good for slaves, it was not met with welcome arms, but instead violence.
William Lloyd Garrison/ The Liberator
A militant abolitionist, he became editor of the Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national fame and notoriety due to his quotable and inflammatory language, attacking everything from slave holders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession
Harriet Beecher Stowe/ Uncle Tom's Cabin
Also on the abolitionist front came, this huge bestseller. UTC both indicted slavery by describing the horrors of slave life and criticized Northern racism; its approach gave slavery a new human face for many Northerners who had never been to the South. (increased controversy over slavery)
Benjamin Lundy
was an American Quaker abolitionist who established several anti-slavery newspapers and worked for many others. He traveled widely seeking to limit the expansion of slavery, and in seeking to establish a colony to which freed slaves might be located, outside of the United States.
John Warren
was one of the most renowned American surgeons of the 19th century. In 1846 he gave permission to William T.G. Morton to provide ether anesthesia while Warren performed a minor surgical procedure. News of this first public demonstration of surgical anesthesia quickly circulated around the world.
the time period in which several top Mormon leaders took plural wives, and On June 7, 1844 the Nauvoo Expositor criticized Smith for plural marriage. The Nauvoo city council declared the Nauvoo Expositor press a nuisance and ordered Smith, as Nauvoo's mayor, to order the city Marshall to destroy the paper and its press. This controversial decision led to Smith going to Carthage Jail where he was killed by a mob on June 27, 1844.
Brook Farm/ George Ripley
one of the most famous experiments in communal living took place here, when this Boston transcendentalist established an experiment community in West Roxbury, Mass., where individuals gathered to create a society that would permit every member to have full opportunity for self- realization, but eventually tension between individual freedom and the demands of a communal society took a toll and residents left and destroyed the experiment.
Benevolent Empire
was a name that was given to a number of organizations by historians. In the 1820s America, there was disorder among lower waged native-borns. Wealthy Americans who believed that the Bible taught the religious ideal of benevolence, decided that it was their duty to do good deeds for the less fortunate. The groups usually consisted of Congregational or Presbyterian ministers and their wives.
Henry David Thoreua/ Walden
went far in repudiating the repressive forces of society, he believed each individual should work for self- realization by resisting pressures to conform to society's expectations and responding instead to his or her own instincts, his own effort to free himself was expressed in his novel, which led him to build a small cabin in the Concord woods on the edge of Walden Pond, were he lived alone for two years as simply as he could, attempting to liberate himself from society's interest in material comforts
Free Soil
the belief that slavery must be kept out of the Western territories, for the sake of preserving Northern free labor.
was a spirit that many of the nation's cultural leaders got from Europe; in literature, in philosophy, in art, and even in politics and economics, American intellections committed themselves to this idea of liberating the human spirit. (based on emotion/intuition)
James Fenimoore Cooper/ The Last of the Mohicans
the first great American novelist, most were about the human relationship to nature and the challenges of western expansion, this was one of his most important novels, as it explored the experience of rugged white frontiersmen with Indians, pioneers, violence, and the law.
water cure
improve health through immersing people in hot/ cold baths or wrapping them in wet sheet, even if it did not have deliver the promised benefits, it did have a therapeutical value and is now known as hydrotherapy
Charles Finney
a central figure in the religious revival movement of the early 19th century (Second Great Awakening); he is sometimes called the first of the professional evangelists. What Finney managed to achieve was to be the most successful religious revivalist during this period. While groups such as the Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormons and Seventh-day Adventists became closed and exclusivist, Finney was widely admired and influential amongst more mainstream Christians. Finney never started his own denomination or church, and never claimed any form of special prophetic leadership that elevated himself above other evangelists and revivalists.
Horace Mann
He was an idealistic graduate of Brown University, secretary of the Massachusetts board of education. He was involved in the reformation of public education (1825-1850). He campaigned for better school houses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum. He caused a reformation of the public schools, many of the teachers were untrained for that position. Led to educational advances in text books by Noah Webster and Ohioan William H. McGuffey.
Book of Mormon
the sacred texts of the Latter Day Saint movement. It is regarded by Latter Day Saints as divinely revealed and is named after the prophet-historian Mormon who, according to the text, compiled most of the book. It was published by the founder of the LDS movement, Joseph Smith, who said the book was a translation of golden plates that only made possible by god and the angel Moroni.
Nathaniel Hawthorne/ The Scarlet Letter
one of the residents of Brook Farm expressed his disillusionment with the experiment and to some extent with transcendentalism. In one of his most notable novels, he wrote passionately about the price an individual pays for cutting themselves off from society.
the Amistdad
was a symbol in the movement to abolish slavery after a group of African captives aboard revolted. Its recapture resulted in a legal battle over their status.
William Gilmore Simms
was one of the distinguished men of the south who produced historical romances or romantic eulogies of the plantation system, his work expressed a broad nationalism that transcended his regional background, but later he too had become a strong defender of the southern institutions (slavery), against the North.
an acute infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and characterized by extreme diarrhea with rapid and severe depletion of body fluids and salts. Cholera spread throughout the Mississippi river system killing over 4,500 in St. Louis and over 3,000 in New Orleans as well as thousands in New York. In 1849 cholera was spread along the California and Oregon Trail as hundreds died on their way to the California Gold Rush, Utah and Oregon.
American Colonization Society/ Liberia/ Monrovia
an organization that founded Liberia, a colony on the coast of West Africa, in 1821 and transported free blacks there from the United States. During the next 20 years the colony continued to grow and establish economic stability. Some charged that the ACS was a racist society, but the society was supported by Southerners fearful of organized revolt by free blacks, by Northerners concerned that an influx of black workers would hurt the economic opportunities of indigent white, by some who opposed slavery but did not favor integration, and by many blacks who saw a return to Africa as the best solution to their troubles, and when James Monroe assisted the society in acquiring land and money, they renamed the territory Monrovia.
Agustus Longstreet/ Joseph Baldwin/ Johnson Hooper
a group of southern writers, produced works that were broadly American, were writers from the fringes of plantation society who depicted the world of the backwoods rural areas, and focused on ordinary people and poor whites, sometimes they were painfully realistic.
William Morton
American dental surgeon who in 1846 gave the first successful public demonstration of ether anesthesia during surgery. He is credited with gaining the medical world's acceptance of surgical anesthesia.
Fredrich Douglass/ North Star
A former slave who was an abolitionist, gifted with eloquent speech and self-educated. In 1838 he was "discovered" as a great abolitionist to give antislavery speeches. He swayed many people to see that slavery was wrong by publishing "Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass" which depicted slavery as being cruel. He also looked for ways politically to end slavery. He was also the publisher of an abolitionist newspaper gained a circulation of over 4,000 readers in the United States, Europe, and the Caribbean. Taking as its motto "Right is of no Sex — Truth is of no Color — God is the Father of us all, and we are all brethren," the North Star served as a forum not only for abolitionist views, but also supported the feminist movement and the emancipation of other oppressed groups.
Prigg v. Pensylvania
was a United States Supreme Court case in which the court held that Federal law is superior to State law, and overturned the conviction of Edward Prigg as a result, during a time when Pennsylvania passed an act of gradual abolition of slavery. (did not have to return runaways)
Ralph Waldo Emerson
led a small group of intellectuals centered in Concord, Massachusetts, who developed the Transcendentalist philosophy. He was a Unitarian minister in his youth, but later devoted himself to writing, teaching, and lecturing, and was an advocator of commitment of the individual to the full exploration of inner capacities.
Edgar Allen Poe/ The Raven
southern writer, his poems and stories were primarily sad and macabre, his most famous poem (1845), established him as a major, if controversial, literary figure, he evoked images of individuals rising above confines of intellect and exploring the spirit and emotions, but it was filled with pain and horror and made many American writers hold him in contempt.
James D. Birney
abolitionist, and candidate for presidential elections of 1840 and 1844, for the Liberty Party, he started his abolitionist weekly publication in Cincinnati, Ohio titled The Philanthropist.
Catharine Beecher/ Lucretia Mott/ Elizabeth Cady Stanton/ Susan B. Antony
group of American women and who met to discuss the legal limitations imposed on women during this period, at Seneca Falls, New York. They were all advocators of women's rights through creating women's academies, and eventually the Americans Equal Rights Association.
Herman Melville/ Moby Dick
known as the greatest American writer of his era, his most important novel, published in 1851, was the story of Ahab, the powerful, driven captain of a whaling vessel who was obsessed with his search of Moby Dick, the great white whale that had once maimed him. This was as story of courage and the strength of human will, but also a tragedy of pride and revenge.
Perkins school for the blind
named in honor of Thomas Handasyd Perkins. In 1833 the school outgrew the Pleasant Street house of Howe's father, and Perkins donated his Pearl Street mansion as the school's second home. In 1839 Perkins sold the mansion and donated the proceeds.
Ignaz Semmelweis
an Austrian-Hungarian physician called the "savior of mothers" who discovered, by 1847, that the incidence of puerperal fever ("childbed fever") could be drastically cut by use of hand washing standards in obstetrical clinics.
the idea of plural marriage, which was often practiced by many members of the Church of Latter Day Saints (those who followed Mormonism).
Sarah & Angelina Grimke
Throughout their life they traveled throughout the North, lecturing about their first-hand experiences with slavery on their family's plantation. Among the first women to act publicly in social reform movements, they received abuse and ridicule for their abolitionist activity. They both realized that women would have to create a safe space in the public arena to be effective reformers, and became early activists in the women's rights movement.
John Brown
a militant abolitionist that took radical extremes to make his views clear. In May of 1856, Brown led a group of his followers to Pottawattamie Creek and launched a bloody attack against pro-slavery men killing five people. This began violent retaliation against Brown and his followers. This violent attack against slavery helped give Kansas its nick name, "bleeding Kansas".
Hudson River School & Frederich Church/ Thomas Cole/ Thomes Doughty/ Asher Durant
the first great school of American painters, in New York, painted spectacular vistas of the rugged and still largely untamed Hudson Valley, they considered nature, far more than civilization, there source of wisdom and fulfillment, and that wild nature was what made America "better" than Europe.
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
document signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men, delegates to the first women's rights convention, in Seneca Falls, New York, written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. The Declaration followed the form of the United States Declaration of Independence. According to many who attended the convention and support of the Declaration helped pass the resolutions put forward, the document was the grand basis for attaining the civil, social, political, and religious rights of women.
Edward Jenner
an English country doctor who studied nature and his natural surroundings from childhood and practiced medicine in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. He is famous as the first doctor to introduce and study the smallpox., began vaccine
Walt Whitman/ Leaves of Grass
displayed the appeal of romanticism when he published his first book of poems, which celebrated democracy, the liberation of the individual spirit, and the pleasures of the flesh; he used unconventional verse, and yearned for emotional and physical release by personal fulfillment.
Seneca Falls Convention
assembly held on July 19-20, 1848, at Seneca Falls, New York, that launched the woman suffrage movement in the United States. Seneca Falls was the home of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who, along with Lucretia Mott, conceived and directed the convention.

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