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WW2 vocab

Terms

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Neutrality Acts
originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations
Battle of Britain
an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance
United Nations
organization founded after World War II to promote international peace and cooperation
Joseph Stalin
general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, he led from 1922 until his death in 1953 and established a communist totalitarian state
Battle of the Bulge
Term used to describe the actions following the German offensive through the Ardennes forests in December 1944
Dunkirk
city in the northwest corner of France where the Allied troops were trapped by the advancing German Army. 800 British ships, ranging from warships to fishing boats, crossed the channel from England to rescue over 300,000 British and French troops
Kamikaze
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships
Operation Overlord
the Allied invasion of Normandy in June of 1944
Pearl Harbor
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. It was attacked on December 7, 1941
Revenue Act of 1942
raised corporation taxes and required nearly all Americans to pay income taxes
Rationing
taking items that are in short supply and distributing them according to a system. For instance, during World War II, gas, sugar, and butter were a few of the items rationed in the United States
Dwight D. Eisenhower
America general who began in North America and became the Commader of Allied forces in Europe
National War Labor Board
helped resolve labor disputes that might slow down war production
V-J Day
victory of Japan, September 2, 1945
Tuskegee Airmen
332 Fighter Group famous for shooting down over 200 enemy planes. African American pilots who trained at the Tuskegee flying school
Manhattan Project
code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States
Neville Chamberlain
Prime Minister of Great Britain from -1940. Famous for appeasing Hitler at the Munich Conference
Bracero Program
United States labor agents recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico. The program stimulated emigration for Mexico
Winston Churchill
Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1940-1945 and again 1951-1955
WAVES
Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service in the Navy
allied nations
those countries fighting against the Axis powers. i.e. Britain, france, USA, Canada, USSR etc
Bataan Death March
April 1942, American soldiers were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors. It is called the Death March because so may of the prisoners died en route
Genocide
wiping out an entire group of people
Manchuria
province in northeast China invaded by Japan in September 1931
Siege
military blockade
Nazism
the doctrines of nationalism, racial purity, anti-communism, and the all-powerful role of the state. The National Socialist Germany Workers Party, otherwise known as the Nazi Party. It was advocated by Adolf HItler in Germany
Civil Defense
protective measures in case of attack. For examples, during WW II volunteers scanned the skies for enemy aircraft and coastal cities enforced blackouts
American First Committee
organization created by isolationists who argued that the United States should keep out of Europe's business
Munich Conference
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchage for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further
Potsdam Declaration
ultimatum from the Potsdam Conference that was issued by the United States, Great Britain and China to japan offering that country the choice between unconditional surrender and total annihilation
Totalitarian
a single-party and leader who supress all opposition and control all aspects of people's lives
Fascism
any movement, ideology, or attitude that favors dictatorial government, centralized control of private enterprise, repression of all oppostition, and extreme nationalism
V-E Day
victory in Europe, May 8, 1945
Anti-Semitism
policies, views, or actions that harm or discriminate against Jews
WACs
Women's Army Corps
Mobilization
the gathering of resources and preparation for war
Code Talker
Used a special code based on the Navajo language to send messages. The japanese never broke the code
Erwin Rommel
the Desert Fox. Commander of the Axis Forces in North America
Magic
code name for U.S. code-breaking operations against the Japanese
Death Camps
camos used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany for the purpose of killing prisoners immediately
Disarmemt
giving up military weapons
Harry S. Truman
33rd president of the United States. He assumed the presidency at the death of FDR in 1945 and served until 1953. UNder his leadership the United States saw the end of the Second World War with the dropping of the two atomic bombs on Japan and also the establishment of the Truman Doctrine for foreign policy, which seeks to limit the spread of Communism.
George Patton
famous American General who fought in North Africa and Europe
Nuremberg Law
established legal basis in Nazi Germany for descrimination against Jews
Holocaust
the systematice extermination of millions of European Jews, as well as Roma, Slavs, intellectuals, homosexuals, and political dissidents, by the Nazis and their allies during World War II
Rosie the Riveter
Advertising campaign character who encouraged women to take factory jobs
Annex
process by which a government gains control over a territory not presently under their jurisdiction. It usually involves either conquests or the use of force. Germany annexed the Rhineland, Austria, Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia and Poland
Ethiopia
African nation invaded by fascist Italy in 1935
Dictator
political leader who rules a country with absolute power, usually by force
Adolf Hitler
Leader of the Nazi Party and the Third Reich in Germany during World War II
Concentration Camps
prison camos used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany. Conditions were inhuman, and prisoners, mostly Jewish people, were generally starved or worked to death, or killed immediately
IL Duce
the leader; Benito Mussolini
Axis Powers
Japan, Germany and Italy
Internment Camps
detention centers where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by order of the President
Franklin Delanor Roosevelt
the 32nd president of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and World War II. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times, a feat no longer permissable due to the 22nd amendment to the constitution
D-Day
june 6, 1944, the day on which Allied forces landed in Normandy, France to begin a massive offensive against the Germans in the occupied territory of Europe
Lend-Lease Act
approve by congress in March 1941; the act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States"
The War Production Board
supervised the conversion of industries to war production. For example, autpmakers shifted from making cars to trucks and tanks
Soviet-German non-agression pact
1939 agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union. The two nations agreed not to attack one another and to split the country of Poland between them
Cash and Carry
policy adapted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them
Office of War Information
established by the government to promote patriotism and help keep Americans united behind the war effort
Nisei
American-born children of Japanese immigrants; second generation Japanese Americans
Benito Mussolini
head of the Italian Fascist party. He was known as EI Duce and was leader of Italy, the first Fascist regime, during World War II
Fair Employment Practices Commission
established to combat discrimination in industries that held government contracts
Office of Price Administration
set limits on consumer prices and rent to prevent inflation
Island Hopping
the American navy attacked islands held up by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan
Royal Air Force (RAF)
Britain's air force
Atlantic Charter
anglo-american declaration that stated the countries aims for the outcome of the war. Stated people of every nation should be free to choose their own form of government and live free of fear and want, disarmament, and a permanent system of general security
Douglas MacArthur
American general, who commanded allied troops in the Pacific during World War II
Korematsu v United States
1944 Supreme court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. I was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor
Hideki Tojo
Prime Minister of Japan during World War II
Appeasement
policy by which Czechoslovakia, Great Britain and France agreed to Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland in agreement for not taking any additional Czech territory
Blitzkrieg
German lightning warfare. Characterized by highly mobility and concentrated forced at point attack
Maginot Line
string of steel and concrete bunkers along the German border from Belgium to Switzerland set up by teh British and French

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