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AP Human Geo

Terms

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adaptive strategy
the unique way in which each culture uses its particular enviorment ( food, shelter, etc.)
habit
a pattern of behavior acquired through frequent repetition
indigenous technical knowledge
Highly localized knowledge about enviromental conditions and sustainable land-use practices
contact conversion
The Spread of Religious Beliefs by Personal Contact
transculturation
cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact
cultural hearths
Heartland, source area, innovation center, place of origin of a major culture
generic toponyms
The Description part of many okace-names, often repeated throughout a culture area
cultural nationalism
an effort to protect regional and national cultures from the homogenizing impacts of globalization, especially the penetrating influence of U.S. culture
toponyms
the study of names of places; the way it relates to its culture
secularism
a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations
monotheistic religions
Also have priesthoods and notions of divine power, but all supernatural phenomena are manifestations of (or under the control of) a single eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent supreme being.
racism
discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race
popular culture
Entertainment spread by mass communications and enjoying wide appeal. (p. 897)
folk culture
the body of institutions, customs, dress, artifacts, collective, wisdoms, and traditions of a homogeneous isolated, largely self-sufficient, and relatively static social group
isolated language
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
language replacement
one language is replaced by another, assimilation
Ecotheology
The Study of the influence of religious belief on habitat modification
Gaia Hypothesis
proposes that our planet functions as a single organism that maintains conditions necessary for its survival
apartheid
a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites
conquest theory
theory of how proto-inko european spread into europe that speakers spread westward on horseback
acculturation
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
agriculture theory
with increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of Indo-European languages migrated into Europe
built environmental landscape
the lay of the culture
cultural preadaptation
Adapted traits and skills to advance in migration in a group giving them survival ability
monoglots
knowing only one language
linguistic refugee areas
An area protected by isolation or inhospitable environmental conditions in which a language or dialect has survived
monolingual states
countries in which only one language is spoken
lingua franca
a common language used by speakers of different languages
indigenous culture
having originated in and being produced, growing, living, or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment
Renfrew hypothesis
three areas in and around fertile crescent, gave rise to three language families.
interfaith boundaries
boundaries between the major religions
cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
pagan
a person who does not acknowledge your God
Teleology
the fact or character attributed to nature or natural processes of being directed toward an end or shaped by a purpose
shatter belts
an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
theocracy
the belief in government by divine guidance
race
people who are believed to belong to the same genetic stock
ethnic neighborhood
an area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background
ethnic group
people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture
language divergence
new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects
syncretic religions
Religions or strands within religions, that combine elements of two or more belief systems
convergence hypothesis
the hypothesis that per capita income in countries with similar institutional structers will gravitate toward the same level of income per person
polyglot
a person who speaks more than one language
traditional religions
an ethnic religion specific to a small, localized, preindustrial culture group.
vernacular culture region
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identy.
pilgrimages
Religious journeys to the Holy Land.
cultural perception
The varying attitudes and ideas that culture groups have regarding how space, place, and territory are identified and used.
cultural lag
when a group is unresponsive to innovations or changes in their environment, the group is experiencing:
creole
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
pidgin language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages
placelessness
loss of uniqueness of a place
culture trait
activities and behaviors that people repeatedly practice
multilingual states
a state that uses many languages
fundamentalism
the interpretation of every word in the sacred texts as literal truth
taboo
an inhibition or ban resulting from social custom or emotional aversion
subcultures
groups that share in some parts of the dominant culture but have their own distinctive values, norms, language, and/or material culture
culture complex
A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity (may be assoc. with religious beliefs or business practices).
language
a system of words used in a particular discipline
culture region
includes many diffrent counties that have certain traits in common
cultural simplification
The process by which immigrant ethnic groups lose certain aspects of their traditional culture in the process of settling overseas, creating a new culture that is less complex than the old
religion
a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny
custom
accepted or habitual practice
standard language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
ethnic islands
a small ethnic area in the rural countryside; sometimes called a folk island.
maladaptive diffusion
diffusion in which image takes precedence over practicality (ie. ranch style house)
missionaries
religious teachers sent to convert natives to christianity
official language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
universalizing religions
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
polytheistic religions
religion in which there is a belief in many gods.
Proselytic religions
a religion that actively seeks converts and has the goal of converting all humankind
hierarchical religions
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control
ethnic cleansing
the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area
assimilation
the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
ideograms
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
ethnic religion
a religion identified with a particular ethnic group and largely exclusive to it
animism
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
dialect
the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people
language families
are diverse languages with similar roots
cultural determinism
cultural influences determine the behaviors and personalities of people
social destination
The best place for social contact
reverse reconstruction
Process of tracing a language's diffusion. The process begins with the most recent places of the language's existence and moves backward through time, comparing geographic places and groups of people using the same or similar words.
cultural imperialism
spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others or imposition on other cultures which it modifies, replaces, or destroys.
culture realm
A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail.
ethnic enclave
a small area occupies by a distinctive minority culture
intrafaith boundaries
boundaries within a single major faith
orthodox religions
A strand within most major religions that emphasizes purity of faith and is not open to blending with other religions
ethnic substrate
Regional Cultural Distinctiveness that remains following the assimilation of an ethnic homeland
non-material culture
ideas, knowledge and beliefs that influence people's behavior
ethnic homelands
A sizeable area inhabited by an ehnic minority that exhibits a strong sense of attachment to the region and often exercises some measure of politcal and social control over it
sacred spaces
an area recognized by individuals or groups as worthy of special attention as a site of special religious experiences or events.
material culture
The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture
language convergence
collapsing of two language into one.
diaspora
the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel
foodways
the many forms and practices that define how a nation shops for, cooks, and consumes its food
barrio
an urban area in a Spanish-speaking country
language branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that the branches derived from the same family
isoglosses
the limits of areal extent of particular words

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