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WW2 Vocab

WW2 vocab

Terms

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Concentration Camps
prison camps used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany; conditions were inhuman and the prisoners. mostly jews, were stared or worked to death; sometimes they were killed immediately
Maginot Line
String of steel and concrete bunkers along the German border from Belgium to Switzerland set up by the British and the French
Mobilization
the gathering of resources and preparation for war
Dunkirk
city in the Northwest corner of France where the allied troops were trapped by the advancing Germany army; 800 british ships ranging from war ships to fishing ships, crossed the channel from England to rescue over 300,000 British and French troops
Bracero Program
United States labor agents recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico, program stimulated emigration from Mexico
Neutrality Acts
originally designed to avoid American involvement with WWII affairs by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other allied nations
Bataan Death March
April 1942, American soldiers were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their japanese captors; Death March because so many captives died en route
Lend-Lease Act
Approved by Congress March 1941, the act allowed america to sell, lend, or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States"
Fascism
any movement, ideology, or attitude that favors dictatorial government, centralized control of private enterprise, repression of all opposition
Magic
code name for US code-breaking operations against the Japanese
Siege
military blockade
Genocide
wiping out an entire group of people
Code Talker
used a special code based on the Navajo language to send messages, japanese never broke the code
Civil Defense
protective measures in case of attack, for example in WW2 volunteers scanned the skies for enemy aircrafts and coastal cities enforced blackouts
Cash and Carry
policy adopted by the US in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies, Britain and France could buy goods from the US if they paid in full and transported them
Korematsu v United States
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay 20,000 to each survivor
Annex
process by which a government gains control over a territory not presently under thier jurisdiction; usually involves conquest or force; Germany annexed the Rhineland, Austria, Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia, and Poland
Nazism
the doctrines of nationalism, racial purity, anti-communism, and the all-powerful role of State. The Nationalist Socialist German Workers Party otherwise knows as the Nazi Party, Nazism was advocated by Hitler
Holocaust
the systematic extermination of millions of European Jews, as well as Roma, Slavs, intellectuals, homosexuals, and political dissidents by the Nazis and thier allies during WWII
Manchuria
Province in Northeast China invaded by Japan in September 1931
Nuremberg Laws
established legal basis in Nazi Germany for discrimination against Jews
Office of Price Administration
sets limit on consumer prices and rent to prevent inflation
Rationing
taking items that are in short supply and limiting the amount that people could get; during WW2 gas butter and sugarwere rationied
Nisei
American-born children of Japanese immigrants; second generation of Japanese-Americans
Atlantic Charter
Anglo-American declaration that stated the countries aims for the outcome of the war; people should be free to chose their own form of government and live free of fear and want disarmament and a permanent system of general security
Kamikaze
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships
Dictator
political leaders who rules a country with absolute power, usually by force
Rosie the Riveter
Advertising campaign character who encouraged women to take factory jobs.
Potsdam Declaration
ultimatum sent to Japan from the US Great Britain and China telling them to choose between total annihilation or unconditional surrender
Royal Air Force (RAF)
Royal Air Force. Britain's air force
Island Hopping
the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific. The capture of each successive island from Japan brought the American navy closer each time to an invasion of Japan
D-Day
June 6, 1944 the day on which Allied forces, landed in Normandy, France to begin a massive offense, against the Germans in the occupied territory of Europe
IL Duce
the leader, Benito Mussolini
Appeasement
policy by which Czechoslovkia, Great Britain, and France agreed to Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland in agreement for not taking any additional Czech territory
Munich Conference
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for the promise that Germany would not expand into the Czech's territory anymore
Office of War Information
established by the government to promote patriotism and help keep Americans united behind the war effort
Internment Camps
Detention centers where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by the order of the President
Fair Employment Practices Commission
established to combat discrimination in industries that held government contracts
Ethiopia
African nation invaded by Facist Italy in 1935
National War Labor Board
helped resolve labor disputes that might slow down war production
Operation Overlord
The Allied invasion of Normandy in June of 1944
Disarment
giving up military weapons
Blitzkrieg
German lightning warfare, characterized by high mobility and concentrated forces at point of attack
Allied Nations
countries that fought against the axis powers: Britain, France, USA, Canada, USSR etc.
Axis Powers
countries who fought against the allies: japan, germany, and italy
Manhattan Project
Code name for the US effort during WWII to produce the atomic bomb, much of the early research was done in NYC by refugee physicists in the United States
Death Camps
camps used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany for the purpose of killing prisoners immediately
American First Committee
organizaion created by isolationists who argued that the US should keep out of European affairs
Anti-Semitism
policies, views, or actions that harm or discriminate against jews
Pearl Harbor
United States military base on Hawaii, that was bombed by Japan, bringing the US into world war II Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941
Battle of Britain
aerial battle fought in 1940 between German Luftwaffe (airforce) who carried out extensive bombing over Britain and the British Royal Air Force managed to keep us resistance
Revenue Act of 1942
raised corporation taxes and required nearly all americans to pay income taxes
Battle of the Bulge
term used to describe the actions following the german offensive in the Ardennes Forest December 1944

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