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Chapter 35


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Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law
In 1922, Congress passed the Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law. As a result, foreign tariff 's became as high as 38.5%. This was designed to equalize the price of American and Foreign products
Herbert Hoover
He was the head of the Food Administration during World War I. He became the Secretary of Commerce and encouraged businesses to regulate themselves. Hoover was a Republican known for his integrity who won the election of of 1928. He had to deal with the Great Crash of 1929, which caused the Great Depression. He signed the Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act. His belief in "rugged individualism" kept him from giving people direct relief during the Great Depression.
Teapot Dome Scandal
One of many scandals under Harding. Involved priceless naval oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming. Albert B. Fall got Secertary of Navy, Denby to transfer valuable goods to Interior Department secretly. Harry Sinclair and Edward L Dohney were released the lands after paying a large bribe. Scandal polluted governments prestiege and made public wonder about the sufficency of government and undermined faith in courts
Alfred E. Smith
He ran for president in the 1928 election for the Democrat Party. He was known for his drinking and he lost the election to Herbert Hoover. Prohibition was one of the issues of the campaign. He was the first Roman Catholic to run for president, and it was during a time many people were prejudice toward Catholics.
Ohio Gang
A group of poker-playing, men that were friends of President Warren Harding. Harding appointed them to offices and they used their power to gain money for themselves. They were involved in scandals that ruined Harding's reputation even though he wasn't involved.
Washington Conference
1921-1922 was a meeting between most major world powers. This conference was for the disarmament of these countries. This meeting also prevented the U. S. and Britain from fortifying their Far East possessions and established the Four Power treaty. The major powers promised to preserve the status-quo in the Pacific. Reduced the number of large battleships for the major powers.
Herbert Hoover
The president of the United States from 1929 to 1932 He was a republican who ran on a campaign of prohibition and prosperity. The early years of his presidency brought about a great deal of prosperity for the United States. Many people blamed him for the stock market crash.
Dawes Plan
Calvin Coolidge's running mate, Charles Dawes is largely responsible for the Dawes plan of 1924; an attempt to pay off the damages from WWI. This intricate monetary "merry-go-round", as it was often called, gave money to to Germany who then paid France and Britain for debts of the war. Former allies then paid the U.S. When the Depression hit, the "merry-go-round" stopped. Finland was the only nation to pay off their debts to the very last penny in 1976. The U.S. never received the money it was owed.
Warren G. Harding
one of the best liked men of the generation, he was spineless and a bad judge of character. He is compared to Grant because his term in office was scandalous. Many corporations could expand, antitrust laws were ingnored, and he achieved disarmament with the Open Door in China. The tariff increased also. He died on August 2, 1923 of pneumonia and thrombosis while making speeches.
Albert B. Fall
He was Secretery of the Interior during Harding's administration, and was a scheming anticonservationist. He was convicted of leasing naval oil reserves and collecting bribes, which was called the Tea Pot Dome scandal.
Hoover-Stimson Doctrine
This said that the United States would not recognize any territorial acqusitions that were taken over by force. (This doctrine is related to Japanese aggression in Manchuria in 1931)
Federal Housing Authority
Established by FDR during the depression in order to provide low-cost housing coupled with sanitary condition for the poor
Robert La Follette
A senator from Wisconsin who ran for the presidency of 1924 on the Progressive party's ticket. Their platform called for government ownership of the railroads and relief for farmers and it lashed out at monopolies. He lost however to Coolidge.
Andrew Mellon
He was the Secretary of the Treasury during the 1920s and under Harding that had the theory that high taxes forced the rich to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in factories that provided prosperous payrolls. He had followers in his theory called Mellonites. He helped engineer a series of tax reductions and reduced national debt by $10 billion. He was accused of indirectly encouraging the bull market and starting the descent into the stock market crash. Some people, however, believed he was the "greatest secretary of treasury since Hamilton." He used "trickle-down" economics.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
(1932) This corporation became a government lending bank. It was designed to provide indirect assistance to insurance companies, banks, agricultural organizations, railraods, and even hard-pressed state and local governments.Under this plan, to preserve individualism, no loans were made to individuals. In the election of 1932, Hoover ran against FDR and this was part of Hoover's plan.
John W. Davis
Democratic convention nominee in 1924 against Coolidge. He was a wealthy lawyer connected with J.P. Morgan and Company. Coolidge easily defeated Davis.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
Began as a protective measure to assist farmers, but turned out to be the highest protective tariff in the nation's peace time history. It raised the duty on goods from 38.5 percent to 60 percent in 1930.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
(1929) created by Frank B. Kellogg and Aristide Briand, this pact promised to never make war again and settle all disputes peacefully. Sixty-two nations signed this pact. The treaty was hard to enforce and had no provisions for the use of economic or military force against a nation that may break the treaty.
McNary-Haugen Bill
McNary -Haugen Bill
Charles Evan Hughes
He was the Republican governor of New York who ran for the presidency in 1916. He lost to Wilson. He was a strong reformer who gained his national fame as an investigator of malpractices in gas and insurance companies. In 1921 he became Harding's Secretary of State. He called together the major powers to the Washington Disarmament Conference in 1921.
Calvin Coolidge
became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.
Bonus Army
A group of almost 20,000 World War I veterans who were hard-hit victims of the depression, who wanted what the government owed them for their services and "saving" democracy. They marched to Washington and set up public camps and erected shacks on vacant lots. They tried to intimidate Congress into paying them, but Hoover had them removed by the army, which shed a negative light on Hoover.
Harry M. Daughterly
Attorney General during the 1922 strike against the Railroad Labor Board. The strike ended when Daugherty stopped the strikers in one of the most sweeping injuctions in American history. He was a member of Harding's Ohio Gang. He was accused of the illegal sale of pardons and liquor permits. He was forced to resign. He was tried but a jury failed to convict him.
Black Tuesday
It occurred on October 29, 1929, when 16,410,030 shares of stocks were sold in a save-who-may scramble. It marked the beginning of the Great Depression.
Charles R. Forbes
In 1923 he resigned as head of the Veteran's Bureau. He swindled $200 million from the government in building Veteran's hospitals. He was sentenced to two years in the penitentiary. This was part of the Harding scandal and the "Ohio gang

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