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Psych Final Exam


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unique, relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions
Personality describes...
you as a person
how you are different from others
patterns of behavior typical to you

Personality is.... from character
Relatively stable personal characteristics that can be used to describe someone
Early trait theorists
Allport, Cattell, Eysenck
Factor Analysis
changed the way we look at traits and how they are organized.
Cattell took 4,500 traits and brought it down to 35
Eysenck brought traits down to ... groups

3 groups of traits
extroversion and introversion

Modern trait theorists
McCrae and Costa
McCrae and Costa
five factor model
The Five Factor Model

open to new ideas vs. conventional and narrow in interests
responsible and organized vs. irresponsible and careless
socialbe and talkative vs. withdrawn and quiet
trusting and good natured vs suspicious and ruthless
emotionally unstable and moody vs. emotionally stable and easy going
Evaluating trait theory
Pros & Cons
five factor model helps describe and organize personality characteristics using the fewest number of traits, evolutionary and cross cultural
lacks explanation
stability vs change
ignores situational effects

Psychoanalytic and psychodynamic theories examine how..... interplay with thoughts , feelings and actions
unconscious mental forces
Alder, Jung, Horney
Levels of Consciousness
Conscious-aware of
Preconscious-voluntarily brought to mind
Unconscious-blocked from awareness

Freudian Personality Structures
Id, Ego, Superego
the source of instinctual energy
operates on the pleasure principle

deals with reality by controlling the id
reality principle

conscious part of the personality that incorporates parental and societal standards for morality
morality principle
preconscious and unconscious

Defense Mechanism
the ego's protective method of reducing anxiety by distorting reality
Psychosexual Stages of Development
the Freudian idea of five developmental periods key to personality development
Oral stage
birth-18 months
if fixated-smoke, overeat or talk
Anal stage
18 months-3 years
if fixated, controlling and obsessive
Phallic Stage
3-6 years
if fixated, hostility toward same sex parent
Latency stage
if fixated, no conflict with opposite sex
Genital Stage
if fixated, relationships based on lust
Alfred Adler
-The first to leave Freud's inner circle
-believed that behavior was purposeful and goal directed
-believed everyone suffers from an inferiority complex
-"will-to-power" can be positive or negative
-individual psychology

individual psychology
Alfred Adler's theory that everyone suffers from an inferiority complex and this results in "will-to-power"
Carl Jung
analytical psychology
emphasized unconscious processes
two forms of unconscious mind:
personal unconsious
collective unconscious

Two forms of unconscious mind by Jung
personal unconscious
collective unconscious
collective unconscious consisted of
one set of archetype refers to gender roles
anima and animus
personal unconscious
what we create
Collective unconscious
what everyone in the world has inherited from our family members
feminine aspects of people's personality
masculine aspects of peoples personalities
Karen Horney
developed feminine psychology
blend of freudian, Alderian and Jungian theory
believed personality was shaped by relationship with parent
basic anxiety
search for security

Believed personality was shaped by the child's relationship with parents
Karen Horney
developed theory of basic anxiety
Karen Horney
we all search for security in one of three ways:
move towards others
move away others
move against others

Pros of Psychoanalytic Theories
emphasis on unconscious and its influence on behavior
encouraging open talk about sex
development of psychoanalysis
overall contribution to psychology

cons of psychoanalytic Theories
difficult to test
overemphasis on biology and unconscious forces
inadequate empirical support
lack of cross cultural support

Humanistic Theories
emphasized internal experiences and individual's feelings of basic worth
the basic goodness of all human beings and their positive drive toward self fulfillment
key figures of humanistic theory
carl rogers
abraham maslow
Carl Roger's Key Concepts
the self-a key component to personality
the mental health is related to the degree of similarity between self concept and life experiences.
unconditional positive regard-love and acceptance with no contingencies.

mental health is related to the degree of..... between self concept and life experiences
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
basic physical necessities must be satisfied before higher growth needs
self actualization
inborn drive to develop all one's talents and capabilities
Criticisms of humanistic theory
Naive assumptions
poor testability and inadequate evidence

naive assumptions criticism says
critics argue that humanistic theories and theorists are unrealistic and romantic when it comes to human nature
poor testability and inadequate evidence criticism says
the terms used this theory are difficult to operationalize and therefore test scientifically
narrowness criticism
this theory only describes personality and does not explain it
Social Cognitive Theory
Bandura and Rotter
Albert Bandura
introduced the concepts of self efficacy and reciprocal determinism to personality theory
Julian rotter
personality is determined by expectations and reinforcement values
internal locus of control
you have control of your life
external locus of control
outside sources controlling your life
Biological Theories-biological contributors to personality
brain structures
genetic factors

four methods to measure personality
objective tests: MMPI
Projective Tests: Rorschach and the TAT

Pseudo-Personality Tests
barnum effect
fallacy of positive instances
self-serving bias

barnum effect
we are predispositioned to accept ambiguous, general statement
Fallacy of Positive Instances
we remember confirming evidence and ignore disconfirming
Self-serving bias
we tend to prefer flattering descriptions
set of factors that activate, direct and maintain behavior, usually toward some goal
subjective feeling that includes arousal, cognitions, and expressive behaviors
motivation... behavior, and emotion is the feeling...
energize and directs
Biological Theories
focus on inborn, genetically determine processes that controls and directs behavior
instinct theory of motivation
motivation results from behaviors that are unlearned and found in almost all species
drive-reduction theory
motivation begins with physiological need that produces a drive to satisfy that need (replaced instinct theory in 1930) biological principle of homeostasis
Arousal Theory
organisms are motivated to achieve and maintain an optimal level of arousal (dont like being too bored or stimulated)
Psychosocial Theories
emphasize the incentive and cognitions associated with motivation
incentive theory
motivation results from external stimuli that PULL the organism in certain directions
Cognitive Theories
motivation is directly affected by attributions, or how we interpret or think about our own or other's actions
biopsychosocial theories
combines the biological, psychological and social factors that work together to create motivation
best explanation
abraham maslow
believed that we all have numerous needs that continually compete for fulfillment in our lives. some are more important than others
conducted one of the earliest experiments exploring the internal factors of hunger
Cannon and Washburn
Cannon and Washburn's experiment
balloon in stomach, movement is what caused hunger
correlation does not mean causation
biological factors that affect hunger and eating are in the ...
body's biochemistry

in brain, the .... affects hunger
ventromedial area
psychosocial factors of hunger
powerful influences that can be equally important stimulus cues for hunger and eating
sources of influence for hunger
visual cues
cultural conditioning

having a body weight 15% or more above the ideal for one's height and age
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by severe loss of weight resulting from self-imposed starvation and an obsessive fear of obesity
more than... of women show some sign of eating disorders
only... of women are serious enough to be diagnosed with an ED

Achievement Motivation
broadly defined as the desire to excel, especially in competition with others
characterists of individuals with a high need for achievement
prefers moderately difficult tasks
show people pics and ask them to tell a story. look for signs of achievement motivation
Three components of emotions

pysiological component of emotion
arousal component
limbic system

Four Theories of Emotion
James-Lange Theory
Cannon-Bard Theory
Facial-Feedback Theory
Schater's Two Factory Theory

james-lange theory
our subjective experience of emotion follows our bodily arousal
cannon-bard theory
arousal and our subjective experience of emotion occur simultaneously
Facial feedback theory
movements of our facial muscles produce/intensify our subjective experience of emotion
Schater's Two Factor Theory
physical arousal and cognitive labeling of that arousal produce our subjective experience of emotion
" we feel sad because we cry" arousal and expression is what cause emotions
james lange theory
arousal and emotion happen at the same time
cannon-bard theoyr
all emotions are physiologically similar externally
schater's two factor theory
James-Lange fails..
to acknowledge that physical arousal can occur without emotional experience
Cannon-Bard is challenged bc
focuses on the thalamus in regard to physiological arousal
Facial feedback does not..
seem to contribute the intensity of our overall moods and emotional experiences
schater's two factor theory is challenged bc
emphasizes the importance of cognitive labels, but research implicated neural pathways
intrinsic motivation
motivation resulting from personal enjoyment of a task or activity
extrinsic motivation
motivation based upon obvious external rewards or threat of punishment
ways to improve motivation
limit concrete extrinsic rewards
reward competency
emphasize intrinsic

instrument that measures sympathetic arousal to detect emotional arousal which in turn supposedly reflects when one is lying
error rates on a polygraph range from
emotional intelligence
Golemans term for the ability to know and manage one's emotions, empathize with others, and maintain satisfying relationships
Goleman believes that traditional measures of IQ ignore....that reflect intelligence
real life abilities

six basic emotions of all cultures

Darwin said that the expression of emotions evolved in different species as a .... and as an outgrowth of ...
survival mechanism
natural selection
modern evolutionary theory suggests that emotion originates in the
limbic system
abnormal behavior
patters of emotion, thought and action considered pathological for one or more reasons
diseased or disordered
the four criteria to be diagnosed with a psychological disorder
statistical infrequency (rare to common)
disability or dsyfunction (low to high)
personal distress (low to high)
violation of norms

culture-general symptoms
symptoms of mental health illness that are shared across cultures
langer index of psychiatric symptoms
screening instrument used to identify disorders not severe enough to require hospitalization
culture-bound symptoms
unique symptoms that differ across cultures
puerto rico and Latin nations
"attack of nerves"
Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Thailand
running amok
West africa
brain fog
posessed by Zar
South china and vietnam
Western Nations
"attack of nerves"
trembling, seizurelike episode
running amok
wild aggressive behavior, trying to kill or hurt others
posession by Zar
involuntary movements
penis is retracting into the body
ancient people though that .... were the cause of abnormal behavior
demons and spirits
boring holes in the skull
during the Middle Ages ... began to appear in europe
Pinel improved what?
Pinel believed that ... causes abnormal behavior
disease an physical illness
Pinel made the... and later...
Medical Model
Szasz says that
mental illness is a myth and we use this to label others who are peculiar or offensive
7 perspectives on abnormal behavior

DSM-IV-TR stands for
diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
the DSM-IV-TR is ...
classification system developed by the American Psychiatric Association used to describe and classify abnormal behaviors
what does DSM-IV-TR not offer?
stemmed from unconscious
redistributed to anxiety disorders
serious mental disorders chacterized by extreme mental disruptions and defective or lost contact with reality
legal term applied when ppl cant be held responsible
axis 1

current clinical disorders
axis II
personality disorders and mental retardation
axis III
general medical conditions
Axis IV
psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis V
Global assessment of functioning
pros of the DSM-IV-TR
careful and completely describes symptoms
standardizes diagnosis and treatment
Cons of DSM-IV-TR
relies heavily on the medical model
contains possible culture bias
lacks a dimensional aspect to its descriptions of disorders

anxiety disorders
overwhelming anxiety and fear accompanied by autonomic nervous system arousal
five major types of anxiety disorders
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
Panic disorder
Obsessive Disorder (OCD)

generalized anxiety disorder
chronic, uncontrollable worry
6 months
not focused on anything in particular
feel afraid but cant identify fear
muscle tension
inability to cope with life

Panic disorder
sudden, but brief attacks of intense apprehension that causes trembling, dizziness
after frightening experience or stress

restrict normal activites for fear of panic attack in public place
social phobias
irrationally fearful of embarrassing themselves
aka public speaking, eating
Psychological explaination for anxiety disorder
faulty cognitions and maladaptive learning
biological explaination for anxiety disorder
evolutionary predispositions, genetic, biochemical
mood disorders
extreme disturbances in emotional states
also knows as affective disorders
excessive sadness but unreasonable elations and hyperactivity

two main types of mood disorders
major depressive
major depressive disorder
long lasting depressed mood that interferes with every day life
bipolar disorder
repeated episodes of mania and depression
biological factors explaining mood disorders
brain functioning, neurotransmitter, imbalances, genetics, evolution
Psychosocial explainations for mood disorders
environmental stressors, disturbed interpersonal relationships, faulty thinking, etc
who are more likely to be depressed
group of psychotic disorders characterized by loss of contact with reality
5 areas of disturbance in schizophrenia
thought-psychoses and delusions
emotion-flat or exaggerated

types of schizophrenia
disorganized undifferentiated

paranoid schizophrenia
dominated by dillusions and halluscinations
hearing voices
catatonic schizophrenia
marked by motor disturbances (immobility) an echo speech
disorganized schizophrenia
characterized by incoherent speech, flat or exaggerated emotions and social withdrawl
undifferentiated schizophrenia
meets teh criteria but does not fall in the other categories
residual schizophrenia
no longer meets full criteria for schizophrenia but still shows some sympoms
social psychology is defined
the study of how others influence our thoughts, feeling and actions
an explanation for the cause of behaviors or events
internal disposition
cause such as a personal characteristic
external situation
cause such as situaitional demands
fundamental attribution error
misjudging the causes of others behavior as due to internal causes rather than external ones
saliency bias
human personality is more salient to us than the circumstances. we blame the person, not the situation
Just-World Phenomenon
people generally deserve what they get
why we blame victims
makes us feel safer

Self Serving Bias
the process of taking credit for our successes and externalizing our failures
cognitive dissonance
a feeling of discomfort that results from a mismatch between an attitude and a behavior
motivates us to eliminate the discomfort
called the Drive Reduction Theory

learned, generally negative attitude towards others
negative behaviors directed at a certain group of people
out-group effect
people in our group is diverse, but the group "out there" is not as diversge
changing behavior because of real or imagined group pressure
Asch's conformity study
selecting the lines that are the same length
testers gave wrong answer and participants answered that b/c they were pressured to
following direct commands, usually from an authority figure
we like to know that our life has a certain amount of...
normative social influence
we have a need for approval and acceptance
informational social influence
we have a need for info, and we have a need for direction
reference groups
we conform to the people we like and admire because we want to be like them
Milgram's Obedience study
things that affect obedience
legitimacy and closeness of authority figure
remoteness of victim
assignment and responsibility
when everyone else obeys

Group membership involves
set of behavioral patterns connected with particular social positions
anonymity leads to reduced inhibition, self-consciousness, and personal responsibility
you feel anonymous
group polarization
group movement toward either a riskier or more conservative decision;result depends on the member's initial dominant tendency
Risky shift phenomenon
group decisions tend to be riskier
faulty decision making occuring when a highly cohesive group seeks agreement and avoids inconsistent information

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