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History Chapter 9 2


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Diocletian AD 284
divided empire into 2 administrative halves. appointed co-emperor General Maximian of Rome. edict of prices that froze wages
Constantine AD 312
new capital in Byzantium. edict of Milan that said you could worship whoever you wanted but had to support Christianity.
Theodius AD 337
made Christianity official religion
Bosporus Strait
constantinople. mediterranean and Black Sea. good strategic location for trade
Golden Horn Harbor
in constantinople. natural protection from enemies. put chain across harbor to keep ships from coming in.
attended chariot races. like circus maximus
Constantinople as 'New Rome'
language greek insted of Latin. new form of christianity...easter orthodox
ruled AD 527-565. came from Macedonia. became emperor at 44yrs. wanted to reconquer lost land. "the emperor who never sleeps". made beautiful palace to awe people. public baths, help, and entertainment
actress wife of Justinian. extremely powerful and influential in politics. wanted to pass laws to make women more powerful and help
Nika Rebellion
riot of blue and green teams charioteers wanting justinian to free two rebels. didn't want to and began to flee but theodora convinced him to stay, saying that she would rater die as emperor than run as a coward. he stayed and fought to regain control.
wrote The Secret History that was a book of gossip and mean cruel things to say about Justinian. published after death. in life, only good things to say of him.
general. AD 533 North Africa. little money but theodora supported him. sent to conquer North Africa.
Justinians end
rome changed hands 6 times. AD 554 justinian conquered most land and empire was at its largest size ever. thought as the next Caesar. after death empire suffered a great loss
After Justinians death
AD 600s Arabs invaded and threatened the Byzantine empire. no one else could keep role of emperor.
Plague AD 542
kept destroying. hit many times. justinian got it. theodora governed for him till he got better
Byzantine religon
followed Christianity
religous pictures. made of tile, paint, jewels, etc. icons helped people focus their thoughts on worship, not idolizing the people. they are symbols of god's presence in life
image breakers
supported King Leo
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Greek. Patriarch is head of church. preists may marry. divorce is allowed in certain circumstances.
Archbishop of Constantinople. Christians. Much money was spent on churches and what they supported
Byzantine emperors and Justinian
played major roles in the church and used that power. justinian tried to unify empire and then persecuted Jews and non-orthodox christians
Emperor Leo III AD 72
supported icons. army supported his veiws.
kicked out from the church. ticket to go to hell and suffer.
Pope's involvment with the church
tried to control the Byzantine. Council of Nicea AD 797 (orthodox church). allowed icons (no statues) that were 2D not 3D
The Franks
(french) wanted to create an allience with the church and defeat the Lumbards. Pepin the Short. pope gives the title of emperor to Romans
Schism AD 1054
split of the church. roman catholic- universal. orthodox- right belief
Roman Catholicism
latin. Pope has authority over bishops and king. preists may not marry, divorce, or have sex.
Justinian's churches
went on a church building spree so people would forget about the 30,000 people he killed..San Vitale in Ravenna. mosaics of Justinian and theodora
Hagia Sophia
AD 532-537. built by Justinian. rare and expensive materials. fourth largest in the world. means divine wisdom. "solomon i have outdone you" Pendatives. 10,000 workers. 1453- turned into a mosque by Ottomans. 1935- art museum by Turkish government. endangered landmark.
The Byzantium Empire
thought of themselves as Romans/Greeks. Latin language. constantinople did not conquer and was not successful at first. constantine renamed Byzantium into constantinople
symbol of Jupiter and Byzantine empire. imperial character. symbol of roman empire. double headed eagle was symbol of double empire (E&W)
Byzantine Art Eyes
depending on your conscience, eyes send either a loving or hateful messege
mother of god
Baby Jesus (art)
small body like child but face of an adult. sybolizes his awareness. halo around mary and halo with cross around jesus. carries scroll in hand or sign of blessing
3-hinged folding panals decorated with religous images used as an alter peice
most valued made of gold, lower value, bronze. the more perfectly stamped, the more valuable
Greek fire
liquid fire at sea to destroy ships. chemical warefare. shot out of funnels that would burst into flames and could even burn underwater
The Dark Ages
farming and herding. heavy taxes. i million people. Patriarchy- women were secluded but had some rights
AD 550 monks stole silkworm eggs from China to bring back and make silk and sell for profit
University of Constantinople
AD 850 first college and taught math, science, literature, art, music, language.
Illuminated manuscripts
beautiflly decorated books with drawings on pages and stuff
Corpus Juris Civilis
ody of civil law. Justinians code. 5,000 roman laws. 50 volumes of legal oppinions. textbook that taught students how to use the code. laws had to do with crimes, marriage, farming, etc.
Byzantine Civilization
Autocratic. spying, bribery, political marriages, millitary innovation
Byzantine Millitary Innovation
well trained infantry and cavalry. skilled engineering core. millitary manuals and academies. new protective armor (sword, javeline, greek fire)
Orthodox Christian Monks
made new centers of learning for students and church members
St. Methodius and St. Cyril
made Slavic alphabet so Slavs could read religion in their own language. called Cyrillic 33 letters
The decline of the Byzantine
Plague, Lombards 6th century (took over Italy), Slavs moved into the balkans, persians AD 626 (were at the walls of constantinople but they resisted the attack), Arabs 674-717, Russians 860-1043, Normans 1071
Why did everyone want Constantinople?
prime location and good trade
Seljuk Turks
Battle of Manzikert 1071 begins the crusades
Pope Innocent III AD 1204
called the 4th crusades. on their way through constantinople they burned and destroyed everything so badly the pope had to publicly condemn them for destroying churches and pricless arrtifacts
Latin empire AD 1261
plague continued but so did fighting which weakened the empire
Decline of the Byzantine 1300s
parts of greece. constantinople
Decline of the Byzantine 1453
Ottoman Turks used cannons to break through the walls. Mehmet II the conquerer renamed capital Istanbul. constantine XI. turning point in history.
The Eastern Slavs
barbarians began trading with Byzantium (Slavs)- cultural diffusion- Russia grew out of blending the two.
Slavs enviroment
Ural Mountains. Rivers- Dnieper, Don, Volga. lived in small riverside villages. Baltic Sea
Rurik AD 860
Viking Varangians. founden Novgorod (Russias first important city)
The Primary Chronicle
Prince Oleg AD 889
Supported Kiev. Grand Prince.
kingdom ruled by a prince. all others had to pay tribute to king
advised grand prince. council of nobles
meeting place for politics, war, and laws. like greet agora
Princess Olga 957
before worshipped nature spirits and were polytheistic. brought in Christianity.
Vladimir I 989
grandson to Olga. wanted to investigate what other places were worshipping. ordered mass baptism so everyone could be orthodox christianity. Byzantium collaborated. political marriges.
When Vladimir ordered searches of faith what did he find?
Didn't like that Islamic couldn't drink alchohol or eat pork. No Judism b/c Romans killed christians. Roman Catholic were too poor and pope claimed too much authority. Loved orthodox b/c of hagia Sophia
Yaroslav the Wise 1019-1054
made law code like Justinians (Yaroslavs code). built first library. encouraged education. building of new and beautiful churches.
Yaroslav's dome
copied dome from Byzantium but their is more pointy and peaked and small so snow could easily slide off
The bishop if Kiev was elected after the schism. icon painting was popular. learned to write Cyrillic. Onion domes.
What were three things that led to the decline of Kiev?
death of Yaroslav. Fourth Crusades. Mongols.
Death of Yaroslav 1054
wanted to divide his realm b/w all his sons, not just the oldest. for the next years, they tore it apart fighting over land.
Fourth Crusades and how they effected Kiev
Sacked the city and Latin rule enters constantinople which effects Kiev through trade
Genghiz Khan- most powerful warrior who united the tribes. Batu Khan- continued the conquests. 1240 sack of Kiev- so many people were slaughtered. The Tatar Yoke. Khanate of the Golden Horde.
durring the Tatar Yoke, how did the Mongols unintentionly help russia?
united russia and treated all the same
durring the tatar Yoke what happened to the church?
preists told them mongols were atacking b/c they were sinful. religion prospered and so did the russian orthodox church
durring the tatar Yoke hat did the Monols do?
imposed taxes. serfs bound to the land. decline of women. fashoined them selves after the mongols. autocratic and harsh. isolation from the west.
battle of the Neva River 1240
Alexander Nevsky beat Swedes and Germans.
battle of the ice 1242
The teutonic knights. 1547 nevsky became a saint
originally what Moscow is not. daniel. 1156. walled fortress called Kremlin.
Ivan I
tax collector
1328 used metropolitan to enlarge territory
defeated Golden Horde 1380 at battle of Kolikokko
Ivan III
Grand Duke 1462
married princess sophia 1472
taken all mongols empire and 1480 refused tribute.
took Novorod
'third rome' moscow
took on double eagle symbol

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