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The Later Middle Ages in Europe


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Who began the crusades?
Pope Urban II
Who supported the crusades?
- religious people
- sinners (were forgiven)
- nobles
- middle class merchants
- serfs
- adventurers
When was the first crusade?
When was the third crusade?
Who led the first crusade?
Godfrey of Bouillon.
Who led the third crusade?
King Frederik Barbossa (Germany), Phillip Agustus (France), and Richard the Lionhearted (England).
What were the achievments of the first crusade?
- Drove the Moslems from the Holy Land
- Established a Christian kingdom on the Holy Land
- Gained Control of Jerusalem.
What were the achievments of the third crusade?
Richard the Lionhearted (England) made Saladin grant passage into Jerusalem.
Who was Jerusalem lost to and how long were the Moslems in control?
Saladin, until after WWI.
What happened during future crusades?
They failed to establish Christian rule in Palestine.
What were the effects of the Crusades?
- broadened peoples' outlooks
- stimulated trade and towns
- strengthened the kind (central government)
- weakened nobility
- weakened serfdom
- encouraged learning
- Europeans wanted Asian goods more
- towns became essential for trade (no adequate transportation)
Bourgeoisie: (groups)
French townspeople (Middle Class)
- merchants
- shopkeepers
- bankers
- professionals
What three areas were major trading centers?
Italy, Belgium (Flanders providence), and Norther Europe - specifically Germany.
What towns in Italy were strong in trade?
Venice, Genoa, Pisa, and Naples.
What was Italy's trading advantage?
It was boardered by the Mediterranean sea and had a history of trade.
What were the advantages of life in the Middle Ages?
1. Towns attracted enterprising people
2. Offered freedom from feudal restrictions
3. Life varied
4. There were cultural and educational facilities
5. Opportunities from economic advancement.
What three things contributed to the European cultures' advance?
1. the Catholic Church provided leadership and support.
2. the crusades spread knowledge
3. towns became centers for learning and trading.
Romanesque style:
Think ancient Roman architechture (Cathedral in Pisa, It)
Gothic style:
architechture that lets in more sunlight (Notre Dame).
What difficulties did students at universities face?
- taught in Latin
- lacked books
- limited libraries, labs, and classrooms.
Scientists who tried to make gold -> Chemistry
Tried to tell the future using the stars and planets -> Astronomy
What was invented during the Middle Ages?
magnifying lenses, mechanical clocks, glass windows, and gunpowder.
Roger Bacon:
A man who said people must experiment and learn.
defending the faith through facts and ideas.
Peter Abelard:
an author who showed various views on religion.
St. Thomas Aquinas:
The greatest philosopher of all times (his times).
stories of heros
love stories
What were the most popular forms of storytelling during the Middle Ages?
epic poetry, lyrics (love stories), and romances (full-length novels).
Minestrels (S. France)
Minestrels (Germany)

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