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ACE certification Ch. 1


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Cardiac Output
The amount of blood that flows from each ventricle in one minute.
Heart Rate
The # of times the heart beats per minute
Stroke Volume
The amount of blood pumped from each ventrivle each time the heart beats
Ejection Fraction
the % of the total volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole that is subsequently ejected during contraction
Oxygen extraction
the amount of O2 taken from the hemoglobin (occurs in the capillaries of muscles) and subsequently used in exercising muscle cells.
Adenosine Triphosphate ATP
the body's energy source when a muscle fiber contracts and exerts force * the energy is from ATP
Aerobic Energy system
when adequate O2 is delivered into the cell to meet its energy needs
Anaerobic Glycolysis
the metabolic pathway that uses glucose for energy production without requireing O2. Sometimes called lactic acid system (lactic acid is the byproduct)
Creatine phosphate system
high energy phosphate material that is stored in cells can be immediately used to resynthesize ATP * one of the phosphagens
specialized subcellular structures located within body cells that contain oxidative enzymes needed by the cell to metabolize food in to energy sources.
a local deficiency of blood supply caused by the constriction or obstruction of the arteries, which results in a decreased supply of O2 to the tissues.
Angina pectoris
sesation of pain or pressure in the chest often a result of ischemia. Often aggravated or induced by exercise or stress
Anaerobic Threshold
the point during high intensity activity when the body can no longer meet its demand for O2 and anaerobic metabolism predominates. Also called lactate threshold.
the storage form of glucose found in the liver and muscles
Adenosine triphosphate ATP and creating phosphate CP. 2 high energy phosphate molecules that can be broken down for immediate use by the cells
the unit of energy most often used in exercise 1 kcal amount of heat that will raise the temp of 1 Kg of H2O 1 degree C
breathing faster than is necessary at a given pace
proteins necessary to bring about bio-chemical reactions
Maximal O2 Consumption
the total capacity to consume O2 at the cellular level
Metabolic Equivalent MET
a simplified system for classifying phusical activities where one MET is equal to the resting O2 consumption, which is approz 3.5 ml of O2 per Kg of body wt pre min.
increase in diameter of the blood vessels especially dialation of arerioles leading to increased blood flow to a part of the body
decrease in diameter of the vessels that supply blood to the abdoinal area
Systolic blood pressure
generally refers to the amount of pressure generated by the contraction of the left ventricle
Diastolic blood pressure
the amount of pressure in the system when the heart muscle rests between contractions
Overload principle
beneficial adaptions occur in response to demands applied to the body at level beyond a certain threshold (overload) but within the limits of tolerance and safety
Venous System
return to the heart of the circulatory fluids by way of the veins
Specificity of training
for a individual to become proficient at any given movement, that movement must be trained and practiced; a specific demand made on the body will result in a specific response by the body.
Motor neurons
nerve cells that conduct impulses from the CNS to the periphery signaling muscles to contract or relax, regulating muscular movement
chemical substances such as acetylcholine or dopamine that transmit nerve impuleses across synapses
a white crystalline neurotransmitter and derivative of choline.
Neuromuscular Junction
the site at which a motor euron transmits info to a muscle fiber; the juction between a nerve fiber and the muscle it supplies
contractile proteins in a muscle fiber
contractile protein in a myofibril
contractile protein in a myofibril
Contractile proteins
proteins primarily related to the process of muscle contraction
repeating unit of muscle fiber
the membrane surrounding sarcomere, which is the fuctional unit of a muscle fiber
a gelatin like tissure surrounding the sarcomere
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
the form of endoplasmic retuculum where calcium is stored to be used for muscle activation; located in striated muscle fibers.
Sliding filament theory
a generally accepted theory explaining the interaction between actin and myosin proteins and ATP to cause muscle contraction.
Cross Bridge
tiny projections from the myosin attach to the actin and form an actin-myosin bridge during muscle contraction
Concentric Contraction
a positive contraction that shortens the muscle
Eccentric contraction
a negative contraction that lengthens the muscle
Isometric Contraction
a contraction of individual fivers, but no change in the length of the whole muscle.
Motor Unit
a single motor nerve(from the spinal cord) and all the muscle fibers it stimulates
an increase in the # and size of myofibrils inside muscle fibers. An increased amount of myosin actin proteins that generate force
Nervous inhibition
both psychological and physiological; thinking a muscle is less capable than it actually is.
Golgi tendon Organ
a sensor which is part of the nervous system which protects against generating too much contractile force
a condition of having less than optimal level of body water
temporary or recoverable elongation of connective tissue.
Muscle Spindles
the sensory organ within a muscle that is sensitive to stretch and thus protects the muscle from being stretched too far.

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