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Origin of Government


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3 things required for a government
1. a recognized region that is realized as a territory to be run
2. you have to have sovereinghty
3. you have to have people
4 Theories of the Origin of Government
1. Force Theory
2. The Divine Right Theory
3. The Evolution Theory
4. The Social Contract Theory
Force theory
Someone decides that they can make others do what they want
The Divine Right Theory
The "God Said" Theory
God said someone was supposed to be king
The Evolution Theory
governments evolve out of family relationships
The Social Contract Theory
Jean-Jaques Rousseau
Enlightenment thinker
“The Social Contract Theory”
It would be better to not have a government, but people need a government
People would come together and write a social contract form governing
People that are governed have agreed to be governed
3 Types of Government
1. Unitary (One ruler)
2. Federal (Dividing powers between central and regional, central holding the majority of the power)
3. Confederate (Regional areas hold the majority of the power with a weak central government)
European Nations involved in the New World
English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Russia
(All except portugal in North America)
Why did the English use a policy of Salutary Neglect?
1. The king lef the colonies in others hands to run
2. They had 2 civil war(1649-Charles I was killed, Oliver Cromwell became console, William and Mary then took it over, instability caused them not to care)
3. to have taxed the colonies in the beginning would have killed them
3 Types of Colonies
1. Propietor
2. Charter Colonies
3. Royal Colonies (Ruled by the King)
2 Reasons for founding colonies
1. Economic
2. Religious
How Many Religious Colonies were there?
1. Pennsylvania (Quakers)
2. Delaware (fleeing from Puritans)
3. Massachusetts (Puritans)
4. Maryland (Catholics)
3 General concepts about government that English people accepted
1. Ordered Government
2. Limited Government
3. Representative
Ordered Government
Government has a system and the people know how it is run: Parliament and the King
Limited Government
Government is not all powerful; parliament and the King can not do whatever they want
Representative Government
The people in England had a say through their representation in parliament
What did the English people have to ensure their rights?
1. Magna Carta
2. Petition of Right
3. English Bill of Rights
Magna Carta
1. Stated the power of the king is not absolute
2. You have the right to a trial by jury, Due Process of law
3. Everyone has to follow rules
4. The king can not arbitrarily take away life, liberty, or property
5. Signed in 1215 by King John
Petition of Right
1. The king cannot imprison political critics
2. The king cannot declare martial law during peacetime
3. The King cannot require private citizens to house soldiers in their homes during peacetime
4. No one can be forced to pay taxes without giving their consent
5. Signed by Charles I in 1621
English Bill of Rights
1. No standing army in peacetime
2. The Monarch cannot suspend laws
3. The right to petition the king
4. The right to a fair and speedy trial
5. No cruel or unusual punishments, no excessive fines or bail
6. 1689
Types of governments in the 1700s
1. Democracy
2. Monarchy
3. Dictatorship
4. Theocracy
5. Aristocracy
6. Oligarchy
3 Types of Democracy
1. Greek
a. Direct Democracy
2. Roman
a. RepresentativeDemocracy
3. Republic
a. the most educated, wealthy will rule; the most able will rule
What kind of Government is the US?
Social Contract
Principles of a Democratic Government
1. Recognition of the fundamental worth and dignity of the individual
(Each person is worthy of respect)
2. Respect the equality of all persons
(All people are equal)
3. Equality of opportunity
(Everyone can start at the same place, we don’t guarantee the outcome only the beginning)
4. Equality before the law
(Law is to be equal to all people)
5. Faith in Majority Rule
(We believe that a group of people are going to be more right than wrong)
6. Popular Sovereignty
(People holding the power)
7. The Necessity of Compromise
(If we don’t compromise there will be continual fighting)
8. Personality Liberty
(Individual freedoms)
9. Civil Society
Civic Virtue
Civic- the community of the citizens
Virtue- Holding to the highest ideals of how we are supposed to behave, good to the extreme, sacrifice yourself for others
 When everyone in society is willing to sacrifice themselves for others
 Democracy can not exist with selfishness, the more selfish people are, the more laws there will have to be
o James Madison says that when it becomes a government of laws and not of freedom, then it is no longer a democracy
o Conservatives are for tradition
o They like the way things are and do not like to change the system
o Smaller government, more money in their pockets
o Not all change is good
o Liberalism is about change
o Radical, because they want to change the system to something new and different
o See the only way to change the system is with a strong government and often higher taxes
o Always want things to be moving in a progressive direction
o Focus on people’s freedoms
o They want to legalize drugs
o They want to focus on their personal liberties and want the government to not interfere with their lives

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