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Chapter 3- Minerals and Rocks


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What is a foliated rock?
A metamorphic rock that is easy to spilt
What are the types of luster?
nonmetallic: glossy, pearly, greasy, dull, earthy,
what is the hardness of a minerals?
its resistance to being scratched
What is moh's scale of hardness?
ten standard minerals whose hardness are determined used to determine the hardness of other minerals
What is a mineral
a naturally occuring, inorganic sold that has a defenite chemical composition and molecular substance
What is cleavage?
the tendency of a mineral to split along onew or more smooth flat surfaces
What is fracture?
when a mineral doesn't have cleavage and breaks unevenly
What are all the properties that can be used to identify a mineral?
streak, color, luster, hardness, cleavage, fracture, taste, crystal shape, magnetism, reactivity to acid, ability to bend light, and fluorescence
How do metamorphic rocks form?
As a result of the recrystallization of ummelted material under conditions of high temperature and pressure
What type of cleavage does halite have?
cubic cleavage, meaning it cleaves in three directions
What is a rock composed of only one mineral?
made of atoms arranged in a pattern
What are carbonates?
group of minerals that contains 1 carbon atom and 3 oxygen atoms
What are evaporites?
Rockls formed by the evaporation of water
What are silicates?
a combination of silicon and oxygen with other elements. largest rock froming minerals
What group of minerals contains a high percentage of commercialy valuable substances?
What are iron oxides?
iron combines with oxygen
What is a tetrahedron?
a four-sided solid, each side being a triangle
What are sulfides?
iron combines with sulfur
What is the structure of a mineral?
the arrangement of atoms in a mineral
What are metamorphic rocks?
Rocks that form as a result of the recrystallization of existing rock minerals
What is regional metamorphism?
occurs when large areas of rock are under intense heat and pressure
How do sedimentary rocks form?
They form from compaction and cementation of sediments
What is lava?
magma that reaches the Earth's surface
What is contact metamorphism?
The changing of an existing rock through contact with magma
What are thin latyers of alternating minerals found in a metamorphic rock?
What does texture of igneous rocks depend on?
the rate of cooling
What are felsic rocks?
rich in potassium feldspar and quartz and are light in color
What is magma?
molten rock beneaths earth's surface
What are clastic rocks?
Rocks formed from sediments made up of rocks fragments held together by cement
Long cooling causes ________ crystals to form.
When rocks cool fast, they have ________ grained crystals.
What type of volcanos cause quiet lave flows?
shield cones
What are mafic rocks?
Rocks rich in plagioclase feldspar and pryoxene. Dark in color, and found in ocean basins
What are some alternative sources of energy?
water power, wind power, solar energy,and geothermal energy
What are fossil fuels?
energy resources formed from the remains of plants and animals that lived long ago
What is a nonrenewable substance?
used faster then they can be replaced such as coal
What are cinder cones?
steep, explosive volcanos
What are rocks called that form beneath the surface?
intrusive or plutonic rocks
What causes an igneous rocks to have a glassy texture?
when it cools very quickly, on earth's surface
What are igneous rocks?
They form as a result of the solidification of molten rock minerals
what is streak?
Streak is the color of a mineral in its powdered form
How is crystal size effected when magma cools slowly?
the rock has large crystals
Which has smaller crystals intrusive or extrusive rocks?
extrusive have fine-grained rocks
Why is color not effective in identifying a rock or mineral?
different minerals exhibit the same colors and many minerals are found in a variety of colors

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