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Final History


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Popes Rebellion
1680, New Mexico
Spanish settlers suppressed Native American Religions
Pueblo Indians rebelled and destroyed every Catholic Church in the area
Indians killed many priests and Spanish settlers
Indians built kiva, religious chamber, in Santa Fe
It was 50 years before Spanish took back Santa Fe and New Mexico
Advanced Native American Cultures
Aztecs-capital at Tenochitlan, King Moctezuma, destroyed by Cortes because they thought he was a god
Incas-Peru,destroyed by Pizarro
Mound Builders-near Northern Mississippi, Maize revolutionized their way of life, built mounds for religious purposes
vasco balboa
ponce de leon
hernando de soto
Columbus-landed in West Indies, 1492
Vasco Balboa-claimed Pacific Ocean through Mex, 1513
Magellan-around the world, killed in Philippines, but ship made it home, 1519-1522
Ponce de Leon-sought gold in Florida, 1513, 1521
Coronado-Arizona and New Mexico, golden cities were really Pueblo villages, 1540-1542
Hernando de Soto-from Florida across Mississi for gold, mistreated Indians, 1539-1542
Pizzaro-crushed Incas in Peru, 1532
Seaports used for...
Used to import slaves and complex goods from Europe and Africa and exports raw goods and agricultural goods back to Europe
Irish - 1570's riot and treatment
Catholic Irish resented the Portestant Queen Elizabeth and rioted in the 1570s and 1580s (were supposed to get help from Catholic Spain but the help was negligible)
As English soldiers worked to subdue the riots, the took to calling the Irish 'natives', a habit that carried over to the Indians of the Americas
plantation colonies virginia
started in 1606 with a landgrant to the Virginia Company
Key stuff: Jamestown, John Smith, Pocahontas, John Rolfe and Tobacco, Lord de la Warr, House of Burgesses
plantation colonies maryland
founded by Lord Baltimore as a haven from Catholic persecution ("Act of Toleration" gave freedom to all those who supported Jesus' divinity)
plantation colonies carolinas
started when Charles II gave the land to 8 nobles
primarily made food to sell to the West Indies (mostly rice)
North Carolina broke off and became a royal colony in 1712 because these people had disapprobed of the intense authority and aristocrats of S.Carolina
plantation colonies georgia
James Oglethorpe helped sustain this colony that served as a buffer between the Spanish/French and the rich Carolinas
plantation colonies in general
exported commercial agricultural products
aristocratic, planation based with few cities
toleration for religion, but not for Indians
all allowed slavery (though it took Georgia a few years to accept it)
puritan beliefs
John Calvin-Calvinism, predestination, humans all evil and sinful, God is all good
wanted England to be completely de-Catholicized (no thats not a word)
Separatists-wanted to break away from England completely
john calvin
puritan leader- calvinism
anne hutchinson
intelligent, strong willed woman
logic extreme of predestination: holy life no sure sign of salvation so no need to obey god's or man's laws
also said that god told her these ideas
high heresy, banished to Rhode Island
king phillip's war- who was king phillip
Metacom, called King Philip, formed Indian alliance
assaulted New England villages, caused much damage and destruction
Metacom eventually captured and his head was put on a steak outside of Plymouth
ethnic makeup of colonies: place and what kind of ppl
Puritan New England
Plantation based South
middle way in middle colonies
Dutch in New Netherlands at Hudson River
Quakers in Pennsylvania
american slave culture- specifics of fusion, what was planted...
had it tough harvesting rice and indigo in hot weather, many died
somewhat easier life in Chesapeake, many were able to start and keep families
culture was a mixture of many African American traditions with Western traditions
culture was an escape from hard work
religion was a fusion of African American religions and Christianity
indentured servants- why used, who were they, what class was formed,
Indians did make good labor, died from disease and blacks too expensive for most
the large amount of displaced, unemployed English farmers would work for a set number of years for a master in return for passage to America
most of these servants hoped to one day start their own farms
headright system-Virginia and Maryland, whoever paid for the passage of a laborer received 50 acres of land
created large merchant planter farmer class
at first, freed servants got land from freedom dues from former master
but as land ran out, many servants had to hire themselves to their old masters for low wages
american taverns
Had bowling alleys, pool tables, bars, and gambling equipment
All social classes (including loafers and drunks) mingled
Gossips also gathered there and they were places of impassioned political talk
Taverns were important places to crystallize public opinion and hotbeds of agitation as Revolution
cooomon and respected professions
Christian clergy most highly honored
Medicine and law were not very favorably regarded at first
(In South) planters were high up while slaves were mere property
Common industries: agriculture, fishing, commerce (triangular trade: New England exported rum to Africa where it was traded for slaves, then wehnt to West Indies were it was traded for molasses, then back to New England)
Manufacturing and lumbering of secondary importance
economic makeup of citizens: classes during the late 1600's early 1700's
Richest 10% of Bostonians and Philadelphians owned about 2/3 of taxable wealth in their cities
Used to be easy social mobility but armed conflicts of 1690’s and 1700’s led to emergence of merchant princes who roosted atop social ladder and controlled lost of wealth
Dependent class of orphans and widows emerged
Riches concentrated in hands of largest slave ownders
Gap between owners and poor whites/slaves
Indentured servants- paupers
Fort Duquesne- location, what northerners wanted, who defeated who
The French were in the process of erecting a chain of forts commanding the strategic Ohio River. Fort Duquesne was a fort at a pivotal point where the Monongahela and Allegheny Rivers join to form the Ohio River.
Located at the future site of Pittsburg
General Braddock’s defeat by small French and Indian army-a few miles from the Fort in 1755
British captured the Fort in 1758
French colonization- where, when importance, relations, important ppl
France was a latecomer to the scramble for the New World
1608-permanent beginnings of a vast empire were est. in Quebec
Samuel de Champlain-“Father of New France”
Friendly relations were entered into with the Huron Indians, making enemies with Iroquois
Gov’t of New France(Canada)- almost completely autocratic (ruled with unlimited pwr by king)
French peasants had little incentive to move to the new world
Protestant Huguenots were denied a refuge in new world
France had Caribbean island economies rich in sugar and rum and they took precedence over Canadian settlements
British Crown's Royal Veto
Reservation of the right to nullify any legislation passed by the colonial assemblies if such laws worked mischief with the mercantilist system
Sugar Act and Stamp Act
Both secured from parliament by Gorge Grenville
Sugar Act of 1764- increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies
Stamp Act of 1765- mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax. Included playing cards, pamphlets, newspapers, diplomas, bills of lading and marriage liciences
Advantages and Disadvantages for British and colonists before American Revolution
Britain had 7.5 million ppl to America’s 2 million
Superior naval pwr and overall wealth
About 30,000 Hessians (German mercenaries) hired by George III, in addition to a professional army of about 50,000 men, plus about 50,000 American loyalists and many Native Americans.
But…Britain still had to deal with Ireland (used up troops); France was bitter from recant defeat
Britain Had no “Organizer of Victory”- William Pitt only a stubborn George III
Britons had no desire to kill their colonial cousins
Britain’s generals were second-rate, and men were brutally treated
Britain fighting from 3000 miles away, provisions were often scarce
America was geographically enormous, and there was no capital to capture and therefore cripple the country.
THomas Paine's Common Sense
Thomas Paine: once an impoverished corset-maker’s apprentice, who came from Britain in 1775
Published in 1776: 120,000 copies
Branded the colonists behavior (Americans considered themselves as a transatlantic community, Irish rebels hanged- American rebels might’ve fared no better. Officers of Washington toasted good health to the king near Boston (massacre?) 5 months before independence declared) as contrary to “common sense”
Told to throw off the cloak of inconsistency
why should the small island of Britain control the vast continent of America
the king was “the Royal Brute of Great Britain”
Dec. of Independence - when, written by, invoked...., misdeeds of Britain..., etc.
July 2, 1776: motion adopted
The passing of Lee’s resolution was the formal “declaration” and was all that was technically needed to cut the ties

However, something more was needed- an inspirational appeal to enlist other British colonies in the Americas, to invite assistance from foreign nations, and to rally resistance at home.
Written by Thomas Jefferson (VA lawyer- 33 yrs.)
formally approved July 4, 1776
invoked natural rights of humankind
argued persuasively that because the king had flouted these rights, the colonists were justified in cutting these connections
listed misdeeds of King George III, including: imposing taxes without consent, dispensing with trial by jury, abolishing valued laws, est. a military dictatorship, maintaining standing armies in peacetime, cutting off trade, burning towns, hiring mercenaries, and inciting hostility among the Indians.
Franklin: “must all hang together or they would all hang separately”
Battle of Bunker hill- who against who, winner, result
May 1775: tiny force under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold surprised and captured British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point. A priceless store of gunpowder and artillery for the siege of Boston was thus secured.
June 1775: colonists seized a hill- Bunker Hill (actually Breed’s Hill)- from which they menaced the enemy in Boston.
Instead of cutting off the retreat of their foes by flanking them, the British launched a frontal attack with 3,000 men.
Americans= 1,500, slaughtering the British, but ran out of gunpowder and were forced to abandon the hill.
After Bunker Hill, King George III –August 1775- formally proclaimed the colonies were in rebellion= treason = hanging.
Shay's Rebellion
Daniel Shays and a band of Massachusetts farmers (angered by high taxes, debtors prisons, and lack of valuable currency and veterans of Rev.) rose up during the summer of 1786 and demanded cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of property takeovers.
Escalated in January 1787 when the mob undertook a seizure of the state arsenal (stockpile of weapons).
The constitution of Massachusetts was one of the most thorough and well executed, thus Shays’ Rebellion signaled a much deeper problem.
Showed how Congress had failed to ensure that the states themselves would be able to faithfully protect the rights and liberties of their own citizens.
Articles of Confederation needed to be overhauled.
Struck fear in propertied class, who began to believe the Rev. created “mobocracy
Federalists (nor Federalist Party)
Those in favor of the Constitution and a strong central government
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay:
The Federalist Papers (“Common Sense” of the ratification period)
Written to encourage ratification in New York
Urging ratifying conventions to set aside emotions when they considered the Constitution
Contended that every branch (exec., jud., and leg.)-Effectively represented the people.
Support of George Washington and Benjamin Franklin
Most lived in areas along seaboard
Wealthier, more educated, and better organized than the antifederalists
Controlled the press (more than 100 newspapers vs. only a dozen antifederalist)
electoral college- large states vs small states consequences
A representative body that indirectly elects the president
Avoided “mobocracy” in which the uneducated would choose a president that was dangerous to the stability of the nation.
Large states would have advantage in popular vote (based on total of its senators and representatives in congress), small states would gain a larger voice if no candidate got a majority of electoral votes- election would be thrown to the House of Reps. (where each state only had one vote)
James Madison: “Father of the Constitution”
George Washington: unanimously elected chairman
Most fiery Rev. leaders were absent & Patrick Henry declined
Not a single spokesperson was present from the poorer debtor groups
More interested in strengthening the Republic than furthering democracy
Aimed to clothe central authority with genuine power, esp. controlling tariffs, so U.S. could wrest satisfactory commercial treaties from foreign nations.
Strengthening the Central Gov’t (chart in book pg. 181)
Under Federal Constitution:
Firm union of people
2 votes in Senate for each state; representation by population in House.
Simple majority vote in Congress, subject to presidential veto
Laws executed by powerful president
Congress to regulate both foreign and interstate commerce
Extensive power in Congress to levy taxes
Federal courts, capped by Supreme Court
Amendment less difficult
Ample power to enforce laws by coercion of individuals and to some extent of states
French Revolution two political parties and their thoughts
Political camps: Jeffersonian Dem-Republicans and Hamilton’s Federalists
Time: During Washington’s 2nd term, foreign policy issues brought differences to a “fever pitch”
Info: At the start of the French Rev. Americans cheered on French because they thought it was the second chapter of their Revolution
oonly a few FEDERALISTS were against it at this time.
They thought it would promote change and bring mobocracy’
Jeffersonians thrilled
Reign of Terror changed people’s minds.
Lukewarm Federalists immediately became completely against revolution
Jeffersonians regretted bloodshed but thought that for freedom, a few thousand aristocratic heads was a cheap price
Bank of the United states- two parties/ppl and their thoughts
Hamilton vs. Jefferson
Hamilton: proposed Bank of U.S. as a capstone of the financial system and used Bank of England as his model, he believed that it WAS constitutional because what the Constitution did not forbid it permitted
Jefferson: stated that there was no specific authorization in the constitution for Bank of U.S. All powers not specifically granted to central government were reserved to states. States had the power to charter banks. Literal interpretation
Election of 1796
Federalists – Hamilton was the best known, BUT financial policies = unpopular
John Adams (Washington’s V.P.) ran instead. Found support in New England. WON
Democratic Republicans – Jefferson BECAME V.P. to Adams
Hamilton didn’t like Adams and created conspiracy with his cabinet
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Jeffersonians HATED Alien and Sedition Acts, if free speech and free press were gone, other constitutional guarantees would follow.
Jefferson secretly created a series of resolutions adopted by the Kentucky Legislature
Madison drafted similar, less extreme statement adopted by the Virginia Legislature
Both stressed the compact theory- that when fed gov’t formed the 13 sovereign states they agreed/entered on compact/ contract regarding jurisdiction
They resolutions chose nullification, refusal to accept act
No other state legislatures followed
Federalist states condemned because they said that people not sates, made a compact and it was up to the Supreme Court, not states, to nullify unconstitutional legislation
ESSAY QUESTION Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Jeffersonians HATED Alien and Sedition Acts, if free speech and free press were gone, other constitutional guarantees would follow.

Jefferson secretly created a series of resolutions adopted by the Kentucky Legislature
Madison drafted similar, less extreme statement adopted by the Virginia Legislature

Both stressed the compact theory- that when fed gov’t formed the 13 sovereign states they agreed/entered on compact/ contract regarding jurisdiction
They resolutions chose nullification, refusal to accept act
No other state legislatures followed
Federalist states condemned because they said that people not sates, made a compact and it was up to the Supreme Court, not states, to nullify unconstitutional legislation
Lousiana Purchase
In 1803, Napoleon decided to sell all of Louisiana because he lost the island of Santo Domingo, for which Louisiana was to be a source of food. He also didn't want Britain in control of Louisiana and could use the money for his wars in Europe. He hoped America would someday be able to rival Britain in the New World. Jefferson was split over the acquisition because it wasn't allowed in the constitution.
Marbury vs. Madison
1803 --The most important thing about this case, which John Marshall dismissed, is that it established the idea of judicial review by the Supreme Court and said who had the final authority in interpreting the Constitution. In the case, William Marbury sued to get his "midnight judgeship" back after the Federalists shelved him.
Embargo Act
Passed in 1807 under Jefferson. Forbade the export of all goods from the United States. After a ridiculous amount of smuggling and public anger, it was repealed in 1809. It was an attempt to one-up the maritime powers of France and Britain (who was impressing American sailors, and not in a good way, either) while trying to remain neutral and avoid War.
Monroe Doctrine
Born in 1823. Monroe declared that the era of colonization in the Americas had ended, and that no one could seize or acquire any more land . Directed mainly at Russia and foreign assets in the Caribbean. Even though they said it, no one cared or did anything about Latin and South America. A bold statement, it was and is only as powerful as the nation's armed forces. It was indicative of growing nationalist tendencies at the time.
War of 1812
Settled by the Treaty of Ghent in 1814, this war versus the British eventually settled in a draw. All land was returned to the rightful owner and fighting stopped. Nationalism peaked and with the ‘2nd war for American independence’ came realization that sectional disunity would not spell well for the country. It also showed the need for war heroes. The blockade placed by the British also increased manufacturing.
Anti-masonic party
Opposed influence and secrecy of Masonic Order
Potent Political force in NY and Middle Atlantic and any states in Election of 1832
Condemned long-standing secret societies
Anti-Jackson and protestant groups
Some of supporters went ot newly formed Whig party
First 3rdparty in presidential election
introduced important innovations to American politics, such as nominating conventions and the adoption of party platforms.
andrew jackson and his presidency- supporters where
War hero, defeated in presidental election of 1824, thought he was cheated by Clay and Adams
Supporters came from South and West
Defeated John Quincy Adams in Election of 1828
Marked ascendancy of the masses
Spoils System- rewarded political supporters with public office
Committed to Westward expansion, moved many Indians to reservations (Trail of Tears)
Opposed Bank of the United States, fought to bring it down, succeededi n 1836. US treasury went to “pet banks”
John Quincy Adams
Ascended through “corrupt bargain”
Irritable, tactless, and sarcastic
Successful Secretary of State, but poor President
First “minority President”
Nationalistic views
Urged construction of roads and canals, observatories, nat’l universities
Angered public, who were working hard for money
Adams tried to deal fairly with Indians, but public wanted the Western lands
Defeated by Jackson in Election of 1828
nullification crisis
Sparked by Tariff of Abominations
South resented tariffs because it had more exports and less industrialization
SC in particular did not like tariff, argued for nullification
Nullifiers believed state had right to disobey nat’l laws, Unionists opposed them
SC threatened secession from Union if Washington tried to force them to obey tariff
Jackson would not back down, dispatched military forces to SC, governor of SC also would not back down
Henry Clay engineered compromise that would reduce tariff by about 10% over a period of 8 years. Compromise Tariff of 1833 barely squeezed through Congres
However, also passed Force Bill, which authorized president to use army and navy to collect federal tariff duties if necessary
SC accepted compromise and nullified Force Bill, tempers cooled down
Election of 1824
Four main candidates- John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William H. Crawford, and Andrew Jackson
Jackson had strongest personal appeal especially in the West
Most popular votes, but failed to win majoriy of electoral vote
In deadlock, House of Reps determined president among top 3 candidates (Clay eliminated)
Clay was Speaker of the House, could throw election to anyone he chose
Clay hated Jackson, so he gave support to Adams, who then appointed him to Secretary of State
Jackson supporters were outraged at the “corrupt bargain”
Immigrants (German, Irish)
Immigrants (German, Irish)
Immigration in General
1840’s influx in immigration (~180,000+/yr) & ~240,000+ per yr. in the 1850’s
over 1.5 million Irish and nearly as many German
Came because Europe was running out of room
Population in Europe doubled during the nineteenth century
About as many people moved with in Europe as did cross the Atlantic
America benefited, but didn’t put them in motion, thus of the 60 million that came from Europe, approx. 25 million went elsewhere
America: “Land of freedom and opportunity”- freedom from aristocratic caste and state church; much land; “America letters” described low taxes, no compulsory military service, and “three meat meals a day”
Transoceanic steamships: immigrants could come in a matter of 10-12 days vs. 10-12 weeks
Though ships were overcrowded=death, however shorter trip made more endurable
Groaning under heavy hand of British overlords and potato virus= 2 million dead
“Black Forties”-Ireland’s greatest export was its population. Irish take place next to Jews and Africans as a dispersed people.
Swarmed larger seaboard cities (because too poor to go west): Boston and New York
More Irish lived in America than in Ireland
Scorned by “proper” Protestant Bostonians, who thought scruffy Irish Catholics a menace.
Barely literate, “Biddies” (Bridgets) took jobs as kitchen maids. “Paddies” (Patricks) pick-and-shovel drudgery on canals and railroads (where thousands died from disease and accidental explosions)
Hated by natives: “No Irish Need Apply” (abbrev. NINA)
Competition between Irish and Blacks, though Irish cool to abolitionist cause
Property ownership counted as a grand success (helped to improve “their lot”)
Attracted to Politics and controlled Tammany Hall in NY and police stations.
Even in U.S. Irish hated British, in politics they fired verbal volleys at London (“twisting the British lion’s tail”)
1.5 million+ German immigrants (~ same as Irish)
most were uprooted farmers or liberal political refugees (Carl Shurz)
Had modest amount of goods, situated in Mid-West (Wisconsin- est. farms)
Less potent politically because their strength was scattered
German contributions: The Conestoga wagon, the Kentucky rifle, and the Christmas tree.
Became embankment of isolationist sentiment in the upper Mississippi Valley.
Better educated on the whole than Americans, supported public schools, including their “kindergarten”
Stimulated art and music, and became foes of slavery
Settled in compact colonies to preserve their culture and language (dubbed “damned Dutchmen”)
Celebrated on Sabbath day with beer (which later became popular in U.S.)
Drinking habits of German and Irish spurred temperance advocates
tax supported schools 3 ppl important
In the Early years of the Republic they were seen as chiefly for paupers as mostly only poor children attended public schools
Eventually the wealthier classes supported tax-supported schools so that these children wouldn’t grow up to be “dangerous, ignorant rabble” armed with the vote
Horace Mann reformed the public school system by establishing:
Larger, better school houses
Higher teacher pay
Expanded Curriculum
Noah Webster (the Schoolmaster of the Republic) helped profoundly with his dictionary and his “reading lessons” read by millions of children in the 19th century
William H. McGuffey’s published grade school readers taught on lessons like morality, patriotism, and idealism
American Literature
Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reason- relied on reason rather than revelation[ Deism]
Americans were best known for borrowing and adapting the Euro. findings.
Washington Irving- first American to win international fame as a literary figure. He combined pleasing style with delicate humor.
James Fenimore Cooper- first American novelist, married in to a wealthy family, read an insipid book to his wife and was challenged to write a better one. His stories were meritorious and popular.
William Cullen Bryant – high quality poems, set a model for journalism.
Transcendentalism –every person possesses an inner light that can illuminate through higher truth.
Ralph Waldo Emerson- hailed as a poet and philosopher, caught the individual moods of the republic.
Thoreau- a poet, mystic and nonconformist. Wrote Walden and Civil Disobedience.
Walt Whitman- highly romantic, emotional, and unconventional. He handled sex with frankness.
Henry Wadsworth Longsfellow- had knowledge of European literature which inspired him.
Whittier- poems cried out against inhumanity, injustice and intolerance.
Emily Dickinson used simple rhyme schemes, yet themes of nature , love, death, and immortality.
Not all writers believed in human goodness- Poe had a terrible youth and his 13 year wife died and he feel in to a drunken decline.
Hawthorne [Scarlet Letter] and Melville [ Moby Dick] wrote about allegory of good and evil.
abolitionists and northern opponents
Abolition first sprouted from the Quakers and some wanted to transport backs back to Africa. [American Colonization Society wanted to send them to Liberia]
In 1830’s abolition took new energy and momentum and they unchained the slaves in the West Indies.
As well as the second great awakening flames the hearts and spirits of the sin of slavery.
Finney Weld set up a 14 day debate on slavery with the Beechers about preaching the antislavery gospel.
Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin
William Lloyd Garrison published his antislavery newspaper. Wrote The Liberator for slave emancipation and suggested radical changes that were unrealistic.
Fredrick Douglas- tried to stop the blight of slavery and was backed by the Free Soil party.
Sojourner Truth- fought for black emancipation and women’s rights.
Many abolitionists were unpopular and led to tongue lashings by the extreme abolitionists and gangs broke out.
election of 1844
Texas was the leading issue
Polk supported annexation of Texas, as did Southern Democrats
Hencry Clay and Whigs against expansin because it would give more land for slavery
After Polk won, lame duck Pres. Tyler annexed Texas in 1845 through joint resolution
Election showed thoughts of manifest destiny
Clay tried to appeal to both North and South
Issues in election were:
Internal Improvements
Fugitive Slave Law
1850: a.k.a. “the Bloodhound Bill”
Opposition in North
Fleeing slaves could not testify in their own behalf, and they were denied a jury by trial.
The Federal commissioner who handled the case of a fugitive would received $5 if the runaway was freed and $10 if not (a bribe)
Northerners who aided the slave to escape were liable to heavy fines and jail sentences, or even ordered to join the slave-catchers
Sparked north to work harder
Election of 1852
Democratic: second “dark-horse” candidate, unrenowned lawyer-politician, Franklin Pierce from New Hampshire
Pierce: weak and indecisive, survived without real distinction in the Mexican War. Though he had no enemies. Pro-southern northern. Platform: finality of Compromise of 1850, Fugitive Slave Law, and all.
Whigs: Winfield Scott (military hero)-manner bordered on haughtiness. Praised Compromise of 1850 less enthusiastically as the Democrats.
Slavery and sectionalism soft-pedaled. The election was a dull and childish attack on personalities. Democrats ridiculed Scott’s pomposity; Whigs ridiculed Pierce’s drinking.
Whig party was split.
Antislavery Whigs of the North: endorsed Scott as their nominee, but didn’t like his platform.
Southern Whigs: doubted Scott’s loyalty to the Compromise of 1850 and esp. the Fugitive Slave Laws. (accepted the platform, but didn’t like the candidate)
Pierce won in a landslide. (254-42 electoral & 1,601,117- 1,385,453 popular)
marked end of the disorganized Whig party and later its complete death, rise of national and sectional parties.
Panic of 1857
AKA the Financial Crash of 1857
Late 1857
Not as bad economically as panic of 1937
Crash helped by California gold which inflated the currency
Speculation in land and railroads
Five thousand businesses failed within a year
Unemployment/hunger "Bread or Death"
North, including grain growers, was hard hit
South had king cotton and came out really well
Northerners wanted free land of 160 acres from public domain
Acreage should be given to pioneers as a reward for the risk of developing it
Eastern Industrialists opposed for fear for loss of underpaid workers
South opposed because slave labor would not work on 160 acres
Free soilers could have filled up land and tipped balance against south quicker
In 1860, Congress passed homestead act that made public land available for 25 cents an acre
President Buchanan veto with Southern sympathizers
Clamor for higher tariff rates in north
Several months before, Tariff of 1857 lowered taxes by 20% - lowest since War of 1812
Manufacturers (who did badly) blame the tariff for misfortunes
Panic of 1857 gave two surefire reasons for the Republican party in the election of 1860
People who wanted to leave the Union
Threated to leave Union if Lincoln came to office
Southerners supported because they believed they would be unopposed by leaving the Union
Dred Scott
Black slave who lived with master for five years in Illinois and Wisconsin territory
Sued for freedom (with support of abolitionists) based on residence on free soil
Supreme Court could have thrown out of court based on the fact that a slave can't sue
They did admit it as a court case and ruled that Dred was private property and could be taken into any territory
Government couldn't take him away from owner because of 5th admendment rights of private property
Court went on further with Missouri Compromise banning slavery north of 36* 30'
Preston Brooks and Charles Sumner
On May 22, 1856, Congressman Preston S. Brooks (of South Carolina) approached Sumner (of Massachusetts) and proceeded to beat him with an 11oz. cane until it broke.
Victim fell to floor unconscious
Several Senators refrained from interfering in this affair
Sumner force to go to Europe on leave (leaving his chair empty for 2 1/2 years) for treatment
Massachusetts reelected Sumner while South Carolina reelected Brooks
Brooks sent new canes by admirers
This clash symbolic of North-South clash
Election of 1856
Democrats picked James Buchanan (a Pennsylvania lawyer, also a bachelor)
Republicans picked Captain John C. Fremont (a Pathfinder of the West, Roman Catholic, llegitimate cihld born in Savannah, Georgia)
Democrats wanted popular sovereign to decide slavery
Republicans wanted to get rid of slavery
Democrats won 174 to 114, rather impressive for a new party against slavery
Compromises- why failed in 1861
Crittenden Compromise to ban slavery north of 36*30' but south of line it was federally protected in all territories (and ones to be acquired like Cuba)
Slavery supporters guarenteed full rights in southern territories as long as they were territories regardless of the majority thought
Lincoln firmly opposed this compromise
Compromise failed because Republicans would have won control of Congress and put up tarriffs and eventually banned slavery
South believed north would not oppose their leaving
Women during the Civil War
Civil War opened new opportunities for women
Women took some of the jobs vacated by their male counterparts
In D.C. 500 women clerks “gov’t girls” became government workers
Demand in industry drew countless women into industrial employment
Industrially the ratio of female: male had been 1:4, was now 1:3
More than 400 women posed as male soldiers
Some took on dangerous spy missions
Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell- America’s 1st female physician, helped organize U.S. Sanitary Commision
Clara Barton and Dorthea Dix helped transform nursing into a respected profession
Sally Tompkins ran a Richmond infirmary for wounded Confederate soldiers and was awarded the rank of Captain by Jefferson Davis
Other women of the N. and S. organized the raising of millions for relief of widows, orphans, and disabled soldiers
Jefferson Davis
A tense, humorless, legalistic and stubborn man
An eloquent orator and able administrator but did not enjoy real personal popularity and was often combative with his congress
Somewhat imperious and inclined to defy rather than lead public opinion
Suffered acutely from neuralgia and other nervous disorders; overworked himself w/ details
Union Blockade
On April 19 and 27, Lincoln called a blockade that was leaky at first but soon clamped down tight with a watertight patrol of 3500 miles of coast
Simplified by concentrating on principal ports and inlets
Soon choked off the Southern supplies and eventually shattered Southern morale
The blockade was never fully effective and therefore the naval powers of the world had trouble giving it complete recognition
Most successful blockade runners were swift, gray-painted steamers
Virginia (Merrimack)- reconditioned former wooden warship destroyed two wooden ships of the Union navy and threatened the entire Union blockade fleet
"Rich man's war but a poor man's fight"
1863- Congress passed a federal conscription law for the first time in the U.S.
Provisions were grossly unfair to the poor, rich could hire substitutes to go in their places or purchase exemption outright by paying $300.
The War was being fought for the way of life of rich northerners but was being fought by the poor men not wealthy enough to get out of it.
Although, 90% of the Union troops were volunteers, since social and patriotic pressures to enlist were strong
Northern Peace Democrats
after death of Stephen Douglas, northern Democrats split into two groups: Northern Peace Democrats and Northern War Democrats
against the Civil War, the radical peace Democrats called Copperheads
Copperheads openly obstructed the war, attacked draft, Lincoln, and emancipation
Clement L Vallandigham-leading Copperhead, tried for treason and banished to south, fled to Canada and tried to run of governor of Ohio, failed
nominated Gen McClellan for president in 1864, but could not beat combined War Democrats and Republicans
Peninsula Campaign
McClellan commander of Army of the Potomac
Slow to act, but eventually decided to attack Richmond
decided to attack from water, would have to move up the Peninsula toward Richmond
Stalled for a month at Yorktown by fake Confederate cannons
Soon McClellan came into sight of Richmond, but Lincoln ordered McClellan's reinforcements to chase Jackson instead of aid McClellan
McClellan stalled in front of Richmond and Lee launched a counterattack which became the Seven Days Battles, Union forces pushed back to the ocean
if war had ended there, slavery would probably have not been abolished
Union strategy now became total war
Emancipation Proclamation
September 1862, shortly after the Battle of Antietam, just enough of a victory to justify the Proclamation
freed slaves in South, where Lincoln had no control, but not in Border States, where he did have control
did cause thousands of slaves in south to escape to the north, helped strip already rundown plantations
strengthened moral cause of Union Army, raised morale
Lee moved into Maryland, hoped to gain support from foreign powers with a victory on Union soil and bring border states into Confederacy
McClellan restored as commander of Potomac, Union troops found Lee's plans wrapped around cigars, should have given Mac the ultimate advantage
September 17, 1862-Mac halted Lee at Antietam
bloodiest battle, ended in military draw though Lee retreated because of lack of supplies
McClellan fired again for not pursuing Lee
stopped foreign powers from helping Confederates, gave Lincoln a chance to issue the Emancipation
George McClellan
drilled troops well, whipped army into shape, loved by his men, but very conceited
slow to act, always complained that he didn't have enough reinforcements
in part, his complaining came from poor military intelligence, his spies almost always overestimated size of Confed army
William Sherman
was put in charge of the conquest of Georgia
was ruthless, captured Atlanta in September 1864 and burned it in November 1864
then he left his supply base and made his army live off the country as he marched toward Savannah on the coast
used tactics of total war, completely devastated Georgia, destroyed all supplies and mangled railroads, factories, and anything else they could find
after seizing Savannah, Sherman moved north, Lee was then caught between Sherman and Grant
Johnson's Impeachment
never earned the trust of the north or the confidence of the south
radicals thought he would support them, but he didn't:
Reconstruction Proclamation: some leading confederates were denied citiizenship, right to vote, etc.; Confederate debt was done away with; and southern ratification of the 13th ammendment was required.
Johnson vetoed Republican-passed bills (extension of Freedman's Bureau; Civil Rights Bill)
Republicans gained pow in Congress
by 1886 election, Johnson tried to lower the amount of Republicans in Congress ('Round the Circle speeches')
1867-->Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act (president had to get permission from the Senate in order to remove appointees approved by the Senate)
Johnson ignores Tenure Office Act-->dismissed Stanton in 1868
president is impeached
Decision: Tenure Act was unconstitutional and president followed the constitution-->acquitted of charges in 1868
Ku Klux Klan
"Invisible Empire of the South"
started in Tennessee 1866
scared Blacks into not voting or seeking jobs
Economy of South after the Civil War
"scalawags"-->accused of plundering Southern treasuries.
"carpetbaggers"-->northerners seeking pow. and profit in now-desolate south
south was corrupted
14th Amendment
Same idea as Civil Right's Bill:
Black Citizenship
if citizenship denied, then its representatives in the Electoral College were lowered
former confederates denied right to hold federal or state office
federal debt is gauranteed while Conferate debt is denied.
Republicans agreed that south wouln't be admitted into the Union without the ratification of the 14th amendment
--a requirement of the Reconstruction Act of March 2, 1867 (divided south into military zones--had to ratify 14th(black citizenship) and 15th (black male suffrage) amendments.

Deck Info