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Med Term Ch 13


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abdominal sonogram
abdominal ultrasound image of the urinary tract, including the kidney and bladder
adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD)
inherited condition of multiple cysts that gradually form in the kidney, causing destruction of normal tissue that leads to renal failure; diagnosed in adults presenting with hypertension, kidney enlargement, and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs)
albumin (alb), protein
chemical test used to detect the presence of albumin in the urine
albuminuria, proteinuria
presence of albumin in the urine, such as occurs in renal disease or in normal urine after heavy exercise
drug that relieves pain
drug that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms
drug that relieves spasms
absence of urine formation
presence of bacteria in the urine
chemical test used to detect bilirubin in the urine; seen in gallbladder and liver disease
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
blood test to determine the level of urea in the blood; a hugh BUN indicates the inability of one or both kidneys to excrete urea
Bowman capsule
top part of the nephron that encloses the glomerulus
calices or calyces
ducts that carry urine from the nephrons to the renal pelvis (kalyx = cup of a flower)
continent urostomy
an internal reservoir (pouch) constructed from a segment of intestine that diverts urine through an opening (stoma) that is brought through the abdominal wall; a valve is created internally to prevent leakage, and the patient empties the pouch by catheter
outer part of the kidney (cortex = bark)
waste product of muscle metabolism, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in urine
creatinine clearance testing
measurements of the level of creatinine in the blood and in a 24 hr urine specimen to determine the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidneys
creatinine, serum
test to determine the level of creatinine in the blood; useful in assessing kidney function
creatinine, urine
test to determine the level of creatinine in the urine
cyst/o, vesic/o
bladder or sac
inflammation of the bladder
examination of the bladder using a rigid or flexible cystoscope
drug that increases the secretion of urine
painful urination
involuntary discharge of urine, usually referring to a lack of bladder control
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
procedure using ultrasound outside the body to bombard and disintegrate a stone within; most commonly used to treat urinary stones above the bladder
Foley catheter
indwelling catheter inserted through the urethra and into the bladder that includes a collection system allowing urine to be drained into a bag; the catheter can remain in place for an extended period
glomerulus (small ball)
form of nephritis involving the glomerulus
small, ball-shaped cluster of capillaries located at the top of each nephron
gluc/o, glucos/o, glyc/o
glucose (sugar)
chemical test used to detect sugar in the urine; most often used to screen for diabetes (glucose = sugar)
glucosuria, glycosuria
glucose (sugar) in the urine
presence of blood in the urine
method of removing impurities by pumping the patient's blood through a dialyzer, the specialized filter of the artificial kidney machine (hemodialyzer)
indented opening in the kidney where vessels enter and leave
pooling of urine in dilated areas of the renal pelvis and calices of one or both kidneys caused by an obstructed outflow of urine
involuntary discharge of urine or feces
intracorporeal lithotripsy
method of destroying stones within the urinary tract using discharges of electrical energy that are transmitted to a probe within a flexible endoscope; most commonly used to pulverize bladder stones
intravenous pyelogram (IVP), intravenous urogram (IVU)
x-ray image of the urinary tract obtained after an iodine contract medium has been injected into the bloodstream; the contrast passes through the kidney and may reveal an obstruction, evidence of trauma, etc
ket/o, keton/o
ketone bodies
ketone bodies, ketone compounds
acetone, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid; products of metabolism that appear in the urine from the body's abnormal utilization of carbohydrates, such as occurs in uncontrolled diabetes or starvation
chemical tests used to detect the presence of ketone bodies in the urine; positive test indicates that fats are being used by the body instead of carbohydrates, which occurs during starvation or an uncontrolled diabetic state
presence of ketone bodies in the urine
kidney biopsy (Bx), renal biopsy (Bx)
removal of kidney tissue for pathologic examination
kidney dialysis
methods of filtering impurities from the blood, replacing the function of one or both kidneys lost in renal failure
kidney transplantation, renal transplantation
transfer of a kidney from the body of one person (donor) to another (recipient)
two structures located on each side of the lumbar region that filter blood and secrete impurities, forming urine
kidneys, ureters, bladder (KUB)
abdominal x-ray image of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder; typically used as a scout film before obtaining an intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
meatus (opening)
inner part of the kidney
microscopic findings
microscopic identification of abnormal constituents in the urine (eg. red blood cells, white blood cells, and casts); reported per high- or low-power field (hpf or lpf)
nephr/o, ren/o
excision of a kidney
inflammation of the kidney
presence of a renal stone or stones
incision into the kidney for the removal of stones
micrscopic functional units of the kidney, comprised of kidney cells and capillaries, each of which is capable of forming urine
suture of an injured kidney
degenerative disease of the renal tubules
incision into the kidney
chemical test to determine the presence of bacteria in the urine
urination at night
nocturnal enuresis
bed-wetting during sleep
noncontinent ileal conduit
removal of a portion of the ileum to use as a conduit to which the ureters are attached at one end; the other end is brought through an opening (stoma) created in the abdomen; urine drains continually into an external appliance (bag); noncontinent indicat
scanty production of urine
orthotopic bladder, neobladder
bladder constructed from portions of intestine connected to the urethra, allowing "natural" voiding
peritoneal dialysis
method of removing impurities using the peritoneum as the filter; a catheter inserted in the peritoneal cavity delivers cleansing fluid (dialysate) that is washed in and out in cycles
measure of the acidity or alkalinity of urine
condition of excessive urination
renal pelvis (basin)
inflammation of the renal pelvis
surgical reconstruction of the renal pelvis
presence of white cells in the urine, usually indicating infection
renal angiogram, renal arteriogram
x-ray image of the renal artery obtained after injecting contract material into a catherter in the artery
renal pelvis
basin-like portion of the ureter within the kidney
renal tubule
stem portion of the nephron
urologic endoscope inserted through the urethra to resect (cut and remove) lesions of the bladder, urethra, or prostate
retrograde pyelogram (RP), retrograde urogram
x-ray image of the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis obtained after contrast medium has been injected up to the kidney by way of a small catheter passed through a cystoscope; used to detect the presence of stones, obstruction, etc
scout film
plain-film x-ray image obtained to detect and obvious pathology before further imaging (eg. a KUB before an IVP)
specific gravity (SpGr)
measure of the concentration or dilution of urine
stent placement
use of a device (stent) to hold open vessels or tubes (eg. an obstructed ureter)
straight catheter
a type of catheter that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder to relieve urinary retention or to collect a sterile specimen of urine for testing; the catheter is removed immediately after the procedure
stress urinary incontinence (SUI)
involuntary discharge of urine with coughing, sneezing, and/or strained exercise
suprapubic catheter
indwelling catheter inserted directly in the bladder through an abdominal incision above the pubic bone that includes a collection system that allows urine to be drained into a bag; used in patients requiring long-term catheterization
ur/o, urin/o
waste product formed in the liver, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in urine
uremia, azotemia
excess urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood caused by kidney failure
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder
ureteropelvic junction
point of connection between the renal pelvis and the ureter
single canal that carries urine to the outside of the body
urethral meatus
opening in the urethra to the outside of the body
urethral stenosis
narrowed condition of the urethra
inflammation of the urethra
inflammation of the urethra and bladder
urinalysis (UA)
physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of the urine
urinary bladder
sac that holds the urine
urinary catherterization
methods of placing a tube into the bladder to drain or collect urine
urinary diversion
creation of a temporary or permanent diversion of the urinary tract to provide a new passage through which urine exits the body; used to treat defects or diseases (eg. bladder cancer)
urinary retention
retention of urine resulting from an inability to void (urinate) naturally because of spasm or obstruction
urinary tract infection (UTI)
invasion of pathogenic organisms (commmonly bacteria) in the urinary tract, especially the urethra and bladder; symptoms include dysuria, urinary frequency, and malaise
fluid produced by the kidneys, containing water and waste products
urine culture and censitivity (C&S)
isolation of a urine specimen in a culture medium to propagate the growth of microorganisms; organisms that grow in the culture are identified, as are drugs to which they are sensitive
urine occult blood
chemical test for the presence of kidden blood in the urine resulting from red blood cell hemolysis; indicates bleeding in the kidney (occult = hidden)
chemical test used to detect bile pigment in the urine; increased amounts are seen in gallbladder and liver disease
urologic endoscopic surgery
use of specialized endoscopes (eg. resectoscope) within the urinary tract to perform various surgical procedures, such as resection of a tumor, repair of an obstruction, stone retrieval, placement of a stent, etc
voiding cystourethrogram (VCU or VCUG)
x-ray image of the bladder and urethra obtained during urination (voiding = urinating)

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