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Drug Index


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Bronchodilator;smooth muscle relaxant.
Effective for relief of bronchospasm in asthmatics, chronic bronchitis and emphysema.Side effects include:drug-induced seizures, tachycardia, nausea, circulatory failure, and respriatory arrest.Increase dose by 50-100% with heavy smokers as smoking increases body clearance of theophylline. Caffeine intake may increase side effects. Hold if Tachy.
Monitor VS closely, esp heart rate and rhythm.
PO/IV loading dose-5mg/kg
PO/IV maintenance: non-smoker 0.4mg/kg/hr(IV is continuous, PO divided dose q6h
LOVENOX SC/Low molecular weight heprin

Anticoagulator. Low molecular weigh heparin with anti-thrombotic properties, Does not afffect PT. (Does affect thrombin time, TT, and activated thromboplastin tme ,aPTT, up to 1.8 time the control value.
Used to prevent DVT, treatment of DVT and PE, and management of Acute Coronary syndrome. Side effects include:angioedema,pain and inflammation at injection site, hemmorrhage, ecchymoses. Hold if S/S of bleeding, thrombocytopenia (platelet count <100,000mm3.
Dose: Prevention DVT (THR, TKR)30mg bid sc
Prevention DVT (ABD surgery) 40mg qd
Treatment DVT, PE 1mg/kg q12h(monitor anti-Xa activity to determine appropriate dose.
Humalog (insulin lispro)
Hormone/antidiabetic . Ultra rapid acting. Used to treat type I DM, Type II DM that can’t be controlled by diet and oral drugs. Side effects; allergy-local reactions at injection site-redness, swelling, itching, hypoglycemia, anaphylaxis. Use cautiously with patients who have hypo/hyperthyroidism. Monitor blood glucose levels and hold if normal or low. Keep close eye for signs of hypoglycemic reactions.
Dose: refer to sliding scale
Onset: 15-30min
Peak: 30-90 min
Duration: 3-5hours
Give 5 min before or with meal.
Morphine Sulfate (MS contin)
Narcotic (opiate) agonist. Binds with same receptors as endogenous opiod peptides. Used to control severe pain, acute and chronic. Also used to relieve dyspnea of acute left ventricular failure and pulmonary edema and pain of MI. Side effects include: depressed respirations, pruitus, constipation, nausea and bradycardia. Withhold medication if resp<12 and /or abnormal pupil contraction.
Dose:2.5-15mg/70kg of body weight in 4-5 ml of water for injection administered over 4-5 min
Adrenal corticosteroid used to reduce inflammation. Side effects: muscle weakness, insomnia, N/V, delayed wound healing, hypokalemia, may raise blood glucose levels, Candida.
Dose:Individual. Depends on severity of condition and patients response. Give before 9am to mimic normal peak corticosteroid blood levels. Give with food to reduce gastric irritation.Withdraw drug slowly to avoid adrenal insufficiency. Initial dose is 5-60mg/day
Toprol (Metoprolol)
Beta-blocker (β1-selective adrenergic blocker), antihypertensive. Reduces heart rate and cardiac output at rest/ exercise. Used to treat HTN. Angina, XL used to treat CHF. Side Effects: Fever, headache, sore throat, fatigue, bradycardia, SOB palpitation, CHF, cardiac arrest, diarrhea, constipation. Hold if HR is <60 and systolic BP <90
Dose: HTN- intially, 100mg/day PO in single or divided dose. Gradually increase at weekly intervals. Maintenance dose is 100-450mg/day

BETA-AGONIST/ANTI CHOLINERGIC BRONCHODILATOR. Albuterol causes bronchodilation and vasodilation. Ipratropium causes bronchodilation and inhibits secretion from serous and seromucous glands lining the nasal mucosa.
Used to treat bronchospasm with COPD patients who require more than a single bronchodilator. Side effects; restlessness, anxiety, fear, CNS stimulation,Cardiac arrhythmias,sweating,dizziness,pallor, flushing, nausea, increased blood glucose levels.
Not for use during an acute attack
Dose; usual adult dose 2 inhalations 4 times per day

Fluoroquinolone. Interferes with DNA replication in susceptible bacteria preventing replication. Used to treat infections caused by susceptible gram negative bacteria, including K.pneumoniae. side effects; headache, nausea, diarrhea, elevated BUN and creatinine, fever and rash.
Dose PO 500-750 mg q12h
IV 200-400mg q12h infused over 60min. Dilute in NS or D5W
Narcotic (opiate)agonist, similar to morphine but action is more prompt and prolonged. Used to provide analgesia and sedation. Contraindicated with patients who have received MAO inhibitors within 14d. Use cautiously with COPD and other respiratory problems. Side effects; sedation, dizziness, nausea, respiratory depression, cardiac arrest.
ETOH and other CNS depressants potentiate effects. Hold if Respirations are depressed to dangerously low level.
Patch dose-intial dose is 25mcg/h q3d. If already on opiods see package insert for conversions.

Dopaminergic-blocking agent. Stimulates motility of upper GI tract withour stimulating gastric, biliary or pancreatic secretions.Relaxes pyloric sphincter, which with combined increased motility accelerates gastric emptying. Used to relieve symptoms of acute and recurrent diabetic gastroparesis, GERD, (parenteral;used to prevent N/V assoc. with chemo)ost-operative N/V. side effects include; restlessness, drowsiness, fatigue, extrapyramidal reaction-parkinsonism-like reactions-nausea, diarrhea. Hold if exhibiting extrapyramidal reactions and call MD.( Keep diphenhydramine injection readily available in case reactions occur (50mg IM))
Monitor diabetic patients, arrange for alteration in insuline dose or timing if diabetic control is compromised by alterations in timing of food absorption.
DOSE10-15mg PO up to 4/day 30 min before meal. Don't use longer than 12wk.
gastroparesis- 10mg PO 30 min before each meal and hs for 2-8wk

Beta-lactam antibiotic. Contains the semisynthetic piperacillin (broad spectrum)and the beta-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam. This two-drug combo has antibiotic effect against extremely broad spectrum of gram-positive, gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria. Used to treat nosocomial or community-acquired pneumonia. Side effects include, diarrhea, constiation, pseudomembranous colitis. Monitor closely the first 30min after initiation of infusion for signs of hypersensitivity.
Dose: 4.5g q6h, infused over 30min for 7-10d.
Protonix (pantoprazole sodium)
Proton pump inhibitor. Suppresses gastric acid secretion, by inhibiting the acid pump in parietal cells. Used to treat GERD. Side Effects: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, insomnia and rash.
Dose: 40mg PO daily for maintenance healing of erosive esophagitis. Upt o 240mg/day PO or IV has been used for severe hypersecretory syndromes.

Anticholinergic,anti-muscarinic & bronchodilator.
Competitevely antagonistic at muscarinic receptor sites;causes smooth muscle relaxation, leading to bronchodilation. used for long-term once daily maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with COPD. Side effects include, dry mouth, sinusitis, upper respiratory tract infection, blurred vision, candidiasis. Withhold drug if S/S of angioedema
Dose inhale the contents of one capsule once daily using hand held inhaler.
instruct pt to eshale deeply, then breathe in deeply while inhaling med, hold breath for 10 sec, exhale slowly. rinse mouth with water.

Opiod agonist(phenanthrene). Used to relieve moderate to severe pain, acute and chronic pain. Side effects include;light-headedness, dizziness, sedation,N/V, constipation. Major hazards are respiratory depression, apnea, circulatory depression, respiratory arrest, shock, cardiac arrest. Closely watch patient for signs of respiratory depression and hold medication if resp. low.
Dose2-4mg q4-6h: >4mg may be needed for severe pain.

Benzodiazepine. Used to relieve and manage anxiety and insomnia.Parenteral use also produces sedation, decreases recall of events and acute ETOH withdrawal. Side effects;mild drowsiness, sedation, depression, lethargy, apathy, fatique, light-headedness, disorientation, anger, hostility, confusion,dry mouth, nausea, CV collapse.If given IV keep equipment to maintain patent airway nearby. Hold if overly sedated or depressed respirations.
Dose: 2-6mg/day; range, 1-10mg/day in divided doses

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