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what are the main components of the circulatory system?
heart, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins, blood.
which muscle group combination permits inspiration? a)diaphragm, abdominal complex, b)internal intercostals, diaphagm, c) external intercostals, internal intercostals d)external intercostals, diaphragm, internal intercostals (interchondral part).
d) when contracted the muscles of inspiration increase the dimensions of the thoracic cavity, causing a decrease in the air pressure surrounding the lungs. Air flows through the respiratory tract, inflating the lungs.
tiny vessels with thin wallst hat facilitate the exchange of materials from blood to cell and vice-versa.
what is the turn called in the upper right large intestine?
hepatic flexure
how long is the jejunum?
eight feet or so.
What are the functions of blood and circulatory system
1. provide nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, oxygen) and hormones to cells in the body, remove wastes(carbon dioxide, ammonia) from cells of body. 2. regulate temperature, extracellular fluid volume and concentration, 3. infection resistance, 4. clotting
how long is the ileum?
twelve feet or so
What happens in the pulmonary circuit?
deoxygenated blood is pumped from the right ventricle into the pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries. It is transported through smaller vessels to capillaries surrounding alveoli, where it is reoxygenated and waste carbon dioxide removed. Then returns via pulmonary venous system to left atrium. Relatively low pressure system.
what happens in the systemic circuit?
oxygenated arterial blood is transported to the peripheral tissues where it provides oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. blood is pumped at high pressure from the left ventricle to the aorta (largest artery of body), then to all other parts of the body.
what does the superior vena cava do?
carries deoxygenated blood from the head, neck, and upper limbs into the right atrium.
what does the inferior vena cava do?
collects deoxygenated blood from the lower limbs, pelvis and abdominal wall and empties into the right atrium
where is the apex of the heart located?
fifth intercostal space, about eight cm from midline.
what are the three layers of the heart wall?
endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium.
what is the endocardium composed of?
endothelium and fibrous tissue
what does the endocardium do?
lines all of the compartments and valves of the heart. Continous with innermost layer of arteries and veins. the CONDUCTING SYSTEM is within the endocardium.
where does the left coronary artery arise?
posterior to the pulmonary trunk where it then divides into two artieries about a centimetre later.
what two arteries does the left coronary artery branch into?
circumflex and *anterior* descending interventricular artery
where does the circumflex artery continue?
upward to the left and then posteriorly in the groove behind the left atrium where it reaches the right coronary artery.
What do the circumflex and right coronary arteries form
an anastomosis (network)
where does the largest portion of deoxygenated venous blood from the heart muscle drain to?
through the great and middle posterior cardiac veins, which travel in the same interventricular grooves as the coronary arteries. they empty via the coronary sinus into the right atrium.
what are some diseases of the vascular system?
degenerative changes due to agin, blood pressure disorders, inflammation and varicose veins, heart attacks.
which is the most common cause of death in north america?
heart attack
what is heart disease commonly caused by?
inadequate coronary blood supply, occlusion of one or more coronary arteries
what is artherosclerosis?
deposition of lipid material on the inner lining of the arterial wall, which causes occlusion of the coronary arteries.
Name a third structure that the right atria gets blood from
coronary sinus, which drains blood from the heart muscle itself.
What is part of the inner lining of the right atria made up of?
smooth continuation of the veins which supply it.
what is the depression in the walls of the atria called?
fossa ovalis
what are the horizontal ridges of muscles around the sac-like appendage of the right atrium?
pectinate muscles.
what is the sac-like appendage?
what does the right ventricle do?
pumps deoxygenated blood through the pulmonary valve to the pulmonary trunk.
what is laryngitis?
swelling or inflammation of the mucous membrane of the vocal cords.
Where is the trachea located?
extends distally from the larynx C6 – T5, wher divides into right and left mainstem bronchi.
Describe the structure of the trachea
several C-shaped cartilages, together with fibrous and elastic tissue – NOT continuous posteriorly. completed by fibroelastic membrane loosely joined to esophagus (posterior to trachea.)
where does the trachea divide?
deep to the sternal angle of the sternum T5,T6.
Describe the bronchii
right and left mainstem bronchus provide passageways to right and left lungs. right is the wider branch – continuation of the trachea, whereas left branch is narrower and branches off at a sharper angle. Usually, inhaled material ends up in the right lung.
what are the thin walled sacs within the lungs where gaseous exchange occurs?
what surrounds the alveoli?
rich network of blood capillaries
What separates the capillaries from the gases in the alveoli?
one or two cell layers, thus carbon dioxide diffuses from capillaries, and oxygen is taken up.
What is the top of the pleura called where the lung enters?
What happens if the negative pressure is lost?
collapsed lung, such as in a pneumothorax, where the pleural cavity is peirced and equalizes pressure with the atmospheric air.
what is inspiration
inhalation of air including oxygen into the lungs
what is expiration
exhalation of air containing increased amounts of carbon dioxide.
where (again) is the specialized conducting tissue situated?
below the endocardium in the heart wall.
What is required for inspiration?
active contraction of muscles to increase the volume of the thoracic cage. Increased volume creates decrease in pressure within lungs, partial vacuum that pulls air in through the nose and mouth.
How much does the diaphragm contract and flatten?
about ½ - 1 inch. Increased height of the thoracic cavity is what causes the volume increase and decrease in pressure that pulls the air in.
what happens with an increase in exercise and workload?
need rfor larger volumes of gaseous exchange
Which muscles facilitate increased volume of respiratory capacity?
intercostal muscles.
During vigorous exercise, which other muscles assist in increasing force and rapidity of inspiration?
accessory respiratory muscles, including the sternocleidomastoid and the scalenes. If the upper limbs are fixed (esp. in abduction) pectoralis major and minor and serratus anterior and latissimus dorsi also aid respiration. Used for “getting wind back”
What is “getting wind back”?
maximal inspiration, including use of the accessory respiratory muscles.
How does expiration change during active breathing?
intercostals help, contraction of abdominal wall assists, especially in forceful expiration during coughing or sneezing.
the _________ is the principle muscle for respiration
the nasal cavity is divided into right and left chambers by the _________
nasal septum
the largest cartilage of the larynx, the _________ cartilage forms the hard bump on the front of the neck known as the adams apple
which of the following is a false statement? a) the term respiration can be used in reference to ventilation (breathing) or oxygen utilization by body cells b) the incoming (inhaled) air that contacts the pulmonary alveoli is unchanged from that which su
b) inhaled air is cleansed, moistened, and warmed prior to its arrival at the pulmonary alveoli.
which is not a paranasal sinus? a)palatine sinus b)ethmoidal sinus c)sphenoidal sinus d) frontal sinus e) maxillary sinus
a)there are four paranasal sinuses, each named according to the bone in which it is located. hence we have ethmoidal, sphenoidal, frontal and maxillary sinuses.
describe the bundle of his
bundle of conducting fibres which divides into right and left bundle branches. travel down sides of interventricular septum. pass their impulses to the network of purkinje fibres
purkinje fibres
continuous with myocardial fibres of the ventricles.
how does the contraction proceed?
from apex of heart to base, squeezing blood from ventricle into major artery of systemic or pulmonary circulation.
what can disruption of the conduction system give rise to?
abnormal hearth rhythm (ventricles and atria beating independentlyÂ…)
the ________ are large chambers that compose the bulk of the heart
________ are irregular ridges on the inner surface of the ventricles
trabeculae carnae
the ________ carries blood from the left ventricle into the systemic circuit
which of the following vessels transports oxygen poor blood? a) aorta b) pulmonary arteries c) renal arteries d)coronary arteries
b) pulmonary arteries
where is the urethral ofirice located?
what is the turn called in the upper left large intestine?
splenic flexure
what happens in the jejunum and ileum?
most of the absorption of nutrients.
blood from the coronary circulation directly enters a) the inferior vena cava b) the superior vena cava c) the right atrium d) the left atrium
c) the right atrium receives venous blood from the superior and inferior vena cavae and the coronary sinus, which collects venous blood from coronary circulation, prior to delivering it into the right atrium
which of the following does not arise from the aortic arch? a) brachiocephalic trunk b)left coronary artery c) left common carotid artery d) basilar artery
b) arising from the ascending aorta, the coronary arteries feed directly into the myodcardium of the heart to ensure a rich blood supply to the cardiac muscles.
where is the pericardium located?
thoracic cavity, between the lungs, and has strong attachments to both the sternum, diaphragm, and large blood vessels
what are the layers of the pericardium
the fibrous pericardium, and the parietal and visceral pericardium layers, which surround a cavity filled with serous fluid
describe the fibrous pericardium
strong fibrous tissue - functions to keep the active and slippery heart in the correct location in the mediastinum
what is the pericardial cavity
double layer of serous tissue surrounding a cavity, just inside the fibrous pericardium layer
describe the inner pericardial layer
The inside of the double layer surrounds the heart and lubricates it with specialized serous fluid called pericardial fluid, and is know as the visceral pericardium or epicardium. This layer of tissue folds on itself near the aortic arch to become the parietal pericardium. Together these two layers form a sac, which is filled with serous (pericardial) fluid secreted from the serous membranes. This fluid-filled sac is called the pericardial cavity, and it provides additional padding and lubrication for the heart.
describe the gastrointestinal system
continuous pathway of hollow tubes that provides for the intake, passage, and digestion of food, absorption of nutrients and excretion of wastes as fecal material. includes accessory glands which aid digestion
what is the myocardium
thickest layer of heart wall, made of striated cardiac muscle. (involuntary.)
how are the muscle fibres of the heart wall arranged?
spirals. they originate and insert on a dense ring of fibrous tissue separating the atria and ventricles.
what is the purpose of the spiral arrangement of muscles?
‘wrings out’ the heart ventricles.
what are the extensions of muscle fibres which attach to atrioventricular valves?
papillary muscles, which prevent the av valves from being pushed out when the ventricles contract.
what are the cords called which attach the papillary muscles to the av valves?
chordae tendinae
what do some specialized muscle fibres in the endocardium do?
conduct electrical impulses, coordinating contraction of the myocardium, producing a forceful movement of blood.
what is the outer layer of the heart called?
describe the epicardium
thin layer of fibrous tissue coverint the myocardium, contains the coronary arteries and vains and adipose tissue.
what is another name for the epicardium?
visceral pericardium.
what is the space called between the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium?
the pericardial cavity.
parietal pericardium layers
outer fibrous layer that fuses with central tendon of diaphragm, inner serous layer that secretes parietal fluid into the pericardial cavity.
what does the parietal pericardium do?
provides protection for the heart (and an anchoring point.)
falciform ligament
supports the liver to diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall. is made of serous membrane reinforced by connective tissue.
greater omentum
protective fatty serous membrane attached to stomach and transverse colon. an apron-like structure over the small intestine. stores fat, cushions visceral organs, supports lymph nodes and protects against infection spread.
lesser omentum
from the lesser curvature of the stomach and upper duodenum to the inferior surface of the liver.
what are the four layers that the GI tract is composed of?
four tunics: mucosa, submucosa, tunica muscularis, serosa.
where is the ileocecal junction
lower right abdominal cavity, at junction of ileum and cecum.
what are the three types of movement of the small intestine?
rhythmic segmentations (local contractions of the circular muscular layer which churn chyme with digestive juices, facilitate absorption), pendular movements (in longitudinal muscle layer – constrictive back and forth waves along a segmentwhich move and mix the chyme, and peristalsis, which are wavelike contractions along the length of the intestine.
describe the four tunics of the GI tract.
tunics:mucosa – absorptive and secretory layer with simple columnar epithelim and lamina propria supporting connective tissue with lymph nodes, goblet cells which secrete mucous; submucosa: thick, highly vascualar layer which serves the mucosa – absorbed molecules enter blood or lymph here, also contains glands and nerve plexuses; tunica muscularis – inner circle and outer longitudinal layers of muscle which moves the food through the tracts, churning food; outer serosa – binding, protective loose connective tissue layer.
double fold of parietietal peritoneium that supports the GI tract while allowing freedom of peristaltic movement.
what is the peritoneal cavity?
space between the parietal and visceral peritonea.
what are the three kinds of small elevations on the surface of the tongue?
papillae: filiform (most numerous, touch-sensitive,tapered tips) fungiform (larger, rounded, with taste buds, scattered in among filiform), vallate papillae – arranged in a V at back of tongue.
what happens if you lose the nerve function to one side of the tongue?
tongue deviates to that side as muscles on that side are no longer able to protrude the tongue.
what are the little lumps within the lips?
labial glands that secrete mucous into the vestibule between the teeth and the lips.
what are the three major salivary glands?
parotid(largest), submandibular, and sublingual.
what do the salivary glands do?
secrete mucous and salivary amylase – breaks down carbohydrates into disaccharides.
describe the parotid gland
u shaped, partly surrounds mandiblular ramus, inferior to external acoustic meatus. Secretes mainly water and amylase.
how are secretions carried to the oral cavity from the parotid gland?
parotid duct
where is the submandibular gland?
medial to the body of the mandible anterior to the ramus.
where does the submandibular gland empty?
midline of floor of oral cavity, below tongue, via submandibular duct.
which is the smallest of the salivary glands?
what is different about the sublingual gland?
mainly secretes mucous, via several small ducts in the floor of the mouth, near the submandibular duct.
describe the esophagus
hollow muscular tube, posterior to the trachea, and anterior to the vertebral column. passes from the pharynx through the thoraciccavity and through an opening in the diaphragm to the stomach. The esophagus is to the left of the midline of the body.
what is the peritoneum made of?
fibrous membrane which secretes serous fluid.
where does the esophagus empty?
what are the names of the folds within the stomach?
what are the four regions of the stomach?
cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus
what are the names of the two borders of the stomach?
medial concave border=lesser curvature. lateral convex border = greater curvature
what does the pyloric sphincter do?
controls the rate of passage of food from the stomach to the duodenum, allowing enough timefor thorough gastric digestion before the food moves on.
what is the most common type of gastrointestinal ulcer?
peptic ulcer, usually in the pyloric region of the stomach, or the first part of the duodenum. TheyÂ’re caused by acidic erosion of the mucous membrane by the hydrochloric acid of the stomach. Usually caused by prolonged exposure to agents which weaken the mucosal lining, such as alcohol, aspirin, and chronic stress.
what is a common stomach irritation?
gastritis. inflammation of the mucosal lining
how long is the small intestine?
fifteen to twenty five feet long.
name the order of the parts of the small intestine:
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
what is artherosclerosis associated with?
improper diet, hypertension, obesity, lack of exercise.
what are the extrinsic factors which control heart rate and contraction?
autonomic nerve supply and hormones, esp. catecholamines.
what is the intrinsic control system of the heart?
specialized cardiac muscle cells which are capable of originating and conducting regular impulses to the the heart muscle without nervous or hormonal stimulation.
what are the main types of movement in the large intestine?
peristalsis, haustral churning, mass movement
what is the defecation reflex?
occurs when rectal pressure rises to a point largely determined by habit – internal anal sphincter relaxes to admit feces into the anal canal.
where does the common bile duct empy?
vertical part of the duodenum, four inches distal to the pyloric sphincter.
What do the conducting fibres bundle into and where?
distal to the AV node, they’re bundled into the atroventricular bundle or “Bundle of His).
what is the main function of the large intestine?
reabsorption of water and electrolytes
what is the cecum
distended thinwalled sac separated from ileum by ileocecal valve
which is the narrowest portion of the colon?
descending colon
what supports the rectum?
long sling of muscles and fascia
what structural specializations assist in allowing the small intestine to absorb nutrients at a greater rate, and why
long length, large folds of the mucosa, intestinal villi, and microvilli – all of these increase the surface area which aids absorption.
how and where is the jejunum and ileum supported?
suspended by mesentery, in the centre of the abdominal cavity
where is the liver?
located in the epigastric and right hypochondriac regions of the abdominal cavity, inferior to the diaphragm.
What is the liver composed of?
composed of liver cells called hepatocytes, which form hepatic plates one to two cells thickness which surround the liver sinusoids, highly permeable spaces within the liver, lined with kupffer cells that increase their permeability to allow the liver cells to be in direct contact with the large volume of venous blood that flows through the liver sinusoids and blood vessels.
Describe the exterior structure of the liver
four lobes: the right and left lobes, and caudate and quadrate lobes
what supports the liver?
two main ligaments: the ligamentum teres and falciform ligament. The falciform ligament also separates the right and left lobes.
How does the liver get its blood supply?
The liver is richly supplied by blood by a network of blood vessels running through it, while a network of bile ducts carry bile away from the liver.
what is the purpose of the structural arrangement of the hepatic plates and the sinusoids
hepatic plates carrying bile, and the sinusoids carrying blood ensure that blood and bile do not mix within the liver
What is the function of the liver?
main digestive function is to produce bile. Bile and bile salts are manufactured within the liver by the hepatocytes. From the liver it is sent via bile ducts to the gall bladder until it is required for the emusification (break down) of fats.
where is the pancreas
lobed glandular organ that is medial to the spleen and inferior to the liver
where is the pancreatic duct
along length internally
describe the structure of the pancreas
multiple lobes that are formed into a long structure. Sections of the structure are called the head, neck, body, and tail.
what type of cells does the pancreas contain?
both exocrine and endocrine cells.
what are the endocrine functions of the pancreas?
performed by cell clusters called the islets of Langerhans or pancreatic islets, which secrete insulin and glucagon into the blood to maintain correct blood sugar levels
what are the exocrine functions of the pancreas?
synthesis of most of the enzymes required for digestion of chemicals within the small intestine. The pancreas produces lipases to digest fat, protein digesting peptidases, as well as carbohydrate amylases, which together form the pancreatic juice sent to the duodenum to digest food.
the largest of the salivary glands is the
the entire digestive tract is predominently made up of ________ muscle
the largest gland in the body is the
the point of exit from the ileum, where it joins with the large intestine, is guarded by the
ileocecal valve
________ are longitudinal muscle bands of the colon
taeniae coli
the________ stored in the ________ functions to emulsify fats
bile, gall bladder
list the structures of the digestive system
oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine. Accessory glands: salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas
what governs the functions of the digestive system?
autonomic nervous system
what lines the walls of the hollow tubes?
smooth muscle
why do the accessory glands secrete?
sympathetic or parasympathetic stimuli.
what promotes digestion?
parasympathetic tone
oral cavity function
injests food, receives saliva, grinds food, mixes with saliva to form bolus, initiates digestion of carbohydrates (salivary amylase), forms and swallows soft mass of food (bolus)
receives bolus from oral cavity, autonomically continues deglutition of bolus to esophagus
transports bolus to stomach via peristalsis. lower esophageal sphincter restricts backflow of food.
receives bolus from esophagus. Churns bolus with gastric juice, initiates digestion of proteins, carries out small amount of absorption, moves mixture of partly digested food and secretions (chyme) to small intesting. regurgitates when necessary, generates hunger pangs
small intestine
receives chyme from stomach, secretions from liver and pancreas, chemically and mechanically breaks down chyme, absorbs nutrients, transports wastes through peristalsis to large intestine. prohibits backflow of intestinal wastes from large intestine.
large intestine
receives undigested wastes from small intestine, absorbs water and electrolytes, forms, stores, and expels feces when defecation reflex activated.
most digestion occurs in: a) the mouth b) the stomach c) the small intestine d) the large intestine
c. following the formation of chyme in the stomache, the food entering into the small intesting is ready for additional digestion and absorption. bile and pancreatic juice enter the lumen of the duodenum to continue the chemical breakdown of food. intestinal movements aid in its mechanical breakdown. The nutrients from digested food enter the bloodstream as absorption occurs within the small intestine.
the first organ to receive the blood borne products of digestion is a) the liver b) the pancreas c) the heart d) the brain
a. the hepatic portal vein transports absorbed nutrients within the bloodstream to the liver where they are processed.
what surrounds each kidney?
three layered fatty fibrous pouch consisting of a capsule of fibrous tissue for protection, an adipose layer, and a layer of dense irregular connective tissue – the renal fascia
what is external to the fibrous capsule of the kidneys
adipose tissue layer
describe the duodenum
10-12 inches long, c-shaped, encircles head of pancreas. is fixed in position retroperitoneal.
how do secretions enter the small intestine
common bile duc, from the liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
where is bile made and stored?
made in liver, stored and concentrated in gall bladder
what does bile do?
emulsifies fats to make them easier to digest.
what does the pancreas secrete for digestionm?
alkaline mixture of enzymes for protein, fats, and carbohydrates – pancreatic juice
what is different about the right and left ventricles.
left ventricle much stronger. right ventricle thinner and weaker as lower pressure pulmonary system doesnÂ’t require as much force.
what are the rough irregular muscular ridges within the right ventricle called?
trabeculae carneae.
what is special about one of the trabeculae carnae?
more developed than others and contains a part of the electrical conducting system of the heart.
Where are the pectinate muscles within the atria most pronounced?
which is the most muscular chamber of the heart?
left ventricle
how much thicker is the wall of the left ventricle than the right?
about three times
where does blood from the left ventricle go?
through the aortic valve into the high pressure systemic circuit, via the aortic arch.
what is the system of valves for?
to prevent backflow of blood within the heart
what are the names of the flaps on the atrioventricular valves?
what are the valves of the heart made of?
dense fibrous connective tissue with an endocardial covering on both inner and outer surfaces.
describe the structure of the atrioventricular valves
right has three cusps, left has three. both are continuous with the dense fibrous tissue between the atria and ventricles. they hang free in the direction of blood flow but are attached at their free edges by chordae tendinae to papillary mucles which squeeze them closed as the ventricles are filling with blood and then contracting.
describe the structure of the semilunar valves
these have three cup-shaped cusps, and are composed of endocardium and some fibrous tissue. These have a passive system of opening and closing, caused by pressure differentials. these are flexible cups which flatted against the wall of the artery when blood is being pumped. when the blood passes through them, the pressure is increased on the opposite side, whihch forces them closed.
where does the right coronary artery arise from?
aorta in front of the pulmonary trunk
where does the right coronary artery travel
between the right atrium and ventricle, in the groove to the posterior aspect of the heart where it branches off.
what is the name of the branch that comes off of the right coronary artery?
*posterior* interventricular (descending) branch.
role of the oral cavity and the pharynx in the process of swallowing (deglutition).
Within the oral cavity, food ground by teeth (mastication), moved around the mouth by the tongue, is moistened and mixed with the saliva and salivary amylase produced by the salivary glands. softened, moistened food is pushed by the tongue and the styloglossus and myohyoid muscles against the palatal rugae ridges across the hard palate of the roof of the mouth- forms a bolus of food. swallowing, the tongue voluntarily pushes the bolus of food up and toward the back of the oral cavity, to the oropharynx. Sensory receptors of the oropharynx then initiate an involuntary contraction. tongue pushes against the palatal rugae, and seals off the oral cavity from the nasopharynx, creating pressure which forces the bolus into the oropharynx. As bolus passes, the uvula and soft palate elevate to close off the nasopharynx which prevents food from entering the nasal cavity. larynx and the hyoid bone elevate, so that the glottis is sealed to prevent food from entering the trachea. smooth (involuntary) muscles of the pharynx quickly move the food bolus to the esophagus via peristalsis.
what are the functions of the urinary system
controlling electrolyte and water elimination, which controls volume and concentration of vascular fluid. Volume control of vascular fluid is a major blood pressure regulator. Electrolyte balance also controls the body acid balance, because acid balance depends on concentration of hydrogen ions. Lastly, the urinary system removes wastes from the body, especially urea and uric acid.
what are the components of the urinary system?
two kidneys, two ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra
where are the kidneys?
kidneys are located on either side of the midline of the body, within the retroperitoneal space against the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity, inferior to the thoracic cage. right kidney sits slightly lower than the left as the liver occupies space above it
what do the kidneys do?
kidneys filter the blood, reabsorb the ions and water that the body requires, and excrete wastes as urine in the process described below
what is the ball of capillaries inside each nephron called?
why is blood filtered at the nephrons?
The blood pressure is higher here, and forces water and ions into the convoluted tubules of the nephron
How is urine formed?
blood is filtered at glomerulus. ions and water then proceed down the loop of the nephron where water and ions that the body needs are reabsorbed, while wastes stay within the tubules. What remains is urine, and is sent down a collecting duct to the ureter, which passes to the urinary bladder where it is stored.
what is the purpose of the ureters?
carry the waste material from the kidneys (urine) to the urinary bladder, both as a result of gravity and smooth muscle contractions of muscle surrounding each ureter
why do the ureters pass directly into the bladder?
so that when the bladder contracts, the bladder muscles effectively close off the ureters so that urine doesnÂ’t travel back up the ureters during urination, which helps prevent ureter infection by the urinary bladder and subsequent kidney infection
How does the urination reflex occur?
urinary bladder is located in the pelvis, and stores urine until the walls of the bladder stretch to send impulses that work (in adults) in conjunction with voluntary cerebral messages so that timing of urination may be controlled. When desired, the cerebrum coordinates the stimulation of the bladder muscle with the relaxation of the internal and external sphincteral muscles between the bladder and the urethra, allowing urination
describe the urethra
tube which leads from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body, and is responsible for expelling the urine. In males the urethra is also part of the genital system, so it passes through the penis, which makes it longer in males than in females.
what is the hilus
a concave medial area of the kidneys where the renal artery, ureter and renal vein connect.
what is situated on the top of each kidney?
adrenal gland
what s the appendix
narrow wormlike vestigial organ filled with lymphocytes.
what is contained within the mesentery of the abdomen?
blood vessels, including the abdominal aorta, which supplies oxygenated blood to the GI tract.
how does the small intestine complete digestion?
contains enzymes that split proteins into amino acids, carbohydrates into simple sugars, fats into fatty acids and glyceral, which are all absorbed.
what is the main purpose of the reproductive system?
formation and passage of genetic material from generation to generation
what are the components of the male reproductive system?
testes, ducts (epidiymis, vas deferens), accessory glands(prostate, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands), and reproductive cells – spermatozoa.
what are the male primary and secondary sex organs, and secondary sex characteristics?
primary:testes. secondary:epidiymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra, penis and scrotum.v Accessory reproductive glands:seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral glands. secondary sex characteristics: physique, body hair, voice pitch.
how many sperm are expelled in one ejaculation?
about four hundred million.
where are the sperm formed
in the male gonads – the testes
what happens to the testes before birth
they move from the abdominal cavity along the inguinal canal, and descend into the scrotum.
what occurs when a loop of intestine enters the inguinal canal
inguinal hernia
what is the main male hormone
where do sperm go from the epididymis?
to the vas deferens (or ductus deferens)
describe the vas deferens
part of the spermatic cord, which also contains testicular arteries, veins, nerves, lymphatics and some muscle fibres.
what are the seminal vesicles and prostate glands and what do they do?
accessory/secondary sex organs which help to keep the sperm active and motile.
describe the properties of the secondary sex organ secretions
usually alkaline to neutralize vaginal acidity, making the environment better for the sperm.
what does erectile composition mean?
spongy, filed with venous sinuses, well supplied with blood vessels
where are the seminal vesicles and what do they secrete?
elongated pouches about 5cm long, on the posterior inferior surface of the bladder, lateral to vas deferens, which secrete viscous fluid with fructose – energy source for the sperm.
where is the prostate gland?
size of a chestnut, inferior to the bladder, anterior to the rectum
what does the prostate do?
secretes fluid into the urethra – stimulates motility of sperm.
what happens during a prostate exam?
prostate palpated, size and consistency evaluated. If enlarged, blood is tested for elevated PAS levels (Prostate-Protein Antigen) which may indicate prostate cancer
describe the penis
three longitudinal tubes, two dorsal and one ventral, all composed of erectile tissue
what are the names of the three longitudinal tubes?
corpora cavernosa (2), and corpus spongiosum
How does an erection subside (detumescense)
arteries constrict, vasoconstriction decreases, inflow of blood decreases pressure, and blood drains away from the penis through the venous system.
how is an erection caused?
during sexual arousal, the parasympathetic system is active, which causes the arteries to dilate, and causing the entry of large quantities of blood into the venous sinuses, which expand and compress the veins. Blood canÂ’t leave because of the increased pressure, so the penis becomes swollen and erect, engorged with blood.
seminiferous tubules function
produce semen
interstitial cells
secrete male hormones
sperm storage and maturation
ductus deferns
store sperm, convey sperm to ejaculatory ducts
ejaculatory ducts
receive sperm and additives, produce seminal fluid
seminal vesicles
secrete alkaline fluid and nutritive fluid
the inner surface of the stomach is thrown into folds called
bile and pancreatic secretions empty into the
common bile duct to the duodenum
one of the factors that speeds emptying contents of the stomach is
liquid consistency of food
viscera are the only body organs that are: a) concerned with digestion b) located within the abdominal cavity c) covered with peritoneal membranes, d) located within the thoracic and abdominal cavities
d. viscera are the organs located within the trunk of the body. in the thoracic cavity, the viscera include the heart, lungs, and esophagus. in the abdominopelvic cavity the viscera include the stomach, small and large intestines, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, and adrenal glands, along with major vessels.
the double layer of peritoneum that supports the GI tract is called: a) the visceral peritoneum b) the mesentery c) the greater omentum d) the lesser omentum
b. it is through the supporting mesentery that vessels and nerves supply the abdominal viscera.
which of the following organs is not considered part of the digestive system? a) pancreas b) spleen c) tongue d) gallbladder
b. composed of lymphoid tissue, the spleen stores red blood cells and is an organ of the circulatory system
what are the large bands of muscle on the large intestine called?
taeniae coli
explain the cycle of ovum development
begins at puberty – monthly hormonal changes cause an ova per month to develop, and to be shed into the pelvic cavity to travel to the fallopian or uterine tube.
the ligament that passes through the inguinal canal in the female is the _____ ligament
round ligament
name and describe the three regions of the uterus
fundus – dome shaped superior area near the fallopian (uterine) tubes, body – the bulky main portion, and the cervix – most inferior portion.
How many layers does the wall of the uterus have, and what are they?
THREE: 1. perimetrium / serosa: thin covering continuous with peritoneum 2. myometrium: intermediate layer of thick muscle 3. endometrium: lining of the uterus – glandular vascular mucous membrane that responds to hormones – is the lush implantation site – superficial layer is shed during the monthly menstrual cycle.
describe the cervix
narrowed area of uterus, protrudes into vaginal canal. points posteriorly and inferiorly, so enters the vagina almost at a right angle.
retrouterine pouch in the peritoneum – lowest point in the pelvis of a woman, where fluid can gather – can cause infection here.
hollow muscular tube from the uterus to the vaginal orifice
purpose of the vagina
passageway for menstrual flow, penis and sperm receptacle, birth canal
what does the wall of the vagina contain and what occurs as a result of this
mucosal lining, secretes glycogen that is broken down by normal vaginal organisms, producing acid. Thus: vagina=acidic environment – helps prevent infections
alternative term for the external genitalia of the female
what are the ‘lips’ of the vagina?
labia majora – homologous to the two halves of the scrotum – longitudinal folds of skin partially covered with pubic hair.
what are the labia minora
small folds of skin medial to the labia majora. homologous to the thin fold of skin on the ventral surface of the penis and scrotum in the male
where is the female urethra located?
anterior to the vaginal orifice
what is the name for the small tube of nerve endings at the junction of the two labia minrora anterior to the urethra?
clitoris. (homologous to the penis)
produce female gametes and sex hormones

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