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Anatomy Ch. 7


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What connects bone to bone?
What connects muscle to bone?
Name the 3 types of muscles
Skeletal, Smooth & Cardiac
Smooth Muscle is...
Involuntary, slowly fatigue & found in the circulatory, digestive and respiratory systems
Cardiac Muscle...
Involuntary, found in only the heart and never fatigues
Skeletal Muscle...
Voluntary, looks strained, attached to skeleton and fatigues
Two movements of skeletal muscles
Contraction (shorten) Extension (lengthen)
What is a fracture?
break in the bone that will heal 100%
What are different types of fractures?
closed, open, multiple, comminuted, greenstick and spiral
What is a sprain?
a torn ligament or tendon that never fully heals
What is a dislocation?
when the bone gets forced out of joint
What are the functions of the Muscular System?
-Movement -Maintains Posture -Stabilizes joints -Generates heat
Muscle Cells...
-Fibers -Contain: Actin & Myoson -Exciteable
Structure of Striated muscles...
-Cylindrical -Varied in length -surrounded by dense fibrous connective sheaths
What does the endomysium surround?
What does the perimysium surround?
bundles of fibers (facicles)
What does the epimysium surround?
all fascicles
Origin of skeletal muscle?
Stationary Bone
Insertion of skeletal muscle?
moveable bone
Types of Myofilaments.
Actin (thin) Myosin (thick)
What is myoglobin?
a type of pigment with iron
What is Acetylcholine?
a neurotransmitter in the nervous system
What causes muscle fatigue?
-ATP Depletion -Lactic Acid Buildup -Lack of oxygen
What is Tetonic Contraction?
Sustained contraction
What is the Sliding Filament Theory?
the process of muscles to contract
Muscles contract with...
Calcium Ion/Threshold Stimulus
What is a latent period?
period between contractions
What is All or None?
when stimulated, a muscle fiber will contract fully or not at all
What is extention?
increasing the angle between two bones at a joint
What is flexion?
act of bending; decreasing the angle between two bones at the joint
What is hypertrophy?
increased size of a part caused by an increase in the size of its cells
What is isometric?
type of muscle contraction in which muscle does not shorten
What is a motor neuron?
transmits nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glandular epithelial tissues
What is a sarcomere?
contractile unit of muscle; length of myofibril between 2 Z bands
What is tonic contraction?
special type of skeletal contraction used to maintain posture

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