This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Biology chap 8


undefined, object
copy deck
ads and disads of cellular respiration
-more efficient -requires oxygen
ads and disads of fermentation
-provides NAD+ for glycolysis -produces ATP only 20 or 30 seconds, lactic acid causes painfull side effects
advantages and disadvantages of glycolysis
-can produce thousands of ATP molecules in milliseconds -provide only 2 ATP at a time
when fermentation does require oxygen
anabolic reactions
chemical reactions in which large molecules are synthesized from smaller molecules endergonic
when fermentation doesn't require oxygen
another name for the krebs cycle
the citric acid cycle
ATP molecule production
2=glycosis 2=Krebs cycle 32=Electron transport chain
organisms that obtain energy from light or inorganic compounds
amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram water 1 degree celcius
calvin cycle
the light independent reactions
red and yellow pigments in plants absorb a small amount of light energy that is passed onto the chlorophyll
carrier molecule
a compound that can accept a pair of high energy electrons and transfer them along with most of their energy to another molecule
catabolic reactions
chemical reactions in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules and energy is released exergonic
Cellular Respiration
the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules
chloroplast structure
thylakoids, granum, stroma
assist an enzyme, sometimes these are vitamins
During glycosis, one molecule of
glucose is broken in half
electron transport chain
uses the high engery electrons from the Kreb's cycle to convert ADP into ATP
equation for photosynthesis
6CO2+6H2O-->C6H1206+6O2 carbon dioxide and water=sugars and oxygen
releases energy from food by producing ATP in the absense of oxygen
food chain
a seris of steps in which organisms trasfer energy by eating and being eaten
the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, a three carbon compound
Glycosis produes a net gain of
2 atps
stack of thylakoids
how are photosystem I and II different?
II aborobs light and I trasfers electron enrgy.
how does ATP synthesis produce ATP?
it rotates as H+ ions pass through it and binds ADP and a phosphate group together creating ATP.
How does fermentation allow the production of ATp to continue?
NADH convert to NAD+, which allows glycosis to continue to produce ATP.
how does light effect a chlorophyll molecule
excites the electrons
How is pyrucvic acid used in the Krebs Cycle?
it is broken down into carbon dioxide in a seris of energy-extracting reacitons.
how much energy is available from level to level in a food chain?
plants need sunlight to produce oxygen he observed plants exposed to light
Krebs Cycle
pyruvic acid is broken into carbon dioxide ina series of energy extracting reactions
light energy is
absorbed by a pigment reflected by a pigment trasmitted through a pigment
Light independent reactions take place in the
main pigment in plants
chemical reactions through which an organism builds or breaks down materials complete set of chemical reations in cells that are the basis of life in cells
electron carrier called nicotinamide adenine dinudeotide
using a candle and a jar, he observed that plants produce a substance that keep the candle burning
products of alchol fermentation
alcohol, CO2, and NAD+
reactants and products of fermentation
pyruvic acid=NAD+, alcohol, CO2 and lactic acid
reactants and products of glycosis
glucose, ATP=2 molecules of ATP
Reactants/products in cellular respiration
oxygen+glucose=carbon dioxide+water+energy
region outside the thylakoid membranes in the chloroplasts
main source of energy for life on earth
three examples of producers
plants, algae, bacteria
the light dependent reactions take place for
van Helmont
plants gain most of their mass by taking in water he measured the mass of soil in which a plant grew
What affects the rate at which photosynthesis occurs?
amount of water temperature intensity of light availibility of carbon dioxide
what are two ways in which cells use energy provided by ATP?
to carry out active transport and important cell division
what do autotrophs do with their energy?
fuel the assembly of simple inorganic compounds to complex inorganic compounds
What does the Calvin cycle use to produce high energy sugars?
it uses ATP and NADHP from light dependent to produce high energy sugars.
what is produced in light denpendent reactions?
ATP, NADHP, and oxygen
what is produced in the the light independent reactions?
high energy sugars
what organelle is cellular respiration found in?
Why is fermentation considered an anerobic process?
it does not require oxygen

Deck Info