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Biology Unit 1 2


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non-polar covalent bonds
when two atoms of equal size covalently bond or atoms are in balance with each other
Why is water stable?
weak bonds form between the partially charged oxygen of one atom and the partially charged hydrogen of another atom
-these weak bonds constantly form and rebreak in liquid medium
-though each individual bond is weak their combined effect is trong
formation reactions
anabolic reactions or anabolism
-polymers are formed when monomers are joined together by the removal of water, called dehydration synthesis
breakdown reactions
catabolic reactions or catabolism
-all molecules break apart when wate ris added, called hydrolysis
glucose=universal cellular fuel, ATP gives us energy
sucrose in plants-used for transport of sugar (glucose and fructose)
storage polysaccharides
store fuel (glucose) by forming chains of it
-in animals=glycogen
in plants=amylose, amylopectin
structural polysaccharides
cross-branching makes water insoluble
cellulose= major component of plant cell walls
chitin=exoskeleton of arthropods
formation of fats/lipids
form via dehydration synthesis of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids to give 1 fat molecule (triglyceride)
How energy is stored in fats
energy is stored in C-H and C-C bonds, used when carbohydrates are low
dual polarity
Primary structure of proteins
linear sequence of AAs in any order, length, high diversity
Secondary structure of proteins
coils, pleats, caused by hydrogen bonding (h-bonds) that form between an amine group and the O of a carboxylic acid group
alpha helix
h-bonds within a single polypeptide chain. pulls the chain into a spiral or helical form
beta pleated sheets
H bonds form between many polypeptide chains
tertiary structure
driving force=hydrophobic interactions, R-group move away from water to interior
bonds formed based on interactions of R-groups
i. disulfide bridges- S-S
ii. H-bonds
iii.Vander Waals- weak, attractive charges
iv. ionic bonds- opposite charges
areas on the folded protein that determine function. Includes more than one section of a single chain
quaternary structure
arises when more than one polypeptide chain binds to form a protein
-same interactions as with tertiary structures but between chains
protein unfolding, loss of biological activity
protein chains separate, when reunite protein is functional
special creation-God
cosmic dust
spontaneous origin
arising of organic molecules
primitive atmosphere
-no free O2, yes=H2O, CH4, H2S
carbohydrate monomer
glucose=energy, saccharide
Carb. dimer
sucrose (table sugar)=transport in plants
lactose= (glucose and galactose)milk sugar
carb. polymer
glycogen= animal muscle tissue, energy storage
cellulose=structure in plants
lipid monomer
1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
lipid polymer
triglyceride or fat, store energy, steroids=hormones
Protein monomer
amino acid
protein dimer
protein polymer
polypeptide, 6 functions
nucleic acid monomer
nucleic acid polymer
code, store information
Absorption of fluid by a solid or colloid that causes swelling

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