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World History since 1550


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Which German prince of the 19th century married Queen Victoria of Britain?
Prince Albert
What major United States program of economic aid to nations of Latin America was launched in the early 1960s?
Alliance for Progress
What were the allied nations of Britain, France, Italy, Russia and the US in WWI and Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the US in WWII called?
What was the political and social order that prevailed in France before the French Revolution?
Ancien regime
What was the ancien regime built on?
Absolute monarchy and the Divine Right of Kings
What was the fleet of over a hundred ships setn by King Philip II of Spain to conquer England in 1588?
Spanish Armada
What was the killing of large numbers of Armenians who lived within the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries?
Armenian massacres
When did the worst of the Armenian massacres occur?
1915 to 1920, during World War I
What infamous concentration camp was established by the Nazis in Poland?
What were Germany, Italy, and Japan called before and during World War II?
Axis powers
What prison in Paris was stormed by workers on July 14, 1789, now the most important national holiday in France?
Who was Israel's first prime minister and served until the early 1960s?
David Ben-Gurion
What was the military operation in the alte 1940s that brought food and other needed goods into West Berlin by air?
Berlin airlift
Which German political leader in the 19th century known as the "Iron Chancellor" persuaded small German states to unite in a single German Empire under a Kaiser?
Otto von Bismarck
What jail cell of a British fort in Calcutta, India were 146 British defenders driven into when British and Indian troops clashed in the middle of the 18th century?
Black Hole of Calcutta
What form of warfare was used by German forces in World War II, meaning "lightning war"?
Who uttered the words "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat"?
Winston Churchill
What was the war between British and Dutch settlers in South Africa, fought from 1899 to 1902, and won by the British?
Boer War
Who were the Dutch settlers in South Africa, also known as Afrikaners?
Who was the Venezuelan revolutionary leader of the early 19th century who fought Spanish troops for the independence of countries in northern South America?
Simon Bolivar
Who were the radicals in the Russian Revolution led by Lenin who favored revolution rather than gradual democratic change?
What was the ruling family of France from the late 16th century until the French Revolution?
Who said of the Bourbons, "They have learned nothing, and they have forgotten nothing"?
Which Soviet political leader of the 20th century seized the leadership of the Soviet Communist party from Nikita Khrushchev in 1964, serving until his death in 1982?
Leonid Brezhnev
What was the series of air battles in WWII between the German Luftwaffe and the British Royal Air Force?
Battle of Britain
Who said of the RAF's performance in the Battle of Britain, "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few"?
Winston Churchill
Which empire, begun in the 16th and 17th centuries, included Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, and vast portions of Africa at its greatest extent?
British Empire
The British Empire was succeeded by what formed in 1931?
British Commonwealth
What was the last major offensive by the German army in WWII in late 1944?
Battle of the Bulge
Which Irish political leader, author of the 18th century, and member of the British Parliament sympathized with the American Revolution but opposed the French Revolution?
Edmund Burke
Which Cuban political leader of the 20th century overthrew the dictator of Cuba in 1959?
Fidel Castro
Which empress of Russia in the late 18th century encouraged the cultural influences of western Europe in Russia and extended Russian territory toward the Black Sea?
Catherine the Great
What were Germany and its allies, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire, called in WWI?
Central Powers
Who was the British prime minister who negotiated the Munich Pact in 1938, allowing Germany to extend its territory into parts of Czechoslovakia?
Neville Chamberlain
What was the Munich Pact called by Chamberlain's political foes?
Who was president of China until he was overthrown in 1949 by Mao Zedong, forcing him to flee to Taiwan where he established the Republic of China, or Nationalist China?
Chiang Kai-shek
Who became prime minister of Britain shortly after WWII began but was stunningly defeated in elections after the war?
Winston Churchill
What two histories is Winston Churchill especially remembered for?
A History of the English-Speaking Peoples and The Second World War
Who was the premier of France at the end of WWI that presided at the peace conference which produced the Treaty of Versailles?
Georges Clemenceau
What stunning series of events between 1989 and 1991 led to the fall of regimes in eastern Europe and the Soviet Union?
Collapse of communism
What government was established in Britain and Ireland in 1649 after the execution of King Charles I?
What book, published in 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, ends "Workers of the world, unite."?
The Communist Manifesto
What places were used for assembling and confining political prisoners and enemies of a nation?
Concentration camps
Which English explorer of the 18th century established the first European colony in Australia, was the first European to visit Hawaii, as well as approaching Antarctica and western North America?
Captain James Cook
Who were the people in southern Russia during the 16th and 17th centuries who supplied the Russian Empire with scouts and mounted soldiers instead of paying taxes?
What was the reaction of the Roman Catolic CHurch to the Reformation, which aimed to increase faith among church members, end abuses, and affirm veneration of saints and acceptance of the authority of the Pope?
Counter Reformation
What war was fought in the middle of the 19th century between Russia and Turkey, Britain, and France, guaranteed the independence of Turkey with Russia's defeat?
Crimean War
Who came to prominence through her nursing service during the Crimean War?
Florence Nightingale
Who wrote "The Charge of the Light Brigade", describing a battle in the Crimean War?
Lord Alfred Tennyson
Which English Puritan led the army of Parliament over King Charles I in the English Civil War and emerged as "Lord Protector of the Commonwealth"?
Oliver Cromwell
What was the confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over the presence of missile sites in Cuba?
Cuban missile crisis
Which two political leaders were involved in the Cuban missile crisis?
United States President John F. Kennedy and the Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
What movement in China was begun in the middle 1960s and led by Mao Zedong to restore the vitality of communism in China?
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
What title was given to rulers of Russia from the 16th century until the Russian Revolution?
What concentration camp was established by the Nazis in southern Germany?
Which prominent figure in the French Revolution disagreed with more radical revolutionaries and was executed by Robespierre?
Georges Danton
What code name is given to the first day of a military attack, especially the American and British invasion of German-occupied Franch during WWII on June 6, 1944?
Who headed the Free French Resistance to the Nazis in WWII and served briefly as the president of France after the Nazis were driven out?
Charles De Gaulle
Charles De Gaulle solved the crisis over what that was dividing the country of France?
What was the effort after the death of Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin to soften some of the repressive measures used by his government?
Who was the leader in the de-Stalinization movement, which involved the downgrading of Stalin's reputation?
Premier Nikita Khrushchev
What place in Indochina, now Vietnam, did Vietnamese communists decisively defeat French forces in 1954 causing French withdrawal from Indochina?
Who led the Conservative party of Britain, the Tories, in the 1860s and 1870, was prime minister twice, and proclaimed Queen Victoria empress of India?
Benjamin Disraeli
Which doctrine said that kings and queens have a God-given right to rule, and that rebellion against them is a sin?
Divine right of kings
What words were allegedly spoken by British-born explorer Henry Stanley when in 1871, he found the long-missing explorer and missionary David Livingstone in Africa?
Doctor Livingstone, I presume?
Who found Doctor David Livingstone in Africa in 1871?
Henry Stanley
Who was the first Englishman to sail around the world in the 16th century, and also participated in the destruction of the Spanish Armada?
Sir Francis Drake
What scandal in France at the end of the 19th century involved a Jewish army officer who was falsely convicted of betraying French military secrets and was sentenced to life imprisonment?
Dreyfus affair
What were the two sides of French society that were deeply divided over Alfred Dreyfus?
The liberals, Emile Zola and Georges Clemenceau, who defended Drayfus and the conservatives, who defended the French military authorities
Where was the scene of a remarkable, though ignominious, retreat by the British army in WWII?
Dunkirk, a town on the northern coast of France
What was East Germany officially known as from 1949 to 1990?
German Democratic Republic
Why was the Berlin Wall erected in 1961?
To keep East Germans from defecting to the West
When did the East German government agree to the reunification of Germany under the leadership of West Germany?
Who ruled Britain during the Edwardian period in the first decade of the 20th century, known for elegance and luxury but also for moral looseness and general failure to prepare for some of its 20th century challenges?
Edward VII, the eldest son of Queen Victoria
Which Nazi official was responsible for the torture and killing of millions of Jews during the Holocaust?
Adolf Eichmann
Where was Adolf Eichmann caught, and where was he tried?
Argentina, 15 years after WWII, and Israel, where he was convicted of crimes against humanity and hanged (respectively)
Which queen of England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries presided over the Renaissance in England and whose period was a time of triumphs in literature (Shakespeare) and war (defeat of Spanish Armada)?
Queen Elizabeth I
Who did Queen Elizabeth I descend from?
King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
Whose nicknames include "Virgin Queen" and "Good Queen Bess"?
Queen Elizabeth I
Who became queen of Britain in 1952 and still reigns today?
Queen Elizabeth II
Who is Queen Elizabeth's husband and who is her eldest son?
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (respectively)
Which German socialist of the 19th century collaborated with Karl Marx on The Communist Manifesto and on Kapital?
Friedrich Engels
What two works did Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels collaborate on?
The Communist Manifesto and Kapital
What intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries was marked by a celebration of the powers of human reason, a keen interest in science, the promotion of religious toleration, and a desire to construct goverments free of tyranny?
What British-owned islands in the south Atlantic Ocean located near Argentina were seized by Argentina in 1982 but were retaken by Britain after a brief war?
Falkland Islands
What does Argentina refer to the Falkland Islands as?
Islas Malvinas
What system of government flourished in Europe from the 1920s to the end of WWII mainly in Germany, Italy, and Spain?
Who are called left-wing and who are called right-wing?
Communists and fascists (respectively) Communists are committed to economic equality, fascists are committed to a single charismatic leader, the antithesis of communism
What are people willing to cooperate with an aggressor against their own country called?
Fifth column
Who coined the term "fifth column" and how?
Francisco Franco was marching on Madrid with four columns of troops and remarked that there was a "fifth column" of sympathizers within the city ready to help
What phrase represents the end of the 19th century and describes the period's self-conscious artistic movements and a sophisticated despair that was popular at the time?
Fin de siecle
Who is one of the best-known fin-de-siecle figures?
Oscar Wilde
What term was applied by Nazis to the genocide of European Jews during WWII?
Final Solution
What phrase represents the conquest of France by Germany in WWII in the spring of 1940?
Fall of France
Which Austrian prince's assassination in Sarajevo in 1914 set off WWI?
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Which Spanish general and dictator of the 20th century successfully led the Nationalist armies against Loyalists during the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s?
Francisco Franco
Who ruled Spain firmly from the 1930s til his death in 1975?
Francisco Generalissimo Franco
What event at the end of the 18th century ended the thousand-year rule of kings in France and established the nation as a republic?
French Revolution
What ruling body came after Robespierre's execution and whose incompetence and corruption allowed Napoleon Bonaparte to emerge in 1799 as dictator?
What title was given to Adolf Hitler?
Which Indian political leader of the 20th century, daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, served as prime minister of India from 1966 to 1977, and again from 1980 until her assassination in 1984?
Indira Gandhi
Who was the leader of India's drive for independence from Britain who was assassinated in 1948, just after India secured its independence?
Mahatma Gandhi
What is Mahatma Gandhi's full name?
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
What does mahatma mean?
"Great soul"
What four Chinese political leaders of the 20th century closely associatied with Mao Zedong (one was his wife) were denounced when moderates came to power in China in 1976, and were convicted in 1981 of committing crimes, such as torture, during the Grea
Gang of Four
Which Italian patriot of the 19th century fought for the unification of Italy?
Giuseppe Garibaldi
What was the secret police of the Third Reich in Germany?
Which English leader of the Liberal party, political opponent of Benjamin Disraeli, was prime minister several times during the reign of Queen Victoria?
William Ewart Gladstone
One of William Ewart Gladstone's strongest interests, not satisfied in his lifetime, was to provide which country with its own government?
Which revolution in Britain in 1688 had Parliament depose of King James II, a Roman Catholic, and give the crown to the Protestant King William II, a Dutch prince, and his British wife, Queen Mary II?
Glorious Revolution
Because there was little armed resistance in England to William and Mary, the Glorious Revolution is also called the what? Also, William and Mary agreed on passing what that severely limited the king or queen's power?
Bloodless Revolution and British Bill of Rights (respectively)
Which propaganda minister of the Nazi government and a close confidant of Adolf Hitler had the notion that a lie, repeated often and forcibly, gains the legitimacy of truth?
Joseph Goebbels
Which leader of the Luftwaffe was sentenced to death at the Nurenberg Trials but committed suicide before he could be executed?
Hermann Goering
What hilly area on the border between Israel and Syria was seized by Israel from Syria after a fierce battle during the Six-Day War of 1967?
Golan Heights
What straight-legged style of military marching was used by the Nazis?
Goose step
Who was the last president of the Soviet Union, elected in 1985?
Mikhail Gorbachev
What was the policy introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev that means "restructuring"?
What policy encouraging free expression spurred criticism of communism and the surfacing of nationalism in the republics that composed the Soviet Union?
What common name was used for WWI before WWII broke out?
Great War
Who designed the guillotine, the official method of execution in France until the 20th century?
Joseph Guillotin
Which Swedish secretary-general of the United Nations from 1953 to 1961 was intensely involved in settling Cold War differences and movement toward independence for African nations?
Dag Hammarskjold
Which German family, distantly related to the Stuarts of Britain, received the crown of Britain when the last Stuart ruler, Queen Anne, died without an heir?
House of Hanover
Who were the first two Hanoverian kings?
King George I and George II
Which Austria-based dynasty ruled much of central and parts of western Europe from the 13th to the 20th centuries?
The Hapsburg empire collapsed during which war?
World War I
Which organizer of the Nazi elite forces (SS) and secret police (Gestapo) committed suicide in 1945?
Heinrich Himmler
Which Japanese emperor who came to the throne in the 1920s and ruled Japan during WWII died in 1989?
What Japanese city did the United States drop the first atomic bomb on, on August 6, 1945?
Adolf Hitler dreamed of creating a master race of pure Aryans who would rule for a thousand years as the third German Empire, or also known as what?
Third Reich
Hitler's early program for Germany is contained in his book entitled what?
Mein Kampf
Who led the communists of Vietnam in their efforts to drive out Japan in the 1940s, France in the 1950s, and United States in the 1960s, dying in 1969?
Ho Chi Minh
What was the former name of Ho Chi Minh City?
What was the "Final Solution" to the "Jewish problem"?
Which French Protestants of the 16th and 17th centuries were frequently persecuted by the Roman Catholic Church, but freed by the Edict of Nantes until King Louis XIV revoked it?
Which dictator of Iraq seized power in 1979?
Saddam Hussein
Which countries were invaded by Saddam Hussein in 1980 and 1990?
Iran and Kuwait (respectively)
The Reagan administration's policy of aiding Saddam Hussein in the 1980s embarassed which future president, Reagan's vice president?
George Bush
What was the rapid industrial growth that began in England during the middle of the 18th century?
Industrial Revolution
Which organization of workers was founded by Karl Marx in the 1860s but dissolved in 1876?
Which International, formed by the Soviet Union in 1919 and dissolved by Joseph Stalin in 1943, was the most effective?
Third International
What was the former division between the communist nations of the Eastern Bloc and the noncommunist nations of western Europe?
Iron Curtain
Which Russian czar of the 16th century struggled with the Russian nobles and was famous for his brutality toward his enemies?
Ivan the Terrible
Which criminal in London in the late 19th century was responsible for several ghastly slashing murders?
Jack the Ripper
Which extreme Radical party during the French Revolution was led by Robespierre?
Which Pope from 1958 to 1963 convened the Second Vatican Council, Vatican II and was a leader in liberalizing the Roman Catholic Church?
Who was the first Polish pope, elected in 1978?
Pope John Paul II
What is the German word for "emperor"?
Who were the Japanese fighter pilots in WWII trained to make suicide crashes into Allied ships?
What Communist movement in Cambodia was led by Pol Pot in 1975?
Khmer Rouge
Who became the virtual dictator of Iran in 1979, condoning Iranian militants who held American diplomats hostage from 1979 to 1981, and ruling until his death in 1989?
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Which premier of Soviet Union in the late 1950s and early 1960s led de-Stalinization and urged peaceful coexistence between his country and Western nations?
Nikita Khrushchev
Which famous English pirate of the late 17th and early 18th centuries was employed by the British government to stop piracy but turned pirate himself and was executed in England?
Captain William Kidd
What was the rush of thousands of people in the 1890s toward the gold mining district in northwestern Canada?
Klondike gold rush
What war was fought in the early 1950s between the United Nations and a communist nation?
Korean War
Which Chinese nationalist political party founded by Sun Yat-sen gained control of China in the early 20th century?
Who founded the Chinese nationalist political party, Kuomintang?
Sun Yat-sen
Who is Lawrence of Arabia?
T.E. Lawrence
Who led a rebellion of Arabs against the Turks in WWI?
T.E. Lawrence, Lawrence of Arabia
Who wrote Seven Pillars of Wisdom?
T.E. Lawrence, Lawrence of Arabia
What international organization was established after WWI under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles?
League of Nations
Which founder of the Bolshevik party and chief of the Soviet Union's government until his death in 1924 contributed much to the success of the Russian Revolution of 1917?
Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
Which prime minister of Britain at the end of WWI and afterward called for squeezing Germany "until the pips squeak" at the negotiation of the Treaty of Versailles?
David Lloyd George
What important event in the history of the Chinese communists happened because Mao Zedong was driven from southern and eastern China by Chiang Kai-shek at the end of the 1920s?
Long March
What expression is used to describe the young adults of Europe and American during WWI because they were disillusioned with the world and unwillin to move into a settled life?
Lost generation
Who coined the term "lost generation"?
Gertrude Stein
Who wrote The Sun Also Rises?
Ernest Hemingway
Who was king of France in the 17th and early 18th centuries?
Louis XIV
Who was known as the "Sun King" and for saying "L'etat, c'est moi"?
Louis XIV
Who was the last king of France before the French Revolution and husband of Marie Antoinette?
Louis XVI
What was the German air force in WWII?
Which British passenger ship was sunk by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland in 1915?
What was the chain of defensive fortifications built by Franch on its eastern border between WWI and WWII?
Maginot line
Which dynasty came to power in China in the 17th century and was overthrown in 1911?
Manchu dynasty
Who was the most prominent leader in the struggle of South African blacks against apartheid?
Nelson Mandela
What radical group did Nelson Mandela join in the 1940s and sentenced to life imprisonment for in the 1960s?
African National Congress
Who led an army of workers and peassants on the long march in the 1920s and established the People's Republic of China after overthrowing Chiang Kai-shek in 1949?
Mao Zedong
What book written by Mao Zedong was standard reading for schoolchildren of China?
"Little Red Book", Quotations from Chairman Mao
What doctrines of Mao Zedong state that a continuous revolution is necessary if the leaders of a communist state are to be kept in touch with the people?
Which leader of the Jacobins in the 18th century during the French Revolution was stabbed to death in his bathtub?
Jeal-Paul Marat
Which French queen, born in Austria, was beheaded with her husband King Louis XVI?
Marie Antoinette
Through which program did the United States give large amounts of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after WWII?
Marshall Plan
Who proposed the Marshall Plan?
United States Secretary of State, General George C. Marshall
Who wrote Kapital and Communist Manifesto and organized the first International in the 1860s?
Karl Marx
What expression was used by the Nazis in Germany for the race they wanted to create?
Master race
Who was the spy who worked for both the French and the Germans during WWI and was executed by the French in 1917?
Mata Hari
What was Adolf Hitler's autobiography written in the 1920s?
Mein Kampf
Who served as prime minister of Israel from 1969 to 1974 and was known for her efforts to lessen the Arab-Israeli Conflict?
Golda Meir
Which early 19th century chancellor of the Austrian government for nearly forty years restored order in Europe after the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte?
Prince Clemens von Metternich
Which Moslem dynasty, originally Turkish but strongly influenced by Persia, ruled India in the 16th and 17th centuries?
Moguls, Mughals
Which famous Italian educator of the 20th century is responsible for preschool and kindergarten schools that stress development of the child's own urge for creation and accomplishment?
Maria Montessori
What British general in WWII defeated the Germans under Erwin Rommel in north Africa and led British trooops in the invasion of Italy, Normandy, and Germany?
Bernard Montgomery
Which Roman Catholic nun, born in Yugoslavia, received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work among lepers and other dying poor of Calcutta?
Mother Teresa
What agreement between Britain and Germany in 1938 allowed Germay to extend its territory into parts of Czechoslovakia?
Munich Pact
Who formed a fascist government in Italy in the 1920s and was known as il Duce "the leader"?
Benito Mussolini
Who crowned himself emperor in 1804 and was exiled to St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean after his final loss to Britain at the Battle of Waterloo?
Napoleon Bonaparte
Who overthrew King Farouk of Egypt in the early 1950s to become president, took control of the Suez Canal for Egpyt in 1956 provoking British attack, and provoked the unsuccessful Six-Day War against Israel in 1967?
Gamal Abdel Nasser
What is the Republic of China, the government of Taiwan, known as?
Nationalist China
What is Nazi short for?
National Socialist German Workers' party
What treaty made by Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 opened the way for both nations to invade and dismember Poland?
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Which close associate of Mahatma Gandhi during India's struggle for independence in the 1930s and 1940s served as India's first prime minister, dying in 1964?
Jawaharlal Nehru
Which British naval officer of the late 18th and early 19th centuries defeated Napoleon in the sea battle of Trafalgar but was fatally wounded?
Admiral Horatio Nelson, Lord Nelson
Which 19th century English nurse, known for her service in the Crimean War, gained the nickname "Lady with the Lamp"?
Florence Nightingale
What years was WWI fought?
1914 to 1918
What years was WWII fought?
1939 to 1945
What was the successful American and British invasion of France in WWII?
Invasion of Normandy
Which trials of Nazi leaders convicted twenty-two including Hermann Goering?
Nuremberg trials
Which revolution in 1917 brought the Bolsheviks to power in Russia?
October Revolution
What empire was developed by the Turks between the 14th and 20th centuries and succeded in the 1920s by the present-day Republic of Turkey?
Ottoman Empire
Who was the wife of President Juan Peron of Argentina on who the musical play Evita is loosely based on?
Eva Peron
Which intense nationalist was dictator of Argentina in the 1940s and 1950s, and briefly in the 1970s?
Juan Peron
What war followed Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait in August 1990 and involved the United Nations and Iraq?
Persian Gulf War
What were the United Nations forces that expelled Iraqi troops from Kuwait in March 1991 called?
Which Russian czar of the late 17th and early 18th centuries moved the Russian capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg, later renamed Leningrad after the Russian Revolution?
Peter the Great
Which English political leader of the 18th century led the British government in the Seven Years' War?
William Pitt the Elder
What action by Germany began WWII in 1939?
Invasion of Poland
What famine in Ireland was caused by failure of successive potato crops in the 1840s?
Irish potato famie
What group of radical English Protestants came to America in the 1620s and 1630s?
Which militant Arab and 20th century ruler of Libya is fervently opposed to the influence of the United States in the Mediterranean region?
Muammar Qaddafi
What Norwegian military officer and politician collaborated with Germany in their conquest of Norway in WWII and was made leader of the German-controlled government of Norway, later tried for treason and executed by the Norwegian government?
Vidkun Quisling
Which English explorer of the late 16th and early 17th centuries is best known for his American expeditions, and for introducing tobacco and the potato into England?
Sir Walter Raleigh
A well-known legend holds that who spread his coat over a mud puddle so that Queen Elizabeth I would not have to soil her feet?
Sir Walter Raleigh
Which Russian monk seemed to be able to alleviate Nicholas II's son's hemophilia, and whose advice on how Russia should be ruled and whom should be chosen as government officials was carefully heeded by the czar?
Grigori Rasputin
Which Russian monk was murdered by jealous Russian noblemen in 1916?
Grigori Rasputin
What is another name for the Enlightenment?
Age of Reason
What is the name given to the loosely organized bands of militant communists who followed Mao Zedong during the Great Proletarian Cultural Revoluion in the 19160s?
Red Guards
What phase of the French Revolution led by Robespierre was aimed at destroying all alleged pockets of resistance?
Reign of Terror
What movement of French patriots attempted to weaken Germany's occupying force through acts of sabotage after the Fall of France?
French Resistance
What was the return of constitutional monarchy in Britain in the late 17th century, when Stuarts were placed back on the throne, starting with King Charles II?
Which liberal and nationalist rebellions broke out in Germany, Austria, France, Italy, and Belgium but collapsed within a year?
Revolutions of 1848
Which chief of government under King Louis XIII established absolute monarchy in France and broke the political power of the French Protestant Huguenots?
Cardinal Richelieu
Which Jacobin and one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution was in charge of the French government during the Reign of Terror?
Which family including Empress Catherine the Great and Czar Peter the Great ruled Russia from the 17th century to the Russian Revolution?
Which Germany military commander known as the "Desert Fox" attained the rank of field marshal but was implicated in a plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler and killed himself on Hitler's orders?
Erwin Rommel
Which family of European financiers and bankers active since the 18th century supported the British against Napoleon Bonaparte?
What is the British air force, most famous for the Battle of Britain and other campaigns of WWII?
Royal Air Force
Which revolution in 1917-1918, also known as the October Revolution, overthrew Czar Nicholas II and brought the Bolsheviks under Lenin to power?
Russian Revolution
What war fought in 1904-1905 between Russia and Japan over rival territorial claims caused Japan to emerge as a world power after its victory?
Russo-Japanese War
Who won the Nobel Peace Prize for working out a treaty between Russia and Japan in the Russo-Japanese War?
President Theodore Roosevelt
Who succeeded Gamal Abdel Nasser as president of Egypt in 1970, signed a peace agreement with Israel in 1979, and was assassinated in Egypt in 1981?
Anwar Sadat
Which exiled critic of the arms race and of Soviet repression helped develop the Soviet Union's first H-Bomb and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975?
Andrei Sakharov
Which city in Bosnia and Herzegovina did the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand take place?
In 1992, which city came under prolonged and bloody siege by Bosnian Serbs seeking to drive Bosnian Moslems from their homes?
Which 20th century French theologian, student of music, and physician received the Nobel Peace Prize for his humanitarian missionary work in Africa?
Albert Schweitzer
Which war fought in the middle of the 18th century between Prussia and Britain against Austria, France, Spain, and Russia included the French and Indian War in North America?
Seven Years' War
Who were the Japanese military leaders who ruled the country from the 12th to the 19th centuries?
Which war fought in 1967 between Israel and Egypt, Syria, and Jordan was won by Israel, who took over Golan Heights, the Jordanian portion of Jerusalem, the Jordanian West Bank of the Jordan River, and the Sinai Peninsula?
Six-Day War
What territory did Israel give back to Egypt in 1982?
Sinai Peninsula
What did Winston Churchill say concerning the RAF in the Battle of Britain?
"Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few"
What does the official name of the Soviet Union, USSR, stand for?
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Which republics did Russia merge with to form the USSR?
Ukrainian, Belorussian, and Transcaucasian

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