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Chemistry Ch 13


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The Kinetic Molecular Theory
behavior of gases in terms of particles in motion
Particles size of Gases
small particles are separated by empty space
Particle motion
gas is in constant random motion
Elastic Collisions
particles bounce off each other and no kinetic energy is lost
Particle Energy
KE = 1/2mv2
measurement of average kinetic energy
low density
small and light
Compression and Expansion
large empty space -> release -> expand
movement of 1 material through another concentration (HI -> LO)
gas escaping from a tiny opening
Graham's Law of Effusion
rate A over rate B equals the square root of the molar mass of B over the molar mass of A
Force per unit of area (P =F/A)
device used to measure pressure
closed ended and open ended
Units of Pressure
mmHg= Torr
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
indv. gases exert own pressure: totall pressure is sum of partial pressure
Partial Pressure
depends on mols present, size of container, and temperature
Strong Forces
have low vapor pressures
Dispersion Forces
Found in all covalent bonds but significant in non-polar
dipole-dipole forces
only found in polar molecules
Hydrogen Bonds
special type of dipole-dipole; has hydrogen (H) bonds
indefinite shape and volume; has greater density than gas because of greater volume
Density and Compression of Liquids
have greater density than gas because of greater volume
the ability to flow
the resistance to flow
Viscosity and Temperature of liquids
when the temperature is increased, the viscosity decreases
Surface Tension
measure of inward pull by interior particles (Skin of Substance)
the greater the forces, the greater the surface tension
Capillary action
liquid rising on the walls of a container
the ability to evaporate easily/readily
Density of Solids
not compressible
Crystalline solids
atoms, ions, or molecule arranged in an organized repetitive pattern; all ionic compounds
unit cell
smallest arrangement of connected points that can be repeated in 3 directions to form the lattice
Amorphous solids
lacks organization or pattern WAX, PLASTIC, GLASS, RUBBER.
4 types of Solids
molecular, covalent network, ionic, and metallic
Molecular Solids
nonconductors when pure, insoluble in water (generally), volatile, lo melt/boil points.
Covalent Network Solids
always solids, extremely high MP, insoluble in all solvents, poor conductors (except GRAPHITE), all network solids: C, Si, Ge, P, SiC, BN, SiO2
Ionic Solids
nonvolatile, and high MP, don't conduct as solids, many soluble in water
Metallic Solids
Composed of ions surrounded by valence electrons, can be soft or hard,
from solid to liquid
from liquid to gas
Vapor Pressure for Gases
pressure exerted by a gas above its liquid
Boiling point
time at which vapor pressure equals the atmosphere pressure
From solid to gas
from gas to liquid
from gas to liquid
from liquid to solid
triple point
where all effects happen at the same time
critical point
where water can no longer be a liquid
point where both sides are equal to each other
LeChatelier's Principle
if stress is put on the system it will move to relieve stress

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