This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Psychology Exam 3-05-09


undefined, object
copy deck
Williams Syndrome Physical Characteristics
Social and outgoing Short stature Elfin: broad brow, flat nasal bridge, wide mouth with full lips
Occipital Lobe
Rear Visual Signals Feature perception -> then sent to parietal lobe Phantom limbs
Ventral System
Object recognition center, info sent from occipital lobe to temporal lobe
Parietal Lobe
Top "Where?" Visual-spatial attention
Phantom limbs
Feeling of pain in amputated limbs The missing limb's place on the sensory cortex has been mapped onto another part of the brain
Sensory Cortex
Long band running from ear to ear
Motor Cortex
Long band running from ear to ear, in front of sensory cortex
Limbic System
Oldest part of brain Amygdala Hippocampus Thalamus Hypothalamus
Formation of new memories
Beta Brain Waves
15-18 cps Active thinking
SMR Brain Waves
12-15 cps Relaxed thought
Alpha Brain Waves
8-12 cps Relaxed focus Sleep stage 1
Theta Brain Waves
4-8 cps Drowsy
Delta Brain Waves
Less than 4 cps Sleep
Sleep Stage 1
Alpha waves Drowsy sleepiness Hypnic jerks Hypnogogic hallucinations (tetris effect) Loss of some muscle tone Loss of most consciuous awareness Only experienced as you're falling asleep
Sleep Stage 2
Sleep spindles K-complexes Less muscular activity
Sleep Stage 3-4
Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) Where sleepwalking occurs
REM Sleep
Dreaming "Paradoxical Sleep"
REM Rebound
If you're deprived of REM, the next time you sleep you'll enter REM quicker
As we age, we spend _____ time in REM sleep
One sleep cycle takes _____ minutes
90 minutes
You spend more time in REM towards the ______ of the night
Night Terrors
Sudden arousal from SWS followed by intense fear Young children Runs in family Associated with children that have a lot of micro-arousals in stage 2, frequent stage shifts, stress/excitement
Change blindness
When large changes in our visual world go unnoticed because we are not looking for them
Visual Neglect
People who are missing half their visual field (Lady who drew cat) Has to do with brain processes involved with attention, not with the eyes Caused by stroke Damage to right brain is more severe than damage to left brain
Lesion in right hemisphere and instructed to smile...
Can only smile on right side BUT they can spontaneously smile Doesn't effect spontaneous emotion
Right Hemisphere
Some perceptual and attention tasks Music Emotion processing "Big Picture" Symbols and images
Left Hemisphere
Logic Detail Oriented Facts Words, language Math and Science Order/Patterns Forms Strategies
Orbitofrontal Syndrome
Disinhibited, impulsive behavior Inappropriate jocular affect, euphoria Emotionally unstable Poor judgment, insight
Filter model: Early Selection
Only selected information is processed for meaning INCORRECT
Filter Model: Late Selection
All information is processed for meaning, filter is applied after recognition occurs, but only one item is selected for a response INCORRECT
Cocktail Party Effect
You notice your name being said, even if you're not paying attention to the conversation
Message Switching
Someone wearing headphones with different stories in each ear will switch which ear they're listening to if the story they're paying attention to switches ear
Triesman's Attenuation Theory
Messages are attenuated rather than filtered If we attend to something, we "turn up the volume" Unattended information is weakened, but the information is still available for further analysis NOT all-or-none, like the visual filter theories
Subliminal Perception: Recognition without awareness (Experiment)
A conditioned response for a group of people: giving them subliminal words with shocks when they hear a city name Skin conductance measured, and shocked people showed more reaction than previously non-shocked people
Mere Exposure Effects
Subliminal messages People will rate faces higher if they saw faces before subliminally
Subliminal priming on product choice, hunger, quitting smoking _____ work
does NOT
Gray Matter
Cell bodies (outside)
White Matter
Deeper axions (inside)
Example: Clive Wearing. Brain damage from Herpes Lost ability to form new memories Hippocampus damaged Anteria Grade Amnesat Can acquire skills, but doesn't remember learning them
Anteria-Grade Amnseia
Unable to form new memories
Implicit Memory
Type of memory amnesiacs have It is implied that you learned it, but you can't remember learning
Amnesiacs do not have:
Free Recall (can't say everything they studied on a list) Cued Recall ( given a cue, can't recall what was pared with it) Recognition (remember if they studied a specific thing at all)
Indirect tests of Implicit Memories
1. If you tell an amnesic a fact, they'll forget it, but be better able to guess later 2. Show improvement when learning something, even if they don't remember learning 3. Jokes are only funny once
Inability to see colors
False memories tend to be ____ cognitively complex
Critical Lure Paradigm
Experiment: List with many words relaiting to needle (pin, thread, haystack, etc.) People will recall seeing "needle" on the list Right anterior frontal cortex lights up more if false memory (seen in FMR)
Right anterior frontal cortex lights up more when you have a _____ memory
If people imagine something happening to themselves, they are more likely to _______
Remember it as a real event
Visual Agnosia
Inability to tell what you're looking at
Inability to recognize letters
Feature Integration Model
Letters and words People can confuse letter recognition depending on features of the letters (horizontal, vertical, diagonal, curves, etc.)
Recognizable parts of an object
Top-Down Processing
Anything in context is much easier to see Concept-driven
Word Superiority effect
You recognize letters better when they're in a word
Bottom-Up Processing
You see a bunch of things, and take all that information together to form something Data-Driven
In music Auditory stream flipped backwards and then reinserted into music Does not actually work
Object Superiority
Pieces of objects are more easily recognized when put into context
Why observational/correlational research may be incorrect:
Could be a reverse of the correlation you are seeing Could be a third variable
Sleeptalking/Sleepwalking Stage 4
4 Non-Scientific Ways of Knowing
1. Personal Experience Small # Illusory correlations Biased perceptions False consensus 2. Common Sense 3. Authority Authority is only as good as knowledge base Slow at self-correction 4. Consensus Truth isn't always popular
CHAT Screening
Early Autism screening Dr. Cohen Has children point, pretend play
Take-home questionnaire for parents to screen for autism in young children
refers to the idea that science evolves and the simplest explanation that can account for all know results survives.
4 Properties of science that differ from other ways of knowing
1. Evidence is objective 2. Self-correcting 3. Skepticism 4. Evolutionary, slow moving (except for paradigm shifts) since huge steps are hard to correct
Jurors with _______ are less able to ignore irrelevant information
Low Memory Capacity
Cognitive Factors Affecting Jury Decision Making
Attitude Cognitive Interpersonal Group Processes
Roy Malfas discovered that...
Eyewitness research Determined that eyewitnesses are not very dependable Procedural changes in the lineup (of photo) can create different choices
Why do Juries believe eyewitness testimony
They hear what the people say, they can picture it Whereas, probability data is much less grounded
Hooks/Psychological Anchors
The 3-4 salient issues that Jurors focus on when constructing a story If evidence does not fit into one of these categories, it is disregarded
Working Memory Capacity
High Capacity: can disregard irrelevant information. Know what you're looking for, and what's in between doesn't mess that up Low Capacity: latches on to whatever is present (Study of remembering 3 words with math problems in between)
Probabilistic Reasoning
Using probability data. Trying to figure out the likelihood that something happened Most people use Hueristics
How much something is like your prototype
How much something comes to mind (we think that there are more letters that start with "k" than have it as a third letter, but that is false. We can easily think of letters starting with "k")
The idea that you form an initial impression A juror has an initial idea of his/her decision Even with evidence otherwise, you can fail to adjust as much as you should have
Larger samples more likely than smaller samples to approximate characteristics of population Reduced jury size can cause problems b/c less of a chance that a juror is a minority
Availability Hueristic
Familiarity: how many times you've heard of something Recency: recent airline crashes are seen as more of a threat Saliency: eyewitness "I am sure this happened" An eyewitness is tangible, unlike #s on a graph
Because only about 2% of cases go to trial...
Evidence could go either way High-risk Emotionally charged
Things beyond pure evidence can effect the jury strongly
Bright and Goodman-Delahaunty Study
Gruesome descriptions are innaffecitive BUT gruesome pictures paired with gruesome descriptions are more likely to get convictions This combined with gruesome verbal information made conviction even MORE likely
Mock Jury Study
As you ask for more money, you'll get less than what you asked for People who ask for "substantial compensation" for their injuries (but don't give an estimate of what they wanted) got the most
Williams Syndrome Cause
Caused by deletion f 26 genes on long arm of chromesome 7
Williams Syndrome Problems
Cardiovascular disease Mild to moderate IQ deficits (40-100) Relatively intact language and facial processing Deficient visuospatial abilities Musical skills Hyperactive, distractable
Split-Brain Patients
Surgery to prevent seizures Word left of a dot is not seen, but can be drawn by left hand
Central Sulcus
Divides frontal lobe from parietal lobe
Frontal Lobe
Allows us to think, have working memory Where consciousness comes from
Sylvian Fissure
Seperates frontal lobes from temporal lobes
Sleep research Precise time functions (when) Doesn't tell where activity is taking place
Rely on some agent to show where brain is more active through blood flow Shows WHERE
Skin Conductance
Small changes in electrical conductivity of the skin
Temporal Lobe
Lower sides Language "What" system
Process and relay information to cerebral cortex Regulates sleep Arousal/Consciousness Tourette's Syndrome deep brain stimulation
Body temperature Hunger Thirst
Inability to recognize faces
Parallel Distributed Processing Model (Neural Network Model)
Combines top-down and bottom-up processing Incorporates both facilitation and inhibition

Deck Info