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Culinary Test 2.1


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Young Sheep ⬢Less than 14 months old ⬢Less than 6 months old in Europe
Hothouse Lamb
Very young and entirely milk fed
Sheep 14 months and older
Lamb Grading
⬢U.S. Prime ⬢U.S. Choice ⬢U.S. Good U.S. Utility Mutton ranges from Choice to Cull
Lamb Categories
1st: Grill, Sauté, Roast (Rib, Loin, Sirloin, Leg) 2nd: Braise, Roast (Shoulder( 3rd: Braise (Breast, Neck, Shank)
Lamb Stew Mixte cooking (Concentration then extraction) Use 2nd or 3rd category of meat ⬢Shoulder or leg of lamb ⬢Oil ⬢Mirepoix ⬢Garlic Cloves, crushed ⬢Tomato Paste ⬢A.P. ⬢Water and/or Stock
Printanier Garnish
Used with Navarins (among other dishes) Spring Vegetables Carrots, cocotte Pearl Onions, cocotte Potatoes, Cocotte Turnips, Cocotte String Beans Peas
3 types of Marinades
Cooked Uncooked Instant
Marinade Base Ingredients
Oil Mirepoix Shallots Wine Vinegar Bouquet Garni Clove Garlic
Poulet Braisé au Vin Rouge
Chicken Marinaded in (cooked) Red Wine Mirepoix Bouquet Garni Garlic O.O Bacon O.O. Mushrooms Paerl Onions Butter Sugar Brandy Flour Stock S&P Red Wine Vin Parsley
Basic Stuffing
⬢Composed of raw or cooked elements ⬢Uses up trimmings ⬢Good for cost
Caul Fat
Stomach lining of pig ⬢Soak for at least 24 hrs in white vinegar and cold water (changing liquid often) before use ⬢Store in cold water & white vinegar (changing every 3-4 days)
Various Stuffings
Mushrooms Americaine Fish Mousseline Veal/Chicken Mousseline, Farces Diverses
Meat wrapped around stuffing (sometimes wrapped in caul fat)
Egg white + Ground Protein + Heavy Cream
Ground meat mixed with fat, often used as a stuffing
Two Categories of Organs
Red White
Red Organs / Abats Rouges
Heart / Coeur Liver / Le foie Tongue La langue Kidneys / les rognons
White Organs / Abats Blancs
Bone Marrow Feet Swetbreads Brains Head Tripe Testicles
Egg Parts
Shell Yolk Vitalline Germinal Disk Chalaza Air Cell Shell Membranes Thick Albumen Thin Albumen
Yolk Sack
Yolk Sack
Yolk Anchor
⬢Yolk Anchor ⬢Twisted chord-like strand of egg white ⬢Indicates freshness
Air Cell
Pocket of air caused by contraction of egg contents after laying (due to cooling)
Shell Membranes
Inner and outer shell membranes surround the albumen. The air cell forms between the two.
Thick Albumen
Thick Egg White. Nearest to the yolk. prominence indicates a fresher egg.
Thin Almumen
Thin Egg White . Nearest to the shell. Prominence indicates a less fresh egg.
Egg White 67% of eggs liquid weight
Germinal Disk
Tiny entry into the yolk for fertilization
Egg Shell
⬢9-12% of weight Composed mostly of calcium carbonate ⬢Contains thousands of tiny pores
⬢33% or liquid weight ⬢100% of fat ⬢A little less than 1/2 of the protein ⬢More vitamins than white
Freshness of Egg
⬢Age ⬢Temperature ⬢Humidity ⬢Handling
Egg Sizes
Jumbo= 30oz/12 XL= 27oz/12 L= 24oz/12 M= 21oz/12 S= 18oz/12 Pee Wee= 15oz/12 (span = 15-30 in increments of 3oz) Size is determined by the age, weight, and breed of the hen, and the environmental conditions
Egg Grading
Grade AA Grade A Grade B Eggs are graded based on ⬢Break out appearance (better if covers small area) ⬢Albumen appearance (Thicker white is better and prominent chalazae is better) ⬢Yolk appearance ⬢Shell appearance
Oeuf Coque
Soft-boiled 3 min after water (starting cold) boils
Oeuf Mollet
Medium/soft-boiled 5 min after water (starting cold) boils
Oeuf Dur
Hard-boiled 10-11 min after water (starting cold) boils
Oeufs Cocotte
Egg baked in a dish with cream
Oeuf Frit
Deep fried egg
Oeuf Poché
Oeuf Poêlé
Oeuf au plat
Sunnyside up
Oeufs brouillés
Scrambled eggs
Omelette Plate
Flat omelet
Omelette roulée
Rolled Omelet
Brush with melted butter to make shiny
Stewed: ⬢Onions ⬢Green Peppers ⬢Tomatoes ⬢Garlic Used as filling/garniture for omelettes
Oeufs Farcis Chimay
Hard-boiled egg whites stuffed with: ⬢Mushroom Duxelles (Shallots, Mushrooms, Butter, Lemon, opt. Garlic), ⬢Egg yolk run through sieve ⬢Parsley ⬢Bound with a little Mornay sauce Covered with Mornay sauce (Bechamel + grated cheese + egg yolk + seasoned opt. nutmeg and cayenne) Finished under salamander
Translates to "paste" but means dough or batter in baking
Ideal Egg Storage Temperature
Pâte Brisée
Translation: Broken dough for 8" tart: 200g flour 100g butter, cubed, very cold 1t (5g) Salt 60ml (1/4 C) Cold Water for 8" with egg: 200g flour 100g butter 5g (1t) Salt 10 ml Cold Water 1 Egg
Pâte Sucrée
Sugared Dough 200g Flour 100g Butter, very cold, cubed 30g sugar 5g (1t) Salt 1 Egg 10ml Water, cold
Pâte Sablée
Sandy Dough Pâte sucrée recipe with 2x sugar
Effects of Flour in Tart Dough
Produces tender dough Contains the gluten that holds a dough together
Effects of Fat in Tart Dough
Tenderizes and provides flakiness.
Effects of sugar in Tart Dough
Adds flavor, color (caramelizes when baked), and texture. Also hinders gluten development to make a tender crust
Effects of Water in Tart Dough
develops gluten
Effects of Salt in Tart Dough
Provides flavor Hinders gluten develpment
Crushing walnut sized pieces of dough and crushing them against work surface with hand to ensure that the dough is homogeneous
Cutting butter into flour until a sandy cornmeal texture is achieved.
Blind Baking
To cook a raw tart dough covered in parchment (or plastic wrap) filled with tart weights. Used when a wet filling it to be added or an filling is to be served raw. 400ËšF
Chilling Tart Dough
Allows the gluten to relax, results in a tender flaky crust, that does not shrink Minimum of 15 min
Docking Tart Dough
Poking tiny holes in the rolled dough to allow steam to escape (prevents the dough from bubbling up)
Brushing Tart Dough
removes excess flour
Rolling Tart Dough
Using rolling pin, start from the center and roll outwards on a floured surface until the desired thickness is uniformly achieved.
One-Step Tart Baking
A raw tart shell is filled and baked
Two-Step Tart Baking
1. Blind bake tart 2. Fill and bake or serve without baking
Custard Filling for Tarts/Quiches
For 8" 125ml (1/2C) Milk 125ml (1/2C) Cream 1 Yolk 1 Whole Egg Seasoning (eg. S&P, Nutmeg, Cayenne)
Stomach Lining of Pig
Caul Fat
Soft-Boiled Egg
Oeuf Coque 3 min
Hard-Boiled egg
Oeuf Dur 10-11 min
Soft/Medium-Boiled Egg
Oeuf Mollet 5 min
Scrambled Eggs
Oeufs Brouillés
Hard Boiled Egg + Duxelle/Yolk/Parlsey/Moray Stuffing + Sauce Moray
Oeufs Farci Chimay

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