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Dental Morphology - Axial Contours, Proximal Contacts Embrasures and Primary Den


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Each tooth contacts adjacent teeth on both of its proximal surfaces except
Third Molars
Generally contact areas are more facially/distally located
The proximal contact that involves the mesial of 2 different teeth is found where
between both max and mand central incisors
Proximal contacts lend support to what aspect of the dental arch
entire dental arch
give the incisocervical location of the max and mand cent, lateral and canines
What is the name of the gentle curve formed if you connect the proximal contacts of the posterior teeth in 1 quadrant
Curve of Spee
The lingual inclination of the mand post teeth and the buccal inclination of the maxillary teeth for what curve
Curve of Wilson
Summarize the contacts of the posterior teeth in a quadrant with respect to occlusocervical location
MM, MM, MM, MM, M - maxillary

MM, MM, MM, MM, M - mandibular
Summarize the contacts of an entire quadrant with respect to occluso/inciso cervical location
IJ, JM, JM, MM, MM, MM, MM, M - maxillary

II, II, IM MM, MM, MM,MM, M - mandibular
What are the general rules in regards to the proximal contact incis/occlusocervical relation of the teeth in a quadrant
1. The more anterio the tooth, the more incisal/occlussal the proximal contact is

2. For any tooth, the mesial contact area is always more toward the incisal/occlusal surface than the distal
The interdental papilla generally has what shape
In healthy mouths the saggy tentlike area of tissue in the interproximal area is called
What are the 3 types of embrasures
Incisal/occlusal, lingual, and facial

What provides a natural spillway to help move food out of the occlusal area during chewing
Embrasure - they also help expose teeth to oral fluids and mechanical cleansing action of tongue, lips and cheeks
Besides facial and lingual embrasures being confluent(indistinguishable) from the interdental area, it is also confluent with what other structure
The occlusal/incisal embrasure
In the anterior teeth, the lingual and facial embrasures are roughly _________ and the posterior teeth embrasures have facial embrasures that are __________ compared to the lingual ones
equal in depth, shallower
An imaginary line circling the tooth at its greatest bulger or circumference is called
Height of Contour
The proximal contacts lie which direction of the HOC
On the HOC
The facial and lingual contacts are best seen from what view of a tooth
Where are anterior teeth have facial and lingual HOC's usually located incisocervically where
cervical 1/3 of crown
Where are the lingual HOCs of all posterior teeth located
Middle 1/3
Where are the facial HOCs of all posterior teeth
Cervical 1/3
All max teeth exhibit facial and lingual contours that meausre how big
1/2 mm
what is the measurement of the HOCs for sll the mand anterior teeth
< 1/2 mm
what is the measurement of the facial HOCs for the mand posteriors
1/2 same as that for max posteriors
What is the measure of the lingual HOCs on the mand posteriors
the flat line from the cervical line to HOC is called?
emergence profile
What kind of emergence profile can give a halo effect around the tooth gingiva
Convex Emergence Profile
What are the functions of the embrasures and proximal contacts working together
Support arch, move food out of occlusal area which also prevents food impaction, protect the peridontium, distribute forces of masitcation
Is the gingival or incisal/occlusal embrasure always larger
As you move from the centerline of the arch posteriorly, which embrasure gets smaller and which gets larger, Incisal/Occlusal or Gingival
Gingival gets smaller, incisal gets larger
The proximal surface of a tooth is always _______ or ________ but never ________ below the contact area
concave, flat, but never convex
what is the only tooth that has a mesial concavity
max 1st premolar
Where is the contact on ant teeth located faciolingually
closed to middle more facial if its not
Which facial cusps are slightly more centered than the other, mandibular or maxillary
Mandibular facial cusps are generally more centered
If you restore a tooth and the embrasure spaces are too small what can happen
you empenge on the interdental papilla and can cause inflammation
T or F permanent dentition has thicker enamel and dentin than the primary dentition
Which dentiton has more pronounced pulp horns, primary or permanent
Does the primary or permanent dentition have longer roots in relation to the crown size
T or F the roots in posterior primary teeth do not tend to flare that much
F, they flare out alot more
Where does the permanent tooth root bud tend to sit in relation to the primary tooth
It sits in between the area that is formed by the 'flaring" out of the roots
T or F primary teeth are more prone to inflammation due to high number of cell turnovers
F, although they have a more bulbous apperance which would tend to cause inflamation the high turnover limits inflammation
What permanent tooth do the primary 2nd molars resemble
permanent 1st molars
Which primary tooth has a distinctive mesial-facial bulge
Primary 1st molars
When a primary tooth exfoliates normally, what is a characteristic of its root
usually theres no root because it is resorbed which enables tooth to fall out
T or F the primary teeth dont act like space maintainers for the permanent teeth
Primary teeth tend to appear more bulbous than permanent teeth due to what
Constriction at the CEJ
Which dentition has smaller facial and lingual HOCs, the permanent or primary
permanent have smaller HOCs

HOCs on primary teeth sometimes called cervical or gingival ridge
Which central incisors usually preced the others in eruption in the primary dentition
the mandibs usually erupt before maxillary
What cause the primary teeth to appear to be whiter than permanent teeth
less dense dentin, remember dentin gives tooth yellow/brownish color
The primary maxillary central incisor is wider in which direction mesiodistally or incisocervicaly
mesiodistally, this is disimilar to the permanent dentition.

This wider mesiodistal characteristic is true for all anterior teeth in the primary dentition
The primary max central has how many lobes and pulp horns
4 lobes, 3 horns
Which of the two max incisors which is wider mesiodistally
Central is wider than lateral
Which primary max incisor has the more prominent cingulum
Central, but the lateral has more prominent marginal ridges
When looking at a proximal view of the primary ant teeth, they tend to have their incisal edges what in relation to the longitudinal axis of the too
They tend to have incisal edge centered on the longitudinal axis. This is opposite of the permanent ant teeth
On the primary mand incisors is the lingual anatomy less/more distinct than that of the primary max incisors
less distinct on primary mand incisors
Which tooth has the great incisocervical lenght, the primary mand lateral or central
lateral is longer and slightly wider too
Which primar mand incisor has a longer root
the lateral has longer root than central
Which cusp ridge is longest on the primar max canine
the mesial

NOTE on the primary mand the distal cusp ridge is longer
What are the 3 horns of the primary max canine named
distal, central(largest), mesial(smallest)
Which primary canine is wider mesiodistally
What is the general outline of the primary max 1st molar
how many cusps does the more common form of the primary max 1st molar have
Generally 3(lacks distolingual) but can have 4

On 4 cusp version distolingual is smalles cusp
T or F the oblique ridge found in max molars of the permanent dentition is also found on primary max molars
T however on the 3 cusped version the oblique ridge blends with the distal marginal ridge (oblique ridge runs from DF to ML cusps)
Which cusp is largest and longest of the 2 facial cusps on primary max 1st molar
Which cusp on the primary max 1st molar is the largest overall
Whats is the name of the groove that separates the mesiolingual and distolingual cusp(if present) on primary max 1st molar
distolingual groove
T or F the primary max 1st molar has the same number and arrangement of cusps as does the permanent max 1st molar
T, the names are the distofacial, lingual, mesiofacial roots
The size of the 3 roots on primary max 1st molar are from biggest to littlest
lingual, mesiofacial, distofacial
The primary 2nd max molar resembles which permanent tooth
permanent max 1st molar, it is rhomboid shaped occlusally and the facioingual measurement is greater than the mesiodistal measurement
which primary max molar is largest
how many cusps does the primary max 2nd molar generally have
generally 4 but can have 5th(cusp of carabelli)
Which of the 4 primary cusps on the primary max 2nd molar are widest and smallest
ML is largest, DL is smallest
The longest cusp on the primary max 2nd molar is the
ML, the other 3 are roughly equal length
How many roots and pulp horns does the primary max 2nd molar have
3 roots, and either 4 or 5 horns depending on number of cusps
What is the relationship of the faciolingual measurement of the primary mand 1st molar that makes it different
its very small measurement in faciolingual direction
on the primary mand 1st molar describe the cusp tips size relationships
both the lingual and facial mesial cusps are wider/longer than their distal counterparts

NOTE mesiofacial cusp slightly larger than mesiolingual
T or F the primary max molarss have a transverse ridge across the occlusal surface while the primary mand 1st molar has an oblique ridge on its occlusal surface
F, the maxillaries have oblique ridge and mand 1st has transverse ridge
How many roots do the primary mand 1st molars have
2 just like the permanent mand molars

mesial and distal, mesial is bigger and usually has 2 canals
The primary mand 2nd molar closely resembles what permanent tooth
mand 1st molar
difference is that primary 2nd has more bulbous appearance and is smaller relative size
The primary mand 2nd molar is distinguished by its mesiodistal measurement being what
greater than its faciolingual measurement
How many cusps does the primary mand 2nd molar have
5, the DF is the longest
How do the lingual cusps of the primary 2nd molar compare to each other as far as size goes
pretty equal
What cusps is the facial pit of the primary mand 2nd molar located between
MF and DF
Which primary mand molar has the larger roots
2nd has larger roots
How many canals are in the mesial root of the primary mand molars usually

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