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movement of air
External respiration-
Gas exchange between lungs and blood
Internal respiration-
Gas exchange between blood and tissues
Gas exchange
Oxygen enters blood and carbon dioxide leaves
Regulation of blood pH
Altered by changing blood carbon dioxide levels
Voice production
Movement of air past vocal folds makes sound and speech
Smell occurs when airborne molecules are drawn into nasal cavity
Against microorganisms by preventing entry and removing them from respiratory surfaces.
Respiratory System Anatomy
Nose Paranasal Sinuses Pharynx Larynx Trachea Thoracic Cavity Bronchi Lunges
just inside nares
Hard palate
floor of nasal cavity
Nasal septum
partition dividing cavity.
bony ridges on lateral walls with meatuses between
contain openings to paranasal sinuses
The sinuses connect to the nasal cavity via
sinus ostia
Functions of Nasal Cavity
Passageway for air Cleans the air- via cilia Humidifies, warms air Smell Along with paranasal sinuses are resonating chambers for speech
Common opening for digestive and respiratory systems Three regions: Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx
Thyroid Cartilage
largest, Adam’s apple
Cricoid Cartilage
most inferior, base of larynx
has a flap near base of tongue. Covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering- Aspiration
Contains mucous cells to trap foreign substances and expel them Trachea to terminal bronchioles is ciliated for removal of debris
Trachea divides into
two primary bronchi
permanent or semipermanent opening in the trachea formed to remove secretions and provide for air flow
site of gas exchange
the main provider of inspiratory force
Visceral Pleura-
covers the lungs
Parietal Pleura-
lines the chest cavity
inflammation of pleura
central region, contains contents of thoracic cavity (heart, trachea, esophagus, bronchi) except for lungs.
Right lung
three lobes- superior, middle, and inferior
Left lung
Two lobes- superior and inferior
separate the lungs. Oblique and Horizontal
Quiet Inspiration
(diaphragm, external intercostals) Diaphragm -accounts for 2/3 of increase in size of thoracic volume. Abdominal muscles relax Other muscles: elevate ribs and costal cartilages allow lateral rib movement
Quiet Expiration
Is a passive process (i.e., the msucle of inspiration relax). muscles that depress the ribs and sternum: abdominal muscles and internal intercostals. relaxation of diaphragm and external intercostals with contraction of abdominal muscles
Forceful inspiration
all inspiratory muscles (i.e., diaphragm, external intercostals, pectoralis minor, scalenes, SCM, and paravertebral muscles) are active and contract more forcefully.
Forceful expiration
Will recruit abdominal muscles and internal intercostals.
Costal Breathing-
breathing with the ribs, above the diaphragm
Diaphragmatic Breathing-
breathing by relaxing the abdomen, forcing the diaphragm to drop and the lungs to expand.
normal quiet breathing
temporary cessation of breathing
increased depth of breathing
rapid shallow breathing
decrease in oxygen levels below normal values
Sudden, spasmodic contraction of the thoracic cavity, resulting in violent release of air and debris from the lungs
convulsive expulsion of air from the nose and mouth. Sends two to five thousand bacteria-filled droplets into the air. 400 miles per hour
an involuntary intake of breath
the state of having reflex spasms of the diaphragm accompanied by a rapid closure of the glottis
Tidal Volume
amount of air inspired or expired with each breath. At rest: 500 mL
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
amount that can be inspired forcefully after inspiration of the tidal volume (3000 mL at rest)
Expiratory Reserve Volume
amount that can be forcefully expired after expiration of the tidal volume (100 mL at rest)
Residual Volume:
volume still remaining in respiratory passages and lungs after most forceful expiration (1200 mL)
Inspiratory capacity
tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume. TV+ IRV
Functional residual capacity
expiratory reserve volume plus residual volume. ERV + RV
Vital capacity:
sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume. IRV + TV + ERV
Total lung capacity
sum of inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes plus tidal volume and residual volume. IRV + ERV + TV + RV
introduction of food into stomach
moves material through digestive tract . Smooth muscle relaxation moves ahead of the bolus of food. Then a wave of contraction of the smooth muscles behind the bolus of food or chyme propels it through the digestive tract.
Mass movements
in large intestine
emulsifies fats
chemical digestion
Mechanical and chemical
Movement from tract into circulation or lymph
Waste products removed from body; feces. Defecation
Two sets Primary, deciduous: Childhood Permanent or secondary: Adult (32) Types Incisors, canines, premolars and molars
Anatomic crown
enamel-covered part of tooth;
clinical crown
is section of tooth above gum line
outermost layer of anatomical crown. Protective.
living, cellular, calcified tissue.
Pulp cavity
filled with blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue
Periodontal ligaments
hold tooth in socket.
dense, fibrous C.T.
Hard palate: anterior, supported by maxilla and palatine bone Soft palate: posterior, consists of skeletal muscle and connective tissue Uvula: projects from posterior of soft palate
Transports food from pharynx to stomach Passes through esophageal hiatus (opening) of diaphragm and ends at stomach Hiatal hernia: widening of hiatus
Stomach Anatomy: Openings
Gastroesophageal (cardiac): to esophagus Pyloric: to duodenum
Stomach Anatomy: Regions
Cardiac Fundus Body Pylorus
Stomach Anatomy: Sphincters
Cardiac (lower esophageal) Pyloric
Small Intestine Anatomy
Site of greatest amount of digestion and absorption of nutrients and water Divisions Duodenum Jejunum Ileum
Large Intestine Anatomy
Consists of: Cecum Ascending colon Transverse colon Descending colon Rectum Sigmoid colon Anal canal Appendix
Salivary Glands
Parotid: largest. Just anterior to the ear. Submandibular: Posterior half of inferior border of mandible. Sublingual: smallest.
Esophageal phase
Stretching of esophagus causes a reflex that initiates peristalsis of muscles in the esophagus
Functions of the Stomach
Storage of food Mixing the food with gastric secretions until Chyme (ingested food + secretions) is formed Permitting the food to slowly empty into the duodenum Secretion: Chief Cells- Pepsinogen to digest protein Parietal Cells- HCl to kill bacteria Mucous Cells- Mucous to protect stomach lining from digestive enzymes Endocrine cells- regulatory hormones to increase secretions and motility
Chyme converted to
Feces consist of
water undigested food microorganisms sloughed-off epithelial cells
Stomach absorbs:
water, salts, glucose, alcohol
Small Intestine Absorbs
Amino Acids, simple sugars, fatty acids, glycerol, vitamins, minerals
Large Intestine absorbs
water and salt
Functions of the Liver
Bile production: Neutralizes and dilutes stomach acid Bile salts emulsify fats. Storage Glycogen, fat, vitamins, copper and iron. Nutrient interconversion Amino acids to energy producing compounds Hydroxylation of vitamin D. Detoxification Hepatocytes remove ammonia and convert to urea Phagocytosis phagocytize worn-out and dying red and white blood cells, some bacteria Synthesis Albumins, fibrinogen, globulins, heparin, clotting factors
precipitated cholesterol Can block cystic duct Can occur because of drastic dieting
yellowing of the skin and eyes caused by excess bile products in the blood.
endocrine systme
Glands that secrete chemical signals (hormones) into circulatory system Hormone characteristics Produced in small quantities Secreted into intercellular space Transported some distance in circulatory system Acts on target tissues elsewhere in body Regulate activities of body structures
Endocrine System Functions
Metabolism and tissue maturation Ion regulation Water balance Immune system regulation Heart rate and blood pressure regulation Control of blood glucose and other nutrients Control of reproductive functions Uterine contractions and milk release
Endocrine Glands
Hypophysis (Pituitary) Thyroid Parathyroid Pancreatic Islets Suprarenal (adrenal) Ovaries Testes Pineal
Posterior Pituitary (neurohypophysis):
extension of the nervous system Secretes neurohormones
Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis)
Consists of three areas
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Also called vasopressin.
If the concentration of electrolytes increases or if the concentration of water decreases, then ADH secretion is stimulated. If BP decreases, then ADH secretion is stimulated.
Stimulates uterine contractions Stimulates breast milk production Nursing stimulates oxytocin release to cause uterine contractions and allow for uterine return to normal size post delivery
Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin-
Promotes bone and cartilage growth Regulates metabolism Dwarfism, giantism, acromegaly
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
causes secretion and storage of hormones from and within the thyroid gland
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
Beta Endorphins-
Beta Endorphins-
produce analgesia in response to stress and exercise
Thyroid Gland
One of largest endocrine glands Only gland that stores hormone Stimulated by TSH from the Anterior Pituitary Triiodothyronine or T3 Tetraiodothyronine or T4 or thyroxine Increase rate of glucose, fat, protein metabolism in many tissues thus increasing body temperature Normal growth of many tissues dependent on presence of thyroid hormones
Too little thyroid hormone. Symptoms include weight gain, constipation, dry skin, and sensitivity to the cold
Too much thyroid hormone. Symptoms include weight loss, chest pain, cramps, diarrhea, and nervousness
Parathyroid Glands
Embedded in thyroid Two glands on each side Secrete PTH: target tissues are bone, kidneys and intestines. Increases blood calcium and phosphate levels Regulation depends on calcium levels
An increase in production of PTH. leading to Ca reabsorption from bone Osteoporosis High kidney levels of Ca  kidney stones
A decrease in the production of PTH Leads to hypocalcemia in the blood Tetany, muscle spasms, death
Exocrine gland Produces pancreatic digestive juices Endocrine gland Consists of pancreatic islets Composed of Alpha cells; secrete glucagon Beta cells; secrete insulin Delta cells; secrete somatostatin
Increases uptake of glucose and amino acids by cells
Causes breakdown of glycogen and fats for energy
Diabetes Mellitus-
leading to the inability of the body to produce or respond to insulin (which allows the body to use glucose/sugar) properly.
Diabetes Insipidus-
a disease of the pituitary (not pancreas) leading to constant thirst and frequent urination.
A deficiency of sugar in the blood caused by too much insulin or too little glucose
High levels of sugar in the blood. In diabetes, this can happen if there is not enough insulin
Adrenal Glands
Near superior poles of kidneys Suprarenal Medulla Sympathetic. Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine Suprarenal Cortex: Mineralocorticoids Glucocorticoids Androgens
Hormones of the Suprarenal Cortex
Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone- Increases rate of sodium reabsorption by kidneys increasing sodium blood levels Glucocorticoids: Cortisol -Increases fat and protein breakdown, increases glucose synthesis, decreases inflammatory response Androgens: Weak androgens secreted then converted to testosterone by peripheral tissues. Stimulate pubic and axillary hair growth and sexual drive in females
Pineal Body
Located in the Epithalamus Produces hormones that inhibit reproductive function Melatonin- Helps regulate sleep cycles
muscular walls. For menstrual flow and child birth.
Cervix- inferior uterus. lined with mucous glands Fundus- top of the uterus Peritoneum- tissue that lines the abdominal wall Broad Ligament- extension of peritoneum spread on each side of uterus Perimetrium- outer layer. Peritoneum of the uterus Myometrium- smooth muscle Endmetrium- innermost layer. mucous membrane
Uterine Tubes
Fallopian Tubes- transport oocyte (unfertilized egg) or zygote (fertilized egg) from the ovary to the uterus Isthmus- junction of the cervix and body of the uterus Ampulla- thin walled mid region of fallopian tube Infundibulum- location of fertilization Fimbriae- long thin processes at the infundibulum
Stroma- connective tissue of the ovary Graafian Follicles- contains the mature egg within the ovary
painful menstruation
absence of menstruation
Premenstrual Syndrome-
mood swings associated with premenstruation
Menopausal Syndrome-
cessation of menstrual cycles
Cervical Cancer-
2nd most common in women. Caused by the HPV virus
Located outside the body cavity because sperm require lower-than-body temperature for development Testis serve as both Exocrine Gland: sperm cells Endocrine Gland: testosterone
site of sperm cell maturation
the mature sperm cell
Ductus Deferens (Vas Deferens) -
The two muscular tubes that carry sperm from the epididymis to the urethra. Vasectomy

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