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Exercise Physiology Chapter 1


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The percentage of the total volume of blood in the ventricles after diastole.
Ejection Fraction
What is it called when the oxygen is taken from the protein molecule hemoglobin to the working muscles?
Oxygen Extraction
Name the 3 systems that produce ATP.
Aerobic Energy System
Anaerobic Energy System
Creatine Phosphate System
What term defines the intensity is approximately between 50-85% maximum heart rate or at which adequate oxygen is unavailable.
Anerobic Threshold (Lactate or Respiratory)
What is the primary source for production of ATP?
Glycogen and Fatty Acids
What is hyperventilation?
Breathing harder than necessary at a given pace.
What are the proteins in the blood that carry out the chemical reactions needed to produce ATP aerobically and anaerobically?
What is a kilocalorie?
The amount of heat it takes to increase 1 kilogram of water 1 centigrade.
What is the calculation for getting the maximum Vo2Max or Vo2?
HR x SV x O2 Extraction
180 x 115mL/beat x 15mL/100mL Blood (divided by bodyweight/kg)
= ###mL/Kg/min
What is a met? How do you determine the Vo2Max of a met value?
Metabolic Equivalent. Resting Vo2 Max of 3.5mL/Kg/min.
To determine the Vo2Max, multiply 3.5 x the met value.
What is a motor neuron?
Neurons makeup the tissue in the brain and spinal cord. A motor neuron transmits a nerve impulse to a working muscle.
What is a neurotransmitter?
A neurotransmitter is store in a motor neuron to chemically transmit the nerve impulse to muscle fibers.
What is acetylcholine?
A specific type of neurotransmitter.
What is a neuromuscular junction?
The junction where a motor neuron and a myofibril meet.
Name 2 contractile proteins.
Actin and Myocin
What is a Sarcomere?
A sarcomere is several repeating units within the myofibril. These units contain actin and myocin.
What is Sarcolemma?
The sarcomere's membrane.
What is Sarcoplasma and Sarcoplasmic reticulum?
The sarcoplasma is the gelatin-like substance inside the membrane. It contains the "sarcomplasmic reticulum" which stores and releases calcium.
What must happen according to the Sliding Filament Theory?
A nerve impulse must take place; ATP must be near the actin and myosin to create a muscle contraction.
What is a cross-bridge?
When the myosin heads attach to the actin outside of it and form a cross-bridge.
What is the name of the contraction when there is no change to the length of the whole muscle?
Isometric - means same length
What is the name of the contraction when the force is greater than the resistance resulting in a shortened muscle?
Concentric contraction - positive
What is the name of the contraction when the resistance is greater than the force resulting in an elongated muscle?
Eccentric contraction - negative
What is the stimulation of previously inactive motor units called?
Nervous Inhibition
Name the 4 limiting factors in flexiblity?
1) Elasticity of the muscle fiber; 2) Elasticity of the ligaments and tendons crossing the joint; 3) skin 4) bone to joint structure.
What are muscle spindles?
A sensor that protects against too much stretching.
What is optimum fitness?
The condition resulting from a lifestyle to be developed to an optimum level be it cardiovascular, muscle strength or flexibility and maintaining and achieving an ideal body weight.
What is the amount of maximum force of a muscle in a single contraction termed as?
Muscular strength
What is the number of repeated contractions performed against a resistance without fatigue?
Muscle endurance
When a contraction can be held for a length of time without fatigue?
Muscle endurance
The percentage of the total volumen of blood in the ventricles after diastole.
Ejection Fraction
What is cardiorespiratory fitness?
The ability of the cardiorespiratory/cardiopulmonary system to deliver adequate blood supply/oxygen to the exercising muscles.
What is the body percentage of a fit woman?
21 to 24%
What is the body percentage of a fit man?
14 to 17%
Name some fitness testing that are available.
Gas Analyzers to measure true O2 consumption; Calibrated static gauges attached to isokinetic machines to measure muscular strength; hydrostatic tanks with either hydrogen or helium for measuring body composition.
What is the cardiovascular system composed of?
Heart, lungs blood vessels
Name two circulartory patterns in the cardiovascular system?
Systemic - Left ventricle to whole body and back.
Pulmonary - Right ventricle to lungs and back.
What do the coronary arteries do?
Supply the heart with its own blood/oxygen supply during diastole.
What is a benefit for a high level of cardiopulmonary fitness?
Resting heart rate is lower.
What is the primary purpose of the cardiovascular system?
To deliver oxygen to the exercising muscles.
Name 2 energy systems used when there is insufficient oxygen supply.
Anaerobic Energy System and Creatine Phosphate System.
When is lactic acid produced?
Loss of ATP/Anerobically
How does blood pressure change with exercise?
The SBP increases; the DBP decreases slightly or stays the same.
What changes occur in cardiac output due to aerobic training?
Lower resting HR; Higher SV; Maximum cardio output
Name some changes in oxygen extraction due to aerobic training.
New capillaries are created in the working skeletal muscles; Increase in enzymes in the cells; Increase in mitochondria; Elevated anerobic threshold.
Name 4 rules to maximize overload principle.
1) Correct type; 2) Duration; 3) Frequency; 4) Intensity
What is the principle of specifity of training?
Type of exercise chosen
What is the rythmic squeezing of large muscles against the veins in them?
Muscle pump
What percent of maximum HR is recommended for general fitness improvement?
How can a client monitor his/her target heart rate?
Learn their aerobic threshold using the RPE - Hyperventilling serves as a measurement of intensity
Name benefits of aerobic exercise?
1) Decreased appetite; 2) body composition benefits; 3) Lower blood sugars; 4) Reduce risk of osteoporosis; 5; Increase calorie intake;
What is HDL?
High-Density Lipoprotein "Good Chloesterol"
What are the 3 primary types of muscle cells in the body?
1) Smooth cells- In walls of arteries and intestines; 2) Cardiac cells - In heart; 3) Skeletal muscles cells
What 2 factors determine the amount of force generated during contraction in the whole muscle?
1) Size of individual muscle fibers; and 2) The number of muscle fibers contracted together
What is "length-Tension" relationship?
A muscle generates a maximum force when it BEGINS its contraction at 1.2 times its resting length.
What is the all-or-none principal?
The muscle fiber when shortened generates its force maximum capacity.
What variables influence strength-training adaptations?
1) Relationship of resistance and repetitions; 2) Distribution of slow and fast twitch fibers; and 3)Level of testosterone hormone.
What is hypertrophy and hyperplasia?
Hypertrophy is the increase in size of the muscle fiber (the number and size of the myobibrils). Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of muscle fibers.
What is an important adaptation to strength training?
Increased strength in the connective tissue.
What is isotonic, isometric and isokinetic training?
Isometic is contraction at the joint with no change to the muscle length; Isotonic means same tension or tone with the change in force with range of motion; ; Isokinetic means same speed with maximum force keeping the speed constant.
Name 2 types of muscle soreness.
DOMS - Tears in muscle fiber connective tissues or slight tears in the muscle cells. Lactic acid accumulation
Name some factors implicated in fatique?
Dehyration, increased body temperature, boredom
Name how muscle fatigues in these scenerios:
0-30 minutes exercise
40-60 minutes exercise
60-180 minutes exercise
0-30 loss of ATP
40-60 Lactic acid accumulation
60-180 Depletion of glycogen
What is ballistic Stretching?
It is rapid bouncing that will stimulate the muscle spindles.

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