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Farm ANimal


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In pigs, what approach is used to fix scrotal, inguinal hernias?
castration approach
What makes up the superficial inguinal ring?
it is a split in aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique
What are the contents of the inguinal canal in males?
ilioinguinal nerve, genital branch of the genitalfemoral nerve, and the spermatic cord(cremaster m, testicular vessels, pamipiniform plexus, lymphatic vessels)
What are the contents of the inguinal canal in females?
ilioinguinal nerve, genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve, round uterine ligament and lymphatic vessels
What is the most common cause of esophageal disorders in the bovine?
foreign body obstruction
What is the measurement of the bovine versus the ovine esophagus?
bovine- 90 to 105 cm
ovine- 45 cm, about 1/2 the size of the bovine esophagous
Explain the anatomical position of the esophagus?
cranial (1/3)- esophagus is dorsal to trachea
3-6th cervical vertebrae- esophagus moves to the left of the trachea
thoracic inlet- esophagus is dorsolateral to the trachea
what are the structures that accompany the cervical esophagus?
carotid sheath, recurrent laryngeal nerve, tracheal lymphatic trunk, and deep cervical lymph nodes
what are the four layers that comprise the esophagus?
outer advential layer (tunica adventitia)
muscular layers (tunica muscularis)
submucosa (tela submucosa)
mucosal layer (tunica mucosa)
What is the blood supply of the esophagus?
cranial thyroid, common carotid, bronchoesophageal, and reticular aa
What is the venous drainage of the esophagus?
branches of the cranial and middle thyroid veins, the caudal part of the external jugular vein, crainal vena cava which drain into the azygous, reticular and left ruminal veins
What nerves innervate the esophagus?
Cranial- esophageal branches of the vagus nerve
Caudal- esophageal branches of the recurrent laryngeal and vagal nerves
Where is a visible and palpable bulge evident when a bolus is swallowed?
in the left jugular groove
What are two main causes of extraluminal choke?
lymphosarcoma and abcesses
What are the structures with anatomical significance in relation to the esophagus?
recurrent laryngeal nerve, dorsal and ventral vagal trunk, and caudal mediastinal lymph nodes
Where are 4 common places where choke occurs?
pharnygeal-esophageal jxn, thoracic inlet, base of the heart, cranial to the cardiac of the stomach
Why is esophageal obstruction an emergency in the bovine?
b/c the animal can not eructate gas (ruminal burps) therefore getting enlarged pushing on the diaphragm making it hard for the animal to breathe
How do you relieve the bloat in an animal with an esophageal blockage?
trocharize to relieve the pressure
What clinical signs seen in an animal with esophageal obstruction?
retching, salivation, animal has head and nexk distended, coughing, protruding tongue, anxiousness, agitation and dehydration
Due to salivation in animals with esophageal obstruction, what metabolic state are we most likely to find?
metabolic acidosis- cow is losing sodium and bicarb, hypokalemia and hyponatremia
How much saliva does a normal, healthy cow produce a day?
30 L/day
How do you diagnosis esophageal obstruction?
palpate/visualize, endoscopy, radiography, ultrasound examination
Which diagnostic procedure is best in identifying whether there is esophageal necrosis?
What is the method of choice for evaluating bovine esophageal disorders?
What is esophagraphy?
contrast administration in the esophagus with barium suspension
What is Fluoroscopy used for in diagnosing the bovine esophagus?
evaluate the swallow reflex
When would you use barium paste over a barium suspension in evaluating the esophagus with contrast administration?
barium paste is preferred if a mucosal ulceration is suspected b/c the paste coats and better delineates the mucosal surface
Why is iodinated contrast medium used over barium suspension in evaluating the esophagus?
barium causes granulomatous response if it dissects the soft tissues, there iodinated contrast medium can be considered if esophageal perforation is suspected.
Why is a stomach tube not passed when evaluating the esophagus?
it can induce/cause esophageal ruptures
What are some RULE OUTS when evalutating an esophageal obstruction case?
#1- Rabies, botulism, tetnaus, plant toxicity (milkweed, sneezeweed, larkspur), BVD, abcesses, mycotic/bacterial stomatitis, pharynegeal trauma
What approach is used for performing a cervical esophatomy?
a lateral or a ventro-lateral approach
What procedure is normally preformed on the thoracic esophagus?
a left sided rib resection
The proximity of what structure can have deleterious effects on manipulation of the esophagus?
the recurrent laryngeal nerve
Which layer(s) provides the greastest tensile strength during esophageal closure?
the inner layer: composed of the mucosa and the submucosa
T/F: Primary esophageal closure is a 4-layer technique?
False: 2- layer technique
Describe the closure of the esophgagus?
- the mucosa and the submucosa are closed together(synthetic monofilament material-long last absorable/nonabsorable- simple interrupted/simple continuous) with the knots tied within the esophageal lumen
- the muscular layer closed with an absorable or nonabsorable noncapillary suture-simple interrupted or mattress pattern
- a suction drain is placed to allow evacuation of contaminated exudate
Why are the knots tied within the esophgeal lumen when closing the esophagus? What is the name of this technique?
to prevent contamination of the wound by ingesta moving along the suture tracts, known as the buried knot technique
Why is a suction drain important when closing the esophagus?
what drainage is preferred?
it allows evacuation of contaminated exudate, if not there will be asceptics which can lead to massive cellulitis, ventral drainage is preferred
What intention will the esophagus mostly heal?
Second intention healing
What are common sources of "choke" in the bovine?
incomplete mastication and rapid ingestion of potato, apple, turnips, corn on cob, cabbage, beats
What happens if an esophagraphy is preformed if there is an obstruction in the cranial portion of the esophagus?
the obstruction will be delinated and the contrast medium may be detected in the trachea because of aspiration
How can contrast radiography be used to determine an intra versus extra esophoageal mass?
in an extra-esophageal mass, the esophagus would be deviated ventrally with mild dilation and the contrast medium would detect gas in the cervical esophagus and there would be difficulty swallowing the medium
What are treatment alternative to surgery for obtaining the obstruction in "choke" cases?
1. warm water lavage
2. manipulate the obstruction bringing it to the oral cavity (external massage)
3. wire snare (for distal obstructions)
What are some surgery techniques that can be preformed in "choke" cases?
1. if mass is a thoracic inlet- rumenotomy and reach for obstruction or a partial rib resection
2. esophagotomy or esophagomyotomy
What is important to remember when using the warm water lavage technique to remove an obstruction?
remember to use xyaline for a light sedation and keep the animals head down inorder to prevent aspiration pneumonia

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