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animal nutrition


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what are substrate feeders?
live in or on their food source, eating their way through the food,
what are deposit feeders?
eat organic material in soils...earthworms
what are fluid feeders
suck nutient rich fluids from a living host,
what are bulk feeders?
eat large pieces of food in long interuals
what does destion follow?
what is digestion?
the process of breaking food down into molecules smal enough for the body to absorb
why is digestion necessary?
proteins, fats and starches (polymers) are to large to passs through membranes and enter the cells

the molecules from food are not the molecules that the animal needs. hence, the animal must rearrange these molecules to suit their needs
what does chewing and grinding of the food do?
reduces big food particles to many small food particles
what is enzymatic hydrolysis
a reversal of the removal of water incovalent bonds
what does digestion do to polymer (proteins)
breaks polymers down to monomers (amino acids) by hydrolysis
where does hydrolysis that palce?
rthis enzymatic process takes place in specialized compartments, such as the astrovascular cavities through the breatching of covalent bonds by the additions of water
what happens to food that cannot be broken down?
t or F? is hydrolysis common to all animals/
what does the food vacuole do?
protects the cell from the hydrolytic enzymes
what is intracellular digestion (endocytosis composed of?
phagocytosis or pinocytosis
what kind of digestion do sponges utilize?
phagocytosis or pinocytosis
what are gastrovascular cavities?
place where food is digested partially by enzymes
where is digestion completed?
inside the cell
where is digestion completed? what process?
inside the cell through endocytosis
how many opening does the gastrovascular cavity have?
what is an example of a gastrovascular cavity with one opening?
hydra and planaria
what is an alimentary canal?
a tube running between two openings...mouth -anus

digestion only occurs here in inverebrates and vetrebrates
what is peristalsis?
contractiar of mscles to move material down--vomit is the reverse
what are sphincter?
valves-top of stomach ect.
what are salivary glands?
parotid, sublingual submandibular
what is the pancreas
enzyme production to small intestine and bi-carbinate
what is the liver?
digestion of fat, screening of foods, tokin removal
what is the gall bladder?
stores digestive juices
what is the function of chewing?
forms BOLUS which is bolus or a ball of food
what does saliva do?
protects the soft lining of the mouth wit glyprotein, nutralizes acid in food, adds antibacterial agents, starts to digest with amylase-which converts to glucose and shapes food into a bolus, helps with shallowing-which moves food past the trachea, the epiglottis protects the trachea
what is the pharynx?
the throat
what forces the bolus down the tube and into the stomach/.
what are smoth muscles responsible for?
peristaltic waves
what is the cardiac sphincter//
top of te stomach-value
what is the stomach?
a complex organ with 4 layers of tissues making up its walls, moves food , but no grinding
how is digestion carried out in the stomach?
with the addtion of gastic juice
what is gastric juice compsed of?
HCL (ph=2) and pepsin- pepsin is the protein for breakdown
what does HCL do
break down the glue that holds plant and animal cells together
what does pepsin do?
enzyme that hydrolyses protein. and produces polypeptides

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