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Kin 216 Final


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the ureter exits the kidney through a structure called the hilum.
Mechinal Trauma to the kidneys may cause the apperance of blood in the urine...this condition is called
The presence of which of the following substances in the urine would suggest the existence of some type of pathology
the presence of which of the following substances in urine would suggest the existance of some type of nephropathy
The inner lining of the uninary bladder consists of
*stratified epithelium
What are parameters regulated by the kidneys
*PH *blood pressure *hydration state *hematocrit
The renal system participated in a process called
What are the atomical structures that pass through the hilum of the kidney
*ureter *renal artery *renal vein
Inflammation of kidney tissue is called
A pyelogram is an immage of which region of the kidney?
*pelvis *renal pelvis
What is the internal structure of the nephron,into which blood filtrate enters the nephron
*Glomerular capsule (also known as Bowman's capsule)
the enzymatic(chemical) digestion of protein begins in the oral cavity
false *It takes place in the small intestine which is in the umbilical region on the abdomen
the enzymatic(chemical) digestion of carbohyrates begins in the oral cavity
An adenoidectomy is a surgical removal of the pharyngeal tonsils
ture ***Palatine tonsils(the largest) and are removed in a procedure called a TONSILLECTOMY
What is a pathological condition involving a malignant tumor of the liver
Which organs does not eaither produce or store digestive enzymes
*Liver *Gallbladder *Pancreas *Parotid Gland
the structre regulating the flow of chyme between the stomach and the small intestine
*pyloric sphincter
What organs are primarly located on the left side of the body
What structure has both respiratory and digestive functions
What organ has no digestive functions?
The structure seprating the superior portion of the oral cavity from the inferior portion of the nasial cavity is called
What is the innermost layer of the small intestine and the tunic responsible for the asorbition of nutrients
*mucosa:There are 3 sub-layer of the mucous membrane-epithelial lining, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae
What is the sequence of structures in order to travel from the distal stomach to the proximal colon
Once mixed with saliva and gastric secretions,the pulvarixed and lubricated food is moved into the small intestine as a pasty material called
the lymphatic system partisipates in the absorption of which class of nutrients from the GI tract
What processes occur in the small intestine, what does not
*Digestion, absorption, peristalsis occur in the small intestine *ingestion does not occur in the small intestine
*swallowing of food(moves it from the mouth to pharynx to esophagus) *it is voluntary
What is the bend called between the trasverse and decending colon?
*splenic flexure **The hepatic flexure is the bend on the right side
What is the membrane directly overlaying the organs in the peritoneal cavity
*visceral peritoneum
what is a degenerative disease of the liver often cause by alcohol abuse or viral hepatitis
*cirrhosis of the liver
perisalsis occurs in what sections of the alimentary canal
*esophagus *stomach *small/large intestine
when dissecting a cadaver, cutting from superficial to deeper layers,the first pleural membrane encountered would be the parietal pleura
true *The parietal pleura:is attached to the wall of chest and thoracic surface of diaphragm *the Visceral pleura: is attached to the outer surface of the lung itself
the CNS sites for regulation of breathing rate and depth are located in the...
Contraction of skeletal muscles is required for..
*sneezing *normal (resting) inspiration
The uvula is directly connected to what structure
*the soft plate
What is the inflammation of the membranes covering the lungs called
What nervous system innervated the muscular walls of the pharynx
What are the laryngeal cartilage
Epiglottis:most cephalic, closes glottis-opening between larynx-durring swallowing *Thyroid cartilage:largest (prominence in adams apple) *cricoid:ring, connects thyroid cartilage to trachea
What are the membranes covering the lungs
"collapsed lung"
Phlebits is the inflammation of what
*a vein
what is the condition that is caused by the deficency of red blood cells or hemoglobin, and is characterized by a pallor of the skin
Thrombus is another term for
*blood clot
The plasma protein provide what type of pressure that keeps fluid from leaking out of the cappilaries
*oncotic pressure
What are the rings of smooth muscle found at the distal end of arterioles called?
*precapillary sphincters
What vessel carries oxygenated blood to the brain
*internal carotid artery
capillary structure includes which tunicas
*the tunica intima
What are the blood vessels actions
*they make up the piping for blood flow throughout the body *they run through organs and tissues to supply nutrients and pick up wastes
Structure and Function of Arteries
*carry blood AWAY from the heart *high pressure and flow vessels *deeper location than veins *more smooth muscle then veins
Structure and funcion of Capillaries
*smallest vessel *Composed of a single layer of endothelial cells surrounded by basement membrane *site of gas and nutrient exchange
What are the 4 main organs that supply nutrients and help with gas exchange?
***all tissues exchange nutrients for wastes *Lungs:exchange gases *Intestine:exchange digestive nutrients *Endocrine glands: release hormones *Kidney:removes waste
Structure and function of Veins
*take blood TOWARD the heart *Low pressure vessels *more superficial location than arteries *thiner walls than arteries
Muscular Arteries
*supply organs, parts of organs, and groups of organs *have thickest tunica media (have internal and external elastic lamina) *smooth muscle in tunica media regulates flow ---Contraction of smooth muscle=vasoconstriction ---relaxation of smooth muscle=vasodilation
*the smallest veins *The smallest venules are called postcapillary venules and they consit of an endothelium *the function is alot like capillaries *larger venules have a tunica media and a thin tunica externa
*it is a structural feature of some veins *they prevent the backflow of blood away ffrom the heart *Each of the valves have several cusps formed from the tunica intima
Structure and function of a Capillary Bed
*network of bodys smallest vessels *metarterioles-intermediate between arteriole and capillary ***pre-capillary sphincters control flow *True capillary-gas and nutrient exchange *thoroughfare channel-intermediate between venule capillary
Methods by which venous return is augmented
*valves *Body movement *muscular pump(skeletal muscles push against veins) *venous Vasoconstriction(possible, not not the same as in arteries)
*where vessels unite or interconnect *arterial anastomoses provide collateral channels *venous anastomoses more abundant
Vasa Vasorum
*Little vessels that supply larger arteries and veins with nutrients *feeds outer half of vessel(located in tunica ecterna) *luminal blood feeds inner half *small vessels get full supply from luminal blood
Dural sinuses
Most veins of the brain drain into the intracranial dural sinuses, which form an interconnected series of channels in the skull and lie between the two layers of the cranial dura matter
Varicose veins
*faulty venous valves cause blood pooling *common in obesity and pregnancy
*Pathological thinkening and loss of elasticity *medial-occurs with age and the smooth muscle and elastin are replaced with fibrous tissue
*Occurs in the tunica intima *initially caused by entrance of LDL into intimal layer which eventually cause plaque formation *eventually thrombosis forms and can block arteries *best prevention is low-fat diet and excerise
*blood pooling in venings of anal canal
Deep vein Thrombosis
*Clot formation in vein of lower extremity which travels and blocks flow in another vessel
What is the process of the Lympathetic vessels
*lymph capillaries-lympthatic collecting vessels (nodes scattered)-lympth trunks-lympth ducts
Describe lymphatic vessels
*carry fluid to nodes, which filter and purify *Have same 3 tunics as blood (but thinkker walls) and contain valves(many of valves) *superficicial vessels travel with veins:deeper vesseks travel with arteries
Movement of lympth is propelled by
*skeletal muscle action *artery pulsations *tunica media(of lymphatic vessel itself) *normal movement of trunk and limbs
structure and function of lymph nodes
*remove pathogens from lymphs *bean-shaped, often occur in clusters *microscopic anatomy: *surrounded by fibrous capsule(dense CT) *trabecular extended inward *afferent and efferent lympathatic vessels *HILUS=indented regoing(efferent sxit through) *lymph sinuses are located between afferent and efferent vessels *follicles(codules)=masses of lymphoid tissue ***if cancer gets into lymphatic system, the cells can be widely dispersed and tumors can develop at nodes
Lymph Trunk
*formed by convergence of largest lymphatic collecting vessels *Drain large aeras of the body: *lumbar trunks(sides of aorta in inferior abdomen-drain lower limbs, pelvic organs, anterior abdominal wall) *intestinal trunk(posterior abdominal wall- drains stomach, intestines, deigestive organs) *bronchomediastinal trunks(sides of trachea-drain thoracic viscera/wall) *subclavian trunks(base of neck-drains upper limbs, inferior neck, superior thoracic wall) *jugular trunks(base of jugular veins-drain head and neck)
Lymph ducts
*largest lymphatic vessels *thoracic duct: -runs along vertebral bodies -empties into veins at intersection of left interal jugular and left subclavian veins -is sometimes joined by other lypmh trunks(it drains 3/4 of the body) *Right lymphatic duct: -found in 20% of people -union of right jugular, subclavian, and bronchomediastinal trunks -drains near junction of right internal jugular and subclavian veins -if not present, trunks drain into separate veins
*B and T cells continously circulate, enter/exit CT, lymph tissue, and blood vessels
structure and function of lymphoid tissue
*specialized CT that has many lymphocytes-2 locations -MALT(mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue): frequently affected mucous membranes located in digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts -ALL lymphoid organs except thymus *main "battleground" for infection *lymphocyte activation site *framework is reticular CT with fibroblasts
Lymphoid follicles(nodules)
clusters of lymphocytes-each comes from a single Bcell that rapidly divides (new ones leave to become plasma cells)
Lymphocytes activation
*lymphoid stem cells-thymus(t cells) or stay in bone marrow (b cells)-rapid regeneration and formation of lymphocyte families (specific to antigens)-cells become fully mature when they attack
antigen presenting cell
*presents antigen to lymphocyte *B cells mark antigens for phagocytosis *t cells either directly lyse cell (cytotoxic) or release cytokines(helper), which stimulate production of different cell types
*primary lymphoid organ *Superior thorax, posterior to sternum *lymphocytes develop into T cells *thymic hormones cause T lymphocytes to gain imminocompetence *atrophies over time *different from typical lymphoid organs -does not directly fight antigens -not composed of lymphoid CT
Lymph nodes
*secondary lymphoid organ *Lymphatic and immune systems overlap *lymphoid tissue destroys antigens and activated T and B cells
*secondary lymphoid organ *Largest lymphoid organ *left superior quadrant of abdoninal cavity, posterior to stomach *removes antigens and worn out blood cells, stores platelts
*secondary lymphoid organ *swelling of mucosal lining of pharynx *4 groups: palatine, lingualm pharyngeal, tubal
Aggregated lymphoid nodules
*secondary lymphoid organ *clusters of lymphoid follicles in ileum(distal part), of small intestine
Hodgkins disease
*malignant lymph nodes (fatigue, swollen/painfull nodes, fever, night sweats) *treated with radiation and sad high cure rate relative to other cancers
Bronchi (conducting zone)
*main bronchi (R,L) aka primary bronchi -braches off trachea -runs obliquely through mediastinum and into hilus of lung -right side is wider, shorter, and more vertical than left side *secondary(lobar) bronchi -3 on the right, 2 on the left-supply each lobe of the lung *tertiary (segmental) bronchi -divide repeatedly into smaller and smaller bronchi
Type 2 cells
*cuboidal epithelial cells that secrete SURFACANT, which coats internal alveolar surfaces (no sticking)
*covering/lining of lungs and pleural cavity *walls of serous membrane -visceral pleura:attached to outer surface of lung itself -parietal pleura: attached to wall of chest and thoracic surface of diaphragm -pleural cavity:space between pleurae(contains serous fluid, if you get air in this space you are fucked(pneumothorax)) *pleurisy(pleuritis):inflammation
Lungs anatomy
*each lung is cone-shaped, extends from diaphragm(base) to a poin just above the clavicole(apex) *aera between the lungs is the mediastinum *HILUS:depression on medial surface through which root enters/exits *left lung has cardiac notch;also has 2 lobes divided by oblique fissure *right lung has 3 lobes, divided by oblique and horizontal fissures *lobule:smallest lung subdivision seen with eye *stroma:framework of CT with many elastic alveoli
Blood supply to lungs
*pulmonary arteries deliver O2 poor blood and branch posteriory along bronchi and feed into capillary networks surrounding alveoli *pulmonary veins bring back O2 rich blood and branch anteriorly along bronchi *bronchial arteries and veins supply systemic blood-enter/exit at hilus
*air pressure inside the lungs is lower than the atmospheric pressure (alwyas an active process) *diaphragm: is a dome shape that flattens during inspiration, causes more room in thoracic cavity *intercostal muscles -for regular, relaxed inspiration the diaphragm, external intercostals, and portion of internal intercostals are active -for forced inspiration, the scalenes and sternocleidomastoid muscles are involved ---it is the expansion of the thoracic cavity that allows the lungs to fill with air, which is why intercostal muscles must help stiffen the thoracic wall
*occurs when air pressure in the lungs is greater than atmospheric pressure *usually a passive process, since the inspiration muscole relax -if expiration is forced(cough or sneeze) a portion of the internal intercostal muscles get involved, as well as the abdominal muscles *alveoli remain open at all times due to surfactant reducinf surface tension
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
*lower respiratory disorder *Category of disorders in which air flow into/out of th elungs is difficult *smoking *Dyspnea:difficulty breathing
Cystic fibrosis (CF)
*inherited disease, exocrine gland function is disrupted throughout body-oversecretion of mucus, clogs passageways
External Anatomy of Kidney
*reddish brown, bean shaped, retroperitoneal *right kindey is slightly inferior to left *lateral surface is convex, medial is concave -Hilus:aera where blood vessels, nerves pass *renal capsule:surrounds each kidney (dense CT layer) and helps maintain shape *cushioning by fat layers
Internal Anatomy of Kidney
*cortex:outer region -renal corpuscles(filters) *medulla (inner region) -Medullary(renal) pyramids-base and apex (papilla);are striated(group of nephrons) -renal columns surroun and separate the pyramids (extensions of cortex) *lobes=pyramid+cortical tissue *renal sinus=space in medial portion of kidney, opening to hilus-contains renal vessels, nerves, fat, renal pelvis, and calices --renal pelvis=flat tube, superior portion of ureter --Calyx=extension of renal pelvis, major and minor(cup-shaped tubes that surround papillae(apex) of the pyramids
Vascular/Nerve Supply of the Kidney
*arteries -rich blood supply -renal arteries deliver blood to kidneys -each renal artery divides into segmental arteries -each segmental artery divides into lobar arteries, which divide into interlobar arteries *veins -trace artery pathway in reverse WITH THE EXCEPTION of lobar and segmental veins -renal veins exit kidney and empty into IVC *nerves -renal plexus(sympathetic innervation)
Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
*uriniferous tubule:structural and functional unit of the kidney -crowded together into kidney -surrounded by loose CT -2 major parts: --nephron:formed by a renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, and distal convoluted tubule --collecting duct *Produces urine by: -Filtration:blood filtrate enters nephron -reabsorption:nutrients, water, and ions are returned to blood -secretion:undesired substance move from bllod to urine
Renal calculi (kidney Stones)
*Mineral in urine crystallize *most can pass, but some become to big and obstruct the ureter
*infection of the renal pelvis and calices
*infection of the entire kidney
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney diesase (ADPKD)
*genetic disorder *cysts form and enlarge *no obvious symptoms untill age 30-40
Pathway of blood filtrate through the urinary system
*blood-renal corpscule-proximal convoluted tuble-loop on henle-distal convoluted tuble-collecting tubule(duct)-papillary duct-nior calyx-major calyx-renal pelvis-ureter-bladder-urethra-micturition
*emptying the bladder *detrusor muscles contacts, assisted by abdominal wall muscles *controlled by brain -urine accumulates, bladder wall stretches and activated stretch receptors, sensory singnal sent to pons, parasympathetic neurons signal detrusor muscle to contact *incontinence:inability to control micturition
collecting tubules(ducts)
*each receives urine from many nephrons *runs into medulla and combines with other to form papillary ducts, which empties into calices *conserve body fluids;site where ADH acts -ADH increases permeability, causing more water to be reabsorbed (concentrared urine)
*one per kidney, appox. 25 cm long *carry urine from kidneys to bladder *begins at level of L2 and runs retroperitoneally through abdomen and enters pelvis to get to bladder *enters bladder obliquely to prevent backflow *sistention causes contraction(peristaltic waves) *3 layers -Mucosa -muscularis -adventitia
Uniary Bladder
*collapsible, distensible, and muscular *stores and eliminates urine *full bladder hold one pint *layers are similar to ureters;muscular layer has DETRUSOR muscle, which squeezes out urine *Inferior to peritoneal cavity, posterior to pubic symphysis -Males:anterior to rectum -females:anterior to vagina and uterus
*this-walled tube, drains urine from body *composed of smooth muscle and inner layer of mucosa *Internal urethral sphincter:located between bladder and urethra, involuntary control *external urethral sphincter: located at distal end of urethra, voluntary control *femal urethra is shorter than male urethra;males has e named regions
renal corpuscle(filtration)
*located in cortex *clomerulus:"ball" of capillaries with many pores -surrounded by glomerular(bowmans capsule) with capsular space -has filtration membrane:filter between blood and capsular space
Loop of Henle
**extends to medulla *descending limb:thin segment (narrowest part of nephron) *Accending limb:portion of thin segment, thick segment
distal convoluted tubule
*located only in renal cortex *preforms some reabsorption and secretion *conserves body fluids
Nephron classes
Cortical:located mostly in cortex(loop of henle extends to medulla) *juxtamedullary:renal corpuscles are located at cortex-medulla border;have long loops of henle
*rhythmic, wave-like intestinal contractions that move food through the GI tract *involuntart
*mechanical and chemical breakdown of food material to prepare it for absorption -segmentation:local, rhythmic contractions of small intestine
*passage of molecules of food through mucous membranes of the small intestine and into blood or lymph for distribution to cells
Mechanical Digestion
*physically prepares food for chemical digestion by enzymes *Mechanical processes include: chewing, the churning of food in the stomach, and segmentation
Chemical Digestion
*a series of steps in which complex food molecules (carbs, proteins, and lipids) are broken down to their chemical building blocks
*serous membrane of abdominopelvic cavity *Visceral peritoneum:cover external organ surfaces, is continuous with parietal peritoneum *parietal peritoneum:lines the body wall *peritoneal cavity:space between visceral and parietal peritoneum, contains serous fluid ***Mesentery:double layer of peritoneum that holds organs in place, stores fat, allows blood vessels and nerves to get to organd in peritoneal cavity
Mucosa *histology of alimentary canal*
*Mucous membrane with 3 sub-layers: epithelial lining, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae
Submucosa *histology of alimentary canal*
*CT layer with lots of blood vessels
Muscularis externia *histology of alimentary canal*
*2 layers: inner circular and outer longitudinal
Serosa (adventitia) *histology of alimentary canal*
*is the visceral peritoneum
*Inflammation of the appendix *Resulting from a blockage that traps infectextious bacteria within its lumen. *if ruptures, bacteria and feces are released onto the abdominal organs causing peritonitis
hiatal hernia
*the superior part of the stomach pushes through an enlarged esophageal hiatus into the thorax following a weakening of the diaphragmatic muscle fiblers around the hiatus.
Gastric reflux
*related with the hiatal hernia *symptoms include heartburn, vomiting, and belching, this leads to hoarseness, coughing, and bronchial asthma
*Retroperitoneal, shaped like a tadpole (head-duodenum, tail-spleen) *main pancreatic duct joins hepatic duct, empties into duodenum *endocrine and exocrine function in pancreas *exocrine function is to produce enzymes that work in the small intestine *ACINAR cells make pancreatic enzymes
*muscular sac located on posterinferior surface of liver *stores bile;cystic duct(from the gallbladder) joins common hepatic duct (from liver) to form BILE DUCT (common bile duct)
*largest gland in the body *lies inferior to diaphragm in right superior portion of abdominal cavity, base faces right and apex faces left *has right and left lobes, separared by falciform ligament and fissure-and has quadrate and caudate lobes *microscopic anatomy:liver lobules are plates of hepatocytes, shaped like hexagons ***liver preforms many functions, but digestive purpose is production of bile, which breaks up fat *bilirubin is produced from breaking down RBC-found in bile
extrinsic salicary glands
*partoid:largest, located near auricle of ear *submandibular:inferior/anterior to the body of the mandible :sublingual:floor of mouth, inferior to tongue

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