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Final Review


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Supreme Court Packing
an attempt of FDR to replace Supreme Court Justices with supporters because of conflicts b/w FDR and the Supreme Court
Potsdam Conference
Third meeting of the Big Three; gathered to decide how to administer the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier; The goals of the conference also included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaties issues, and countering the effects of war.
General Douglas MacArthur
He was one of the most-known American military leaders of WW2(He liberated the Phillipines and made the Japanese surrender at Tokyo in 1945, also he drove back North Korean invaders during the Korean War)
Wannsee Conference
1942; Final Solution was decided
Concentration Camps
camps in which Jews and other peoples were sent to work; consisted of extremely harsh conditions such as starvation, weather, etc
Indian Reorganization Act
1939; a U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans; restoraton of political independence of tribes
Axis Powers
alliance of Germany, Italy and Japan with the Tripartite Pact
Marshall Plan
primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger foundation for the allied countries of Europe, and repelling communism after World War II.
Fair Labor Standards Act
1938; established a minimum wage of 40 cents an hour and a maximum workweek of 40 hours
Rural Electrification Administration
1935; made electricity available at low rates to American farm families in areas that private power companies refused to service.
Five Power Treaty
US, Great Britain, France and Japan, intended to respect interests of others in Pacific Islands, notify in event that any other country launches an attack in area,no promises were made to help or restrain own freedom of action.agreed to cease battleship production for ten years,Reduce fleet of capital ships to a fixed ratio(5:5:3:1.7:1.7),expected to produce a balance of forces in the Pacific; also known as the Washington Naval Treaty
Allied Powers
name given to the alliance of countries in opposition to the Axis power in WWII; included the US, Britain, and Russia
Wagner Act
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
Battle of the Coral Sea
May 4-8 1942; American Naval Force blocked a Japanese thrust to outflank Australia
Four Power Treaty
a compact which was signed by the US, Great Britain, Japan, and France; replaced the old Anglo-Japanese Alliance
National Security Act
1947; changed War Dept -> Dept of Defense; single budget for Dept of Defense; created National Security Agency and the Central Intelligence Agency
Glass-Steagal Act
1933; prohibited commercial banks from selling stock of financing corporations; created FDIC
German Air Force which dominated the skies of Europe during the beginnings of the war; essential to the tactic of Blitzkrieg
Agricultural Adjustment Act
In 1932, this act attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm sudsidies
Father Charles Coughlin
a critic of the New Deal; created the National Union for Social Justice; wanted a monetary inflation and the nationalization of the banking system
Truman Doctrine
stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere.
General Omar Bradley
known by his WWII troops as "The Soldier's General" In 1950 he was promoted to 5-star General-of-the-Army rank, served as Army Chief of Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
General Dwight Eisenhower
Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, with responsibility for planning and supervising the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944-45
Emergency Banking Relief Act
1933; This act allowed a plan that would close down insolvent banks and reorganize and reopen those banks strong enough to survive.
Hitler's mistakes
caused a two front war when he invaded Russia
Frances Perkins
Secretay of Labor; played a key role writing New Deal legislations; she was involved in all aspects of the reports and hearings that ultimately resulted in the Social Security Act
Final Solution
German Nazis' plan to engage in systematic genocide against the European Jewish population during World War II.
Ho Chi Minh
a Vietnamese revolutionary who the US promise to support after the war was over; the US wanted his army to keep the Japanese at bay
"Rosie the Riveter"
a cultural icon in America during WWII who represented 6mil women who worked in plants production war materials
Hideki Tojo
General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during WWII
Pan-American Conference
1938; an economic program designed to increase rather than restrict world trade
Admiral Chester Nimitz
He was the commander of the Pacific Fleet during WW2, and he was the man who directed the U.S. victories at Midway, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa
Nuremberg Laws
Placed severe restrictions of Jews
Admiral Jean Darlan
achieved fame in both the French Navy and in French politics during World War Two; was seen by many to be pro-Nazi Germany and he has been portrayed as a collaborator.
Harold Ickes
He served as Secretary of the Interior for FDR; also headed Public Works Administration
Teheran Conference
hosted in Iran where the Big Three met; it confirmed Moscow Conference decisions and planed a joint military operations against Germany
Gold Reserve Act
1934; United States nationalized gold and prohibited private gold ownership except under license.
Public Works Administration
1933; set aside $3 billion to create jobs building roads, sewers, public housing units, and other civic necessities.
Atlantic Charter
a conference b/w FDR and Churchill declared the Allies' war aims, which included disarmament, self-determination, freedom of the seas, and guarantees of each nation's security.
Yalta Conference
second meeting of the Big Three; decided unconditional surrender of Germany; occupational zones of Germany;
Committee of Industrial Organization
created by John J Lewis who was determined to spread the benedits of unions throughout industry; with the help of the AFL it unionized unskilled and skilled labor
Battle of Britain
the name given to the strategic effort by the German Luftwaffe during the Second World War to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force
Works Progress Administration
1935; massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting
Social Security Act
1935; guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at the age of 65; also set up a federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Harry Hopkins
federal relief administrator for FDR; headed the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), the Civil Works Administration (CWA), and the Works Progress Administration (WPA); also started programs for youth (National Youth Administration) and for artists and writers (Federal One Programs); Lend-Lease Program
"Phoney War"
a phase in early World War II from September 1939 until May 1940 marked by few military operations in Continental Europe; in the months following the German invasion of Poland and preceding the Battle of France. Although the great powers of Europe had declared war on one another, neither side had yet committed to launching a significant attack, and there was relatively little fighting on the ground.
Security and Exhange Commission
June 8, 1934; to regulate stock trading in open market; outlawed "buying on margin."
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
guarantee bank deposits held by commercial banks
Civilian Conservation Corps
March 31, 1933; unemployment relief act; hired young men for reforestation programs, firefighting. flood control, spawn drainage, etc;
Huey Long
a critic of the New Deal; called for a "share of wealth" movement in 1934
Lend-Lease Program
the name of the program under which the United States of America supplied Great Britain, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war materiel between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, military bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda and the British West Indies.
Battle of Midway
June 1942; first defeat of the modern Japanese Navy had ever suffered and it crippled them leaving the US control of Central Pacific
Tennesse Valley Authority
1933; an attempt at regional planning; included procisions for environment and recreational design
lighting war
Kristallnacht pogrom
Night of the Broken Glass; when Jewish homes along with 8,000 Jewish shops were ransacked in numerous German cities, towns and villages
Dr. Francis Townsend
a critic of the new deal; developed the Townsend Plan as a way that the elderly, ages 60 and older, would gain a monthly pension of $200 that must be spent within 30 days
General George Patton
He fought during World War I, he joined Eisenhower and Douglas MacArthur in dealing with the Bonus Army in Washington.Then on October 1940 was promoted as general and given command of the 2nd Armed Division based at Fort Benning.
General George Marshall
developer of the Marshall Plan; served as a military general leading the Allies during the war
formed by Heinrich Himmler in 1941; goals wer the annihilation of the Jews, Gypsies, and political commissars; later implemented as part of Hitler's final solution
Scottsboro Boys
nine black youths, ranging in age from thirteen to nineteen, were accused of raping two white women.

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