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AAAE CM Test Module


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The Kelly Act
The Airmail Act passed by Congress in 1925 provided for private contractors to carry the mail by air.
Contract Air Mail Routes
Air Commerce Act of 1926
Passed to promote the development and stability of commercial aviation. It also provided the fledgling industry with the assistance and legal basis necessary for its growth.
Air Traffic Control
Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938
Placed all functions and regulations of air transportation under one federal agency.
Civil Aeronautics Authority
Agencies created by the Civil Aeronautics Act
1. The CAA (economic and safety policies)
2. The Administrator of Aviation (safety, operations)
3. The Air Safety board (investigation of accidents)
Air Safety Board
Established in 1938, the board is an independent body for the investigation of accidents.
Civil Aeronautics Act (Section 303)
Authorized the expenditure of federal funds for the construction of landing areas, provided that such construction could be justified.
The Reorganization Act
Signed by President Franklin Roosevelt in 1940, split the Civil Aeronautics Authority into two agencies-the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) and the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA).
Civil Aeronautics Board
Civil Aeronautics Administration
Civil Aeronautics Administration responsiblities
Broadened-first upon America's entry into WWII and then in 1946 when Congress authorized the CAA to manage an aid program to facilitate the improvement and construction of airports.
The Federal Airport Act
Helped local governments build the necessary infrastructure to accomodate the growth and demand of the aviation industry.
Federal Aid to Airports Program
Federal Aid to Airports Program
Based on a public roads program providing for 50/50 cost sharing, program eligibility required that the airport be in the National Airport Plan.
Airport Grant Program
Has made possible the development of the airway system by aiding in the building of airports.
The Federal Aviation Act of 1958
Brought about these changes:
1. Transferred safety functions of the Civil Aeronautics Authority to the newly established, independent Federal Aviation Agency (FAA).
2. Entrusted safety rulemaking to the FAA.
3. Charged the FAA with the responsiblity for developing and maintaining a common civil-military system of air navigation and air traffic control.
Federal Aviation Agency
Northwest Mountain
Great Lakes
New England
DOT Act of 1966
Created the Department of Transportation, renamed the Federal Aviation Agency as the Federal Aviation Administration, and made the FAA one of the transportation related organizations under the DOT. The DOT Act also transferred the Civil Aeronautics Board's accident-investigation duties to a new five member National Transportation Safety Board.
FAA (2)
Federal Aviation Administration
National Transportation Safety Board
Department of Transportation
Federal Aviation Regulations
FAR Part 107
Security-Airport Operations
FAR Part 36
Noise Standards: Aircraft Type and Airworthiness Certification-
Established noise certifications standards for new design.
Airport and Airways Development Act of 1970
Established the Airport Development Aid Program and the Planning Grant Program
Airport Development Aid Program
Planning Grant Program
Planning Grant Program
Designed to foster airport master plans and system plans.
FAR Part 139
Airport Certification-Evolved from the Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970
Airport and Airway Revenue Act
Authorized the establishment of a dedicated trust fund to finance the new airport grant program and part of the airways system development.
Airline Deregulation Act of 1978
Created a competitive environment and phased out the Civil Aeronautics Board's economic regulation of the airlines.
Airport and Airways Improvement Act
Set up the Airport Improvement Program (AIP), which allowed for the funding of friction measuring equipment, various safety-related equipment, automated weather observing systems, airport planning and noise studies.
Airport Improvement Program
National Airspace System
Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization
Capital Investment Plan
Outlined a program for further enhancement of the air traffic control system.
Capital Investment Plan
Aviation Noise and Capacity Act
Established an airport's right to impose a local charge(PFC)for the use of airport facilities and a national standard for aircraft noise levels.
Passenger Facility Charge
FAA Reauthorization Act of 1996
Trust fund reauthorization that:
1. Reinstituted the aviation taxes but only for the fiscal year.
2. Authorized the FAA to certificate airports served by aircraft with 10 or more passenger seats.
3. Revised the formula for distributing airport entitlement and discretionary funds.
4. Expanded the statutory prohibitions against diversion of airport revenues.
5. Created a pilot program for allowing the long-term lease of five airports.
6. Set a three-year authorization and appropriation cycle for
Aviation Trust Fund programs beginning in 1999.
7. Required the FAA to hire a noise ombudsman.
8. Made permanent the FAA's state block grant program for airport grants.
National Civil Aviation Review Commission
National Civil Aviation Review Commission
Established to assess the FAA's long-term financing needs and make recommendations for financing options that ensure a stable and adequate source of funding for the agency.
Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century
Increased the cap on the passenger facility charge (PFC) from $3.00 to $4.50. This increse, coupled with the higher level of AIP, contributed to the expansion of airport system capacity.
Aviation and Transportation Security Act
Created the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) within the Department of Transportation. TSA is responsible for aviation security functions, including the screening of passengers and checked baggage at airports.
Transportation Security Administration
FAA Organizational Structure
Has evolved from centralization to decentralization and, after 1998, back to centralization again.
Appointments of FAA Administrators
The five-year term established by Congress in 1997 marked the first major change in the pattern of appointments of FAA administrators.
FAA Organization Milestone
The transferring of Washington National and Dulles International Airports' managemnt from the FAA to the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA).
Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority
Reform in Personnel Management at the FAA
Under the scrutiny of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the FAA expedited the hiring practices and training of critical safety related personnel, provided incentives for placing personnel in hard-to-fill positions, and reduced its total number of employees.
Homeland Security Act
Consolidated 22 federal agencies (including TSA, US Customs, INS) into the the new Department of Homeland Security.
Congressional Office of Management and Budget
Reform in Purchasing Management at the FAA
Gave the FAA authorization to withhold payments or cancel contracts if performance did not meet requirements.
Reform in Financial Stability at the FAA
Not yet accomplished; the issue has to do with how to shift the cost of operating the air traffic control system away from the constraints of the congressional budget process.
Lines of Business
Responsibilities of the Associate Administrator for Airports
1. Administering the FAA's regulatory functions in the certification and capacity of airports and the administration of airport grant programs.
2. Ensuring the adequacy of the technical standards, plans, and programs required for the development of a national integrated system of airports and for the improvement of safety in airport operations.
Airport District Office
Airport District Office
An airport manager's local contact with the FAA.
Airport Facilities Offices
FAR Part 13
Addresses the investigative and enforcement procedures of the FAA. Makes provisions for persons to file a complaint against an airport for violation of the FARs or any other legislative acts that affect airports.
Letter of Investigation
Notice of Violation
FAA Comprehensive Regulatory Review
Mandatory every three years since January 1997.
FAA Advisory Circulars
Help explain the intent of a federal aviation regulation, provide guidance and information in a designated subject area, and show a method acceptable for complying with a related FAR.
Advisory Circulars
Airport Ownership Structures
Private, public-private partnership, local government, state government, intergovernmental agreements, and authority.
Federal Airport Act of 1946
Transferred ownership of airfields to a state or other governmental entity. Most public use commercial airports are governmentally owned and operated.
AP-4 Agreement
The terms of transfer assured that the airport would continue to be suitably operated and maintained. Most AP-4 agreements have been superseded by AIP grants and their grant assurances.
An Advantage of City or County Ownership
The airport has access to the resources of other departments of the city or county.
A Disadvantage of City or County Ownership
In times of financial constraints, the airport is subject to the same budget reductions as other departments.
Eminent Domain
The power to acquire property for the public good.
Port Authority
A special type of legally chartered institution that generally has the same status as public corporations but operates, in addition to the airport, other types of public facilities.
Dominant Form of Airport Ownership
Municipally owned and operated airports. Since the early 1950's there has been a gradual transition from city and county controlled airports to independent single or multipurpose authorities.
Aeronautical Activity
Any activity that involves, makes possible, or is required for the operation of aircraft, or that contibutes to or is required for the safety of such operations.
Fixed-base operator.
Grant Assurance Number 9
The airport sponsor must charge for use of airport assets in a manner designed to make the airport as self-sufficient as possible.
Grant Assurance Number 12
Airport revenues must be used for capital or operating costs of the airport where they are generated or for other airports in the sponsor's system, or for related transporation facilities such as inter-modal stations built on airport property.
Airport Layout Plan
Strategies for Airport Privatization
1. The sale or lease of existing government-owned enterprises to a private firm, usually with restrictions and obligations as to how the enterprise will be run.
2. The private development of new facilities that has been traditionally provided by the government, accompanied by government oversight.
3. The contracting out by government to private firms of the operations, maintenance or management of a service previously or traditionally provided by government employees.
Inter-modal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991
Allowed state grant recipients to invest their highway grants in privately developed and owned toll highway, tunnel and bridge projects.
General Accounting Office
The FAA Reauthorization Act
Authorized the establishment of a two-year pilot program on airport privatization.
Trends that Increased Privatization Efforts
1. The apparent shortage of public funds.
2. The desire of local and state governments to expand their tax base.
3. Intergovernmental inertia in developing new facilities in the traditional manner.
4. A growing public support for direct user charges (which can help attract private capital) to pay for new infrastructure.
Air Traffic Control Tower
Low Activity Level I VFR Control Tower Program
A program through which the FAA reimbursed eligible smaller communities for the full cost of the private sector operation of the community's Level I VFR control towers.
Three Categories of Control Towers
VFR towers.
Non-radar approach control tower.
Radar approach control towers.
Benefits of Establishing a Contract Tower
1. Prevention of aircraft collisions.
2. The prevention of other type of preventable accidents.
3. Reduced flying time.
4. Emergency response notification.
5. General security oversight.
National Air Traffic Controllers Association
Economic Effects/Impacts
The regional economic activities, employment, and payrolls that can be attributed to the operation of a local airport.
Transportation Benefits
Services that a local airport makes available to the community.
Total Economic Impact of an Airport on the Community
Derived from calculating the direct, indirect, and induced impacts.
Direct Impact
Expenditures made by the airport and its businesses.
Indirect Impact
Money spent at the airport and in the community by airport patrons and those using the airport as employment.
Induced Impact
The multiplying effect of successive turnover of the dollars spent in the community.
Multiplier Effect
An economic principle that recognizes that every dollar expended by an airport user is further recycled throughout the community to generate additional revenue.
Direct Impact + Indirect Impact=
Primary Impact
Primary Impact + Induced Impact=
Total Impact
Gross Domestic Product
Five Factors Known to Enter into a Decision by Airfreight Operators to Establish a Distribution Site at a Particular Airport
1. Markets to be served.
2. Transportation arteries to feed those markets.
3. Labor.
4. A favorable tax structure to shippers.
5. Overall business costs.
The overriding concern is the ability of a market area to generate package or cargo volume.
Essential Air Service
Section 419 of the Federal Aviation Act
Authorizes air carriers to receive compensation for providing service to small communities.
Disadvantaged Business Enterprise
Disadvantaged Business Enterprise
A small business concern that is at least 51% owned and controlled by one or more socially and economically disadvantaged individuals, including women.
Section 520 of AAIA
Concerns nondiscrimination and affirmative action in:
1. Employment practices.
2. Benefits and services to the public.
3. Disadvantaged business enterprises.
Airport and Airway Improvement Act
Executive Order 11625
Required federal agencies to develop plans and programs to encourage minority business enterprises.
Prior to November 2001
The FAA regulated aviation security.
Code of Federal Regulations
FAR Part 108
Security-Air Carriers
FAR Part 109
Security-Freight Forwarders
February 2002
Aviation security regulations were transferred to the authority of the TSA. Though generally the regulations remain the same, their numbering and format were changed.
Security Was...
A dual responsibility of the air carriers and the airport. Airport management was responsible for:
1. Providing law enforcement support for both air carrier and airport security programs.
2. Restricting and preventing access to air carrier aircraft by unauthorized individuals.
Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001
Created the TSA
Aviation and Transportation Security Act
49CFR, Chapter XII 1500-1699
TSA Rules and Regulations
Part 1500
Applicability, Terms and Abbreviations, and Rules of Construction
Part 1510
Passenger Civil Aviation Security Service Fees
Part 1520
Protection of Sensitive Security Information:
Outlines stipulations that protect sensitive security information in the interest of the traveling public's safety and security.
Part 1540
Civil Aviation Security
Part 1542
Airport Security: Outlines the rules and responsibilities for airport operators serving U.S. certificated air carriers and air cargo carriers.
Part 1544
Aircraft Operator Security: Air Carriesrs and Commercial Operators
Part 1546
Foreign Air Carrier Security
Part 1548
Indirect Air Carrier Security
Part 1550
Aircraft Operator Security Under General Operating and Flight Rules
Freedom of Information Act
Sensitive Security Information
Airport Security Coordinator
Airport Security Program
Established the basic requirements for an airport to operate under Part 1542.
Airport Security Program
Air Operations Area
Security Identification Display Area
Criminal History Records Checks
Secured Area
A portion of an airport where aircraft operators that have a security plan for enplaning and deplaning passengers and sorting and loading baggage and any adjancent areas that are not seperated by adequate security measures.
Air Operations Area
Geographic location that includes aircraft movement area, aircraft parking areas, loading ramps, safety areas and any adjacent areas (such as general aviation areas) that are not separated by adequate security systems, measures or procedures.
Security Identification Display Area
A portion of an airport in which security measures specified in this part are carried out and individual and vehicular identification must be displayed at all times.
Tools TSA Can Use to Impose Additional Requirements on Airports
1. A security directive.
2. An information circular.
Security Directives
Aviation Security Improvement Act, November 2000
Required 100% fingerprint-based criminal history background checks on all new applicants at all Catergory X airports for the first year before extending the requirement to all airports.
TSA Information Circular
Used for sharing general information, but cannot mandate actions.
How many airports are in the NPIAS?
Approximately 3400

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