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American History WWI


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Capital of the Austro-Hungarian province where Princip assassinated the Archduke on June 28, 1914.
A young Serbian nationalist who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne in June of 1914. This incident precipitated the outbreak of World War I in Europe.
Gavrilio Princip
A Serbian terrorist organization of which Princip was a member.
Black Hand
The Central Powers refers to Germany and its World War I allies Austria, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
Central Powers
Britain, France, Russia, Italy and other belligerent nations fighting against the Central Powers in World War I, but not including the United States.
Allied Powers
Author of The American Commonwealth who portrayed the Germans as ruthless barbarians in his supposedly impartial study.
James Bryce
Measures the British used to prevent Americans from trading with the Central Powers
1)Declaring nearly all commodities to be contraband of war
2)Forcing neutral merchant ships into Allied ports in order to search them for goods headed for the enemy
3)Confiscating many cargoes
4)blacklisting American firms that traded with the Central Powers
What dilemma did Wilson face as to how to deal with the British tactics to prevent Americans from trading with the Central Powers?
To allow the British to make the rules meant siding against the Central Powers. Yet to insist on the old rules meant siding against the Allies because that would have deprived them of much of the value of their naval superiority.
Unwilling to risk their battleships and cruisers against the much larger
British fleet, the Germans resorted to a new weapon, the submarine, commonly known as the U-boat
What did the Germans announce they would begin doing in February, 1915?
They would sink without warning all enemy merchant ships encountered in the waters surrounding the British Isles. Unrestricted submarine warfare.
A British passenger ship sunk by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland in May of 1915. One hundred twenty-eight Americans were among the dead. President Wilson demanded Germany pay an indemnity to victims’ families and promise to stop attacking p
After the French channel steamer “Sussex” was sunk by a German submarine in May 1916, protests pressured Germany to pledge to stop sinking merchant vessels without warning using submarine warfare.
Sussex Pledge
A lawyer and first Jewish member of the Supreme Court. When practicing law, he was a defender of the rights of labor and working people, exemplified in his brief for the case of Muller v. Oregon.
Louis D. Brandeis
In July of 1916, President Wilson bid for the farm vote by signing this to provide low-cost loans based on agricultural credit.
Farm Loan Act
Shortly after the Farm Loan Act, President Wilson approved this, which barred goods manufactured by the labor of children under 16 from interstate commerce.
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
Established an eight-hour day for interstate railroad workers. It was part of President Wilson’s bid to fulfill every plank of his 1912 platform before he began his 1916 reelection bid. The effort attracted progressives from both parties to vote for Wi
Adamson Act
President Wilson’s biographer who pointed out that Wilson was putting into effect “almost every important plank of the Progressive platform of 1912” prior to the Election of 1916.
Arthur S. Link
A progressive Republican from New York, was that party’s presidential nominee in 1916. Later, he was a secretary of state and chief justice of the Supreme Court.
Charles Evans Hughes
The Democratic slogan referring to Wilson during the Election of 1916.
"He Kept Us Out of War"
Proposal to end World War I offered by President Wilson in June 1917 as an attempt to mediate a conclusion before the United States was dragged into the conflict. The terms were similar to what became Wilson’s Fourteen Points, and both belligerents ign
“peace without victory”
Knowing they were no match for the British fleet on the surface of the sea, Germany turned to submarines (U-boats) to threaten British shipping. The Germans’ use of unrestricted submarine tactics was a major cause of U.S. intervention in World War I.
unrestricted submarine warfare
Message to Mexico from the German foreign minister intercepted and published in the United States. In it Germany offered to help Mexico regain territories it had lost to the United States in the event the United States and Germany went to war. Americans
Zimmermann Telegram
Russian Czar who abdicated the throne on March 15, 1917, upon Bolshevik takeover under Lenin.
Czar Nicholas II
What was the condition of the Allies when the U.S. entered the war?
The Allies were running out of money and supplies; their troops, decimated by nearly three years in the trenches, were disheartened and rebellious.
American great “ace” who flew British Sopwiths and DeHavillands or French Spads and Nieuports.
Eddie Rickenbacker
This federal agency reorganized industry for maximum efficiency and productivity during World War I.
War Industries Board (WIB)
A monumental tie-up in December and January 1917-1918 persuaded President Wilson to appoint him general of the railroads, with power to run the roads as a single system.
William G. McAdoo
Before he was elected president in 1928, he had never been elected to any office. But he was a proven administrator and the intellectual leader of the New Era movement of government-business partnership and cooperation. The 1929 stock-market crash ruined
Herbert Hoover
Agency created by President Wilson in 1917 to settle labor disputes during World War I. It prevented many strikes, set wages and hours standards, and compelled employers to deal with labor leaders, thus promoting labor unions.
National War Labor Board
Set wages-and-hours standards for each major war industry with chairman ______ of the Harvard Law School.
War Labor Policies Board/Felix Frankfurter
An interfaith religious group who raised over $200 million mainly to finance recreational programs for the troops overseas during the great 1918 drive.
United War Work Council
During World War I, President Wilson created this agency and appointed journalist ______ to head it. Their objective was to maximize national loyalty and support for the war. It was a hard-working wartime propaganda organization.
Committee on Public Information/George Creel
The vague prohibition of this law, against obstructing the nation's war effort, was used to crush dissent and criticism during World War I.
Espionage Act of 1917
The wartime measure that loosely defined sedition and invited repression of freedom of speech for dissenters. Under the act, Socialist Eugene V. Debs was sent to prison for making an antiwar speech.
Sedition Act of 1918
The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Espionage Act in this 1919 case involving a man who had mailed circulars to draftees urging them to refuse to report for induction into the army.
Schenck v. United States
Argued that current necessity rather than precedent should determine the rules by which people are governed; that experience, not logic, should be the basis of law. He became a Supreme Court justice where he developed the "rule of reason" for p
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
How did WWI affect women?
Some had jobs, though not equal with men.
How did WWI affect blacks?
The great migration to the urban areas brought them jobs and good economic benefits. The life for those new comers was difficult because whites resented them. White workers refused to let them into labor unions. Those who did go north was better off up there materially and psychologically. They could vote, send children to decent schools, and they can pretty much say anything without fear of humiliation or physical attack. There were also some regiments of blacks in the army.
The term refers to the mass movement of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North, spurred especially by new job opportunities during World War I and the 1920s.
“great migration”
American troops who served in Europe in World War I. The first group arrived in Paris in July 1917. They were under the command of General John J. Pershing, who insisted that they fight as independent units and not be integrated into British and French f
American Expeditionary Forces
Nicknamed “Black Jack,” he was the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF). He had earlier served in the Spanish-American War, the Philippine insurrection, and had commanded the military excursion into Mexico in 1916.
John J. Pershing
Nickname given to American troops of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF). Their presence boosted the morale of British and French troops and was decisive in the outcome of the war.
On the Marne River, only 50 miles from Paris, was the site where the American Expeditionary Force fought its first major engagement against the Germans in June 1918 and drove them back
Château-Thierry and Belleau Wood
In late September of 1918, 1.2 million doughboys drove forward west of Verdun into this area, where for over a month of indescribable horror they inched ahead through the tangle of the Argonne and the formidable defenses of the Hinderburg line.
Argonne Forest
By late August of 1918, the American First Army, 500,000 strong, was poised before salient, a deep extension of the German lines southeast of Verdun; on September 12 this army, buttressed by French troops, struck and in two days wiped out the salient.
Date on which with Allied armies advancing on all fronts, the Germans signed the armistice, ending the fighting.
November 11, 1918
What were the conditions like in post-war Europe?
European society had been shaken to its foundations; confusion reigned. Millions faced starvation, and people wanted peace yet burned for revenge. Other millions were disillusioned by the seemingly purposeless sacrifices of four years of horrible war. Communism threatened to envelop Germany and much of the defunct Austro-Hungarian Empire, perhaps even the victorious Allies, as it had conquered Russia.
How was Wilson’s vision different from that of many others?
He had grasped the significance of the war while most statesmen still thought that triumph on the battlefield would settle everything automatically; Wilson realized as early as January 1917 that victory would be wasted if the winners permitted themselves the luxury of vengeance.
The peace plan outlined by President Wilson in January 1918 that included provisions such as:
1)no secret diplomacy
2)freedom of the seas
3)free trade
4)arms reduction
6)national self-determination.
Fourteen Points
Fourteen Points
The peace plan outlined by President Wilson in January 1918 that included provisions such as:
1)no secret diplomacy
2)freedom of the seas
3)free trade
4)arms reduction
6)national self-determination.
President Wilson’s fourteenth point in his plan for a “peace without victory.” He proposed this body as an international peacekeeping organization, and it was incorporated into the 1919 Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I. Questions about m
League of Nations
In the last weeks of the war Wilson proved to be a brilliant diplomat, dangling the Fourteen Points before the German people to encourage them to overthrow _____ and sue for an armistice.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
when the Paris peace conference settled down to its work, control quickly fell into the hands of the so-called ______: Wilson, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Great Britain, Premier Georges Clemenceau of France, and Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando o
Big Four
This treaty ended World War I and created the League of Nations.
Versailles Treaty
What were the failures of the Versailles treaty as it was finally drafted?
The peace settlement failed to carry out the principle of self-determination completely; it gave Italy a large section of the Austrian Tyrol, though the area contained 200,000 people who considered themselves Austrians. Other German-speaking groups were incorporated into the new states of Poland and Czechoslovakia. Japan was allowed to take over the Chinese province of Shantung, and the Allies swallowed up all the German colonies in Africa and the Far East. The victors also forced Germany to accept responsibility for having caused the war and to sign a $33 billion reparation bill. The treaty said nothing about freedom of the seas, the reduction of tariffs, or disarmament.
What were the successes of the Versailles treaty?
The new map of Europe left fewer people on “foreign” soil than in any earlier period of history. Though the Allies seized the German colonies, they were required, under the mandate system, to render the League of Nations annual accounts of their stewardship and to prepare the inhabitants for eventual independence. Above all, Wilson had persuaded the powers to incorporate the League of Nations in the treaty.
Why was Wilson willing to go along with a treaty he didn’t like?
Wilson expected the League of Nations to make up for all the inadequacies of the Versailles Treaty. Once the League had begun to function, problems like freedom of the seas and disarmament would solve themselves, he argued, and the relaxation of trade barriers would surely follow. The League would arbitrate international disputes, act as a central body for registering treaties, and employ military and economic sanctions against aggressor nations.
_____ of the League of Nations Covenant in the Treaty of Versailles bound signatories to protect the political independence and territorial integrity of all member nations. Of all the treaty conditions, it provoked the most opposition to ratification in
Article 10
What concessions did Wilson make regarding the Versailles treaty?
The war guilt clause and the heavy reparations imposed on Germany.
Massachusetts Republican Senator who was a personal and political enemy of President Woodrow Wilson as well as an intense nationalist and partisan, organized the reservationists who opposed U.S. membership in the League of Nations. His grandson was also
Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr.
the handful of Senators, led by Senator Borah of Idaho, were basically isolationists, uncompromising in their opposition to U.S. membership in the League of Nations.
Republican Senator from Idaho who headed the “irreconcilables” who, as isolationists, refused to support U.S. membership in the League of Nations under any circumstances.
William E. Borah
senators who were in favor of the League but who hoped to alter it in minor ways, chiefly for political purposes.
“mild reservationists”
senators willing to go along with the League only if American sovereignty were fully protected and if it were made clear that their party had played a major role in fashioning the final document.
“strong reservationists”
Henry Cabot Lodge’s proposals, 14 in number to match Wilson’s Fourteen Points, limited the United States’ obligations to the League and stated in unmistakable terms the right of Congress to decide when to honor these obligations.
Lodge Reservations
Prove or disprove the statement made by Robert Sidelsky that “The architect of the Treaty’s defeat in Congress was Wilson himself.”
Neither Lodge nor Wilson would yield an inch; Lodge, who had little confidence in the effectiveness of any league of nations, was under no compulsion to compromise, and Wilson, who believed that the League was the world’s best hope, did have such a compulsion yet would not compromise either.
How were leaders incorrect in assuming that the economy would fall back into place after the war?
The army was hastily demobilized, pouring millions of veterans into the job market without plan. All society seemed in flux. Nearly all controls established by the War Industries Board and other agencies were dropped overnight. Billions of dollars’ worth of war contracts were canceled. Temporary shortages caused inflation, which in turn produced labor trouble.
Why did people associate communism with labor unions?
The activities of radicals in the labor movement led millions of citizens to associate unionism and strikes with the new threat of communist world revolution.
radical who began a drive to organize the steel industry in 1919, which intensified the fears of countless conservatives.
William Z. Foster
darling of conservatives in the 1920s (and of President Reagan in the 1980s). He greatly admired businessmen and was devoted to laissez-faire economics. During his one-term presidency, complacency was the order of the day.
Calvin Coolidge
What factors combined to make Americans think that their way of life was endangered?
A handful of terrorists caused widespread alarm by attempting to murder various prominent persons. Also, most radicals were not American citizens; wartime fear of alien saboteurs easily transformed itself into peacetime terror of foreign radicals. The “red scare” was born when demands came from all over the country that radicals be ruthlessly suppressed.
Attorney General who was the key figure in purging radicals; in August 1919, hd established within the Department of Justice the General Intelligence Division and planned an immense roundup of communists.
Mitchell Palmer
the Washington, D.C., native headed the General Intelligence Division of the Department of Justice in 1919. The agency was empowered to collect information about clandestine radical activities. In 1924, President Coolidge named him to head the new Federa
J. Edgar Hoover
Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, concerned that the United States was in danger of a communist takeover in 1919, ordered a series of roundups and raids on suspected communists. The raids, a product of the postwar Red Scare, clearly violated the civil
“Palmer Raids”
a newspaper publisher from Dayton, who became governor of Ohio. In 1920, the Democrats nominated him as their standard-bearer to succeed Woodrow Wilson. He favored joining the League of Nations. He was overwhelmed by the Republican nominee, Senator Warre
James M. Cox
former New York's governor, was elected president in 1932, 1936, 1940, and 1944. He organized the New Deal's broadening of government authority to deal with the Great Depression and lead the nation throughout World War II.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
in the Election of 1920, the Republicans’ presidential candidate was another Ohioan, who had been a strong reservationist. He swept the country, winning over 16.1 million votes to Cox’s 9.1 million.
Warren G. Harding
many Americans had had their fill of idealism; they wanted, apparently, to end the long period of moral uplift and reform agitation that had begun under Theodore Roosevelt and return to what Harding called _____.
"Return to normalcy."
His assassination sparked the beginning of WWI.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Central Powers
Germany & Austria-Hungary
French, Great Britain, Russia
Swayed Neutrality
Germany Invasion of Belgium
"thought and deed"
Woodrow Wilson saying we should stay neutral in thought and deed.
Wilson's advice for neutrality.
neutral in "thought and deed"
_______ hurt Germany
Wilson warned "_______" about subs and sinking.
"strict accountability"
Wilson's Progressive Actions
1) Louis Brandis to Supreme Court
2) Farm Loan Act
3) Keating-Owens Child Labor Act
4) Workmen's compensation
How Wilson won 1916
Carried west to win slim victory
Wilson sent ____ to negotiate with belligerents.
Col. Edward M. Howes
Wilson did this after German announcement of U.S.W.
Severed diplomatic relations w/ Germany
Wilson authorized the _______ of the ________ after the Zimmermann note.
Arming; Merchant Marine
Events that pushed us to war.
Unrestricted submarine warfare
Zimmermann note
4 Am. Ships torpedoed
Russian Gov't fell
Opponent of Dec of war vs. Germany
Jeannette Rankan
Americans were slow to move from ____ to ____ economy.
Peacetime; Waretime
Sept. 1917
Used voluntary conservation of food. Led by?
Food Administration Board. Herbert Hoover.
Beginning of _____ thru planning and regulation between gov't and business
Industrial-military complex
Things that financed the war
1) borrowing, Liberty and Victory Bonds
2) taxes. higher income,inheritancem and excess profits tax
"Clear and Present Danger"
Good movie. oh and quote by oliver wendell holmes for standard of free speech.
1)more gov't in business (led to bureaucracy)
2) womens' suffrage
3) more opportunities for blacks
4) prohibition
5) campaigns against prostitution and venereal disease
Things opposing women
1) Traditional view of roles
2) returning vets
3) opposition by unions
Navy transported soldiers using the...
convoy system
signed at end of war
Largest Am. involvement in ____
The Argonne Forest
Killed 9 people and captured 131!
Alvin York
Wilson campaigned for _____ for congress.
Democratic congress.

but the reps won.
Great Brit big 4
David Lloyd-George
France Big 4
Georges Clemenceau
Italy big 4
Vittorio Orlando
Used to punish Germany
War Guilt Clause
Things done to punish Ger
Huge Reparations
Restictions on rearming
Stripped of colonies
Headed War Indutstries Board
Bernard Baruch
"Over There" song
George M. Cohen

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