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T or F
Supply-side economics was used in the presidency of Jimmy Carter.
T or F
Milton Friedman was a supporter of Keynesian economic theory.
T or F
The Federal Reserve System controls monetary policy.
T or F
The corporate income tax is the federal governmentÂ’s largest source of revenue.
A triggering mechanism can transform a condition into a _____________ in the minds of the American public and the political leadership.
_______________is the actual execution of a policy.
Regulatory policy involves:____________
police powers to supervise the conduct of individuals, businesses, and agencies.
Before they enter the policy-making process, issues must undergo a radical redefinition in the eyes of:
policy elites
Social conditions become redefined as problems requiring a government response in which of the following ways?
Both a dramatic event serves as a triggering mechanism and the activities of policy entrepreneurs.
The actual execution of a policy is called:
A period of monitoring and analysis of a policy after it goes into effect is called:
policy evaluation
If a policy is continued after it is analyzed, it enters what social scientists call a:
feedback loop
Pork barrel legislation makes policymaking a highly:
political process
Congress created the Environmental Protection Administration in:
In the area of environmental policy making at the federal level, the publication of CarsonÂ’s Silent Spring served as a(n):
triggering mechanism
RooseveltÂ’s Social Security Act established a safety net for those falling into poverty; it did so through a system of:
A rise in the general level of prices across the economic system is known as:
Inflation and high interest rates combined with unemployment and a stagnant economy is called:
The argument that economic stability can be achieved only by controlling the growth of the money supply:
The view that a market economy is a self-adjusting mechanism that will achieve full employment, maximum productivity, and stable prices if left alone would be called:
Laissez-Faire Economics
Adam Smith wrote ?
The Wealth of Nations
In 1921, the responsibility for preparing the budget was conferred upon the president with:
The Budget and Accounting Act
The Office of Management and Budget was originally called the:
Bureau of the Budget
Taxes on gasoline would be considered:
regressive taxes
The current income tax system would be considered:
NAFTA stands for:
North American Free Trade Agreement
_______________________ are members of Congress, the president, Supreme Court justices, cabinet officers, heads of key agencies and departments, leading editorial writers, and influential columnists and commentators. [Hint]
Policy elites
Clearly written laws contribute to the ____________________ of public policies. [Hint]
T or F
Congress had made several efforts to apply means testing to Social Security entitlements.
T or F
The Great Depression acted as a triggering mechanism to translate the economic condition of poverty into a political issue.
One can view the policy-making process as a _______ cycle. [Hint]
The public agenda can be viewed as the ___________ agenda of government. [Hint]
T or F
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was created in 1972.
The _________ agenda is composed of policies that are actually scheduled for debate and potential adoption by Congress, the president, the Supreme Court, or executive departments and agencies. [Hint]
T or F
The feminization of poverty resulted from the increase in the number of working women, higher divorce rates, higher rates of illegitimate births, and an increase in the number of single-parent households.
T or F
Welfare reform legislation was one of the most controversial laws signed by Clinton during his presidency.
T or F
There are approximately 1,000 regulations that accompany a hamburger.
The "three Cs of implementation" are
1. complexity
2. cooperation
3. coordination
Issue networks serve to make public policy making highly ____________.
T or F
The enormous expense associated with cleaning up hazardous-waste sites led to the enactment in 1970 of the Superfund Law, which created a fund to pay for toxic-site cleanups.
Regulatory activity has gradually __________ over the last century.
T or F
Rachel CarsonÂ’s Silent Spring dealt with the issue of pesticides in the environment.
A _________ tax takes a larger share of the income of low-income groups.
T or F
The difficulty of implementing federal policies is a result of complexity, cooperation, and coordination.
T or F
Policy entrepreneurs are business agents who sell programs or policies to their employees.
T or F
Social security programs are considered to be a form of mandatory spending.
T or F
The second largest source of federal government revenues is social security and other payroll taxes.
T or F
Prior to the corporate tax and the individual income tax, the federal government raised funds primarily through tariffs.
T or F
The capital gains tax is a tax on unearned income from rents, stocks, and interest.
T or F
The Federal Reserve System acts according to the presidentÂ’s direction.
T or F
The Federal Reserve System was established in 1913 in response to multiple bank failures.
A __________ tax requires high-income groups to pay a larger percentage of their incomes in taxes than low-income groups.
The Federal Reserve System, known as the __a_____, acts as the countryÂ’s central ____b_______.
a. "Fed"
b. bank
The current chair of the Federal Reserve Board is _________.
Alan Greenspan
When government revenues exceed government spending, we have a ___________
The law requires that by the first ___________ , the president must submit to Congress his proposed federal budget for the next fiscal year.
Monday in February
The ____________ is a staff of budgetary experts that provide both houses of Congress with their own source of budgetary data.
Congressional Budget Office
A presidentÂ’s refusal to spend funds that are appropriated by Congress is called _______________.
Congress uses its ____________ authority to assess the performance of government agencies.
Taxes on goods imported into the country are called __________.
What are the 2 major categories of public policy:
1. regulatory policy
2. social policy
What are decision, actions, and commitments of government:
public polices
What are the means by which government attempts to solve problems and make life easier and safer for its citizens?
public policies
List the 4 aism public policies enacted by the national government:
1. To regulate key industries and aspects of American life;
2. To protect Americans from actual or potential enemies at home and aborad;
3. To encourage the accomplishment of important social goals;
4. To assist a wide range of American citizens
Cite examples the public policy aim to regulate key industries and aspects of American life:
1. regulate tobacco industry;
2. regulate savings and loan industry;
3. regulate the meat-packing industry
Cite examples of public policies to protect Americans from actual or potential enemies at home & aborad:
by providing a powerful national defense
Cite examples of public policies to encourage the accomplishment of important social goals:
1. Head Start for preschool children;
2. Pell grants for college students
Cite examples of public policies to assist a wide range of American citizens:
1. farmers through farm subsidies;
2. low-income families through temporary assistance for needy families;
3. state & local governments through highway funds.
What is the policy that involve the use of police powers by the federal government to supervise the conduct of individuals, businesses, and other goernmental agecies:
Regulatory policy
What is essentially a set of "negative incentives" put into place by government to prevent certain kinds of behavior?
Regulatory policies
What policies focuses on villains, like industrial polluters, crooked savings and loan executives, unscrupulous railroad barons, meat-packers, and tobacco companies?
regulatory policies
What are policies that promote or encourage basic social economic fairness?
social policies
What type of incentives do social policies use to promote or encourage basic social and economic fairness?
positive incentives
List long-standing American social welfare objectives:
aid to disadvantaged groups such as:
1. people living below the poverty line
2. older Americans
3. people of color, women, military veterans,
4. educationally emotionally, or physically challenged Americans
List positive incentives used for social policies:
1. cash
2. assistance
3. stipends
4. entitlements
5. grants
What model of policies analyzes how an issue can be moved into the spotlight of the national agenda?
life cycle model
What are the 11 steps of the "life cycle" model of policies?
1. Redefinition of a public or private "condition" as a public "problem"
2. Placement of the problem on the national policy agenda
3. Emergence of the problem as a "public issue" requiring government action
4. Formulation of a public policy response, usually followed by a pledge of action.
5. One or more reformulation of the proposed policy.
6. Placement of the proposed policy on the formal agenda of government
7. Enaactment of part or all of the proposed policy
8. Implementation of the policy
9. Impacts caused by implementation of the policy
10. Evaluation of the impact of the policy
11. Termination or continued implementation and evaluation of the policy.
What are the first words in the list of 11 steps of life cycle for a policy
1. Redefinition
3. Emergence
4. Formulation
5. One or more reformulations
6. Placement
7. Enactment
8. Implementation
9. Impacts
10. Evaluation
11. Termination
List policy elites:
1. members of Congress,
2. president,
3. cabinet officers,
4.heads of key agencies and depts.
5. leading editorial writers, and infuluentials and commentators
6. Supreme Ct justices
What are the policies that are actually scheduled for debate and potential adoption by Congress
Formal agenda
The distiction between ______________ and ______________ is critical fro understanding public policy making
1. problem
2. conditions
Cite examples of social conditions
1. pollution
2. high crime rates
3. low voter turnout
4. high rates of unemployment
5. poverty rates
For a condition to be redefined as a problem it must eventually come to be framed as an _____________
List the 2 key ways in which social conditions become redefined as problems requiring governmental policy responses:
1. triggering mechanisms;
2. activities of policy entrepreneurs
Define a triggering mechanism for policy response:
a critical development that converts a aroutine problem in to a widely shared, negative public response
Cite an example of a triggering mechanisme?
The shootings at Columbine High School.
Define who are policy entrepreneurs:
indivuals or goups that are instrumental in "sselling" a program or policy to a policy-making body
Cite examples of policy entrepreneurs:
1. Martin Luther King, Jr.
3. NOW
4. Sierra Club
Ralph Nader is an example of what type of policy making particpant?
policy entrepreneur
How is policy enacted?
1. constructed
2. debated
3. put into effect (implemented)
How do government agencies implement laws enacted by Congress?
1. issue regulations in tentative form; and then
2. hold public hearings, appeal processes
T or F
Complex policies requiring extensive cooperation and a great deal of coordination have a much greater chance of achieveing full implementation than simpler policies.
List the 3 characteristics that contribute to the effectiveness of public policies
1. clearly written law or policy statement
2. strong presidential support
3. local cooperation in the implementation of policy
What is the period of monitoring and analysis following implementation of of a policy
policy evaluation
What is the description for informaion about the consequences of policy that is f"fed back " into the cycle to help in the formulation of new plicies:
feedback loop
What is the term for the forming of temporary political alliances in public policy making?
What is the term for policies that benefit particular states or districts?
pork barrel legislation
What is the term for informal reltaionship among legislative commitees, executive agencies and interest groups made during public policy making?
iron triangles
What is the term used to describe when large numbers of participants take an active interest in a particular policy?
issue networks
List the 6 different kinds of regulartory activities the government engages in?
It may regulate:
1. prices that can be charged for a good or service
2. franchising or licenses granted to individuals or business
3. performance of safety standards
4. resources such as water or elctricity from federal dams and hydroelectric projects available to citizens or businesses
5. may provide or withhold operating subsidies
6. may use regulatory commissions such as the FTC or the SEC to regulate vital industries and promote fair competition among individuals and businesses
When did the highest levels of regulation were reached in US history?
During the 1960's and the 1970's in reponse to consumer, civil rights and environmental movements
What was the triggering mechanism for environmental policy making at the federal level?
The publication of "Silent Spring" by Rachel Carson in 1962.
What was the book "Silent Spring" about?
About the use of pesticide, DDT, and its poisoning of fileds, streams, fish, and wildlife and ulitmately the US consumer
Describe the National Environmental Policy Act 1969:
1. government agencies were required to issue an envronmental impact statement listing the effects that proposed agency regulations would have on the environment.
When did Congress create the Environmnetal Protection Agency (EPA)?
When was the Clean Air Act enacted?
What did the Clean Air Act legislate?
Directs the EPA to monitor industrial air pollution and enforce compliance with existing pollution laws.
What government agency was assigned the responsibility for monitoring and reducing poolution associated automobile emissions?
Department of Transportation
When did Congress pass the Water Pollution Act?
What did the 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act legislate?
1. regulated the disposal of hazardous waste
2. sought to reduce the volume of waste by encourage recycling, on-site disposal, incineration, and disposal of hazardous-waste in land-fills
What resulted from the enormous expense associated with cleaning up hazardous-waste sites?
The Superfund Law of 1980
What did the Superfund Law of 1980 do?
1. created a fund to pay for toxic-site cleanups; and
2. authorized the EPZ to order polluters to clean up sites where necessary
When did Congress enact the Safe Water and Toxic Enforement Act?
What did the Safe Water and and Toxic Enforcement ACT do?
regulated discharges in surface water and groundwater
When did the Toxic Substances Control Act pass Congress?`
What did the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1987 do?
required the removal of carcinogenic material such as asbestos from buildings
What did the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 do:
resolved a lon-running conflict bet3ween coal-producing and auto-manufacturing states, West Virgina and Michigan and states such as Maine and Claifornia
Where and when was the first internationl conference on the environment held?
1992 - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
What is the Kyoto Protocols?
Dev. in 1997 by 150 countries meeting in Kyoto, Japan, it is acommitment by nations to bring their emisions down to specific levels by specific dates.
The nations agreed to reduce greenhouse gas emission; the specific limitas vary from country to country
What country's targes and frameworks were used to develop the Kyoto Protocols?
T or F
The USA currently endorses the Kyoto Protocols.
False, the Bush Administration opposes the mandatroy cuts in emissions that wuld result in the loss ob billions of dollars and 5 million lost jobs.
What are offset policies?
They allow a potential polluter to build a facility that otherwise would not be allowable by "offsetting" the increase pollution with lower pollution elsewhere.
What are pollution credits?
industries and companies that fail to meet their emission standards can "buy" extra pollution "credits" from companies whose emission are below the allowable level.
What is the term used for a federally determined level of income below which the goernment considers the person eligible to receive assistance?
poverty level
What is the term for government-sponsored benefits and cash payments for which individuals might qualify by virtue of being poor, elderly, disabled, or a child living in poverty?
The Social Security Act was the centerpiece of what?
Pres. Franklin Roosevelt's "New Deal" legislative program
Name the key provision of the Social Security Act:
Old Age Survivors Disability Insurance (OASDI)
Where does the money to fund the Old Age Survivors Disability Insurance provision in the Social Security Act?
contributed by a payroll tax shared equally by employers and employees.
Who administers their seperate unemployment insurance systems?
Each state
How many weeks who lose their jobs eligible for unemployment payments (except when Congress has, on occasion, extended that period during times of high unemployment)
26 weeks.
What is the term for the changing of the eligibility for entitlement benefits from everyone receiving benefits to only those with earnings and savings below a predetermined level in an attempt to save money?
means testing
What is the term for entitlement benefits that are paid to any eligible recipient, regardless of his or her financial status?
non-means-tested entitlements
T or F
Recent projections of the ratio of working people to retirees indicate that the trust fund for Social Security will run out of money?
What program created by the Social Security Act of 1935 was terminated by legislation during the Clinton administration?
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) also knowns as welfare
What was the official title for the entitlement program known as "welfare"?
Aid to Families of Dependent Children
T or F
The AFDC was a non-contributory entitlement program.
What does AFDC stand for?
Aid to Families with Dependent Children
List the 4 programs created by the Social Security Act of 1935:
1.Social Security retirement benefits
2.unemployment compensation
3.public assistance or welfare program
4.series of aid programs for blind, disabled, or otherwise ineligible senior citizens.
How many regulations accompany a hamburger?
Approximately 41,000.
What was the first major piece of social welfare legislation?
Social Security Act of 1935
What were the two major pieces of legislation launched as Pres. Johnson's War on Povery:
1. Economic Opportunity Act (1964)
2. Medicare Act (1965)
What did the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 do? (list 5)
1. created the Job Corps to train the long-term unemployed
2. created the Neighborhood Youth Corps to train neighborhood and inner-city unemployed youth for jobs
3. created literacy programs to ehlp adults learn to read
4. created Head-Start preschool programs to ehlp poor children gain sckills necessary to do well in school
5. created work-study programs for low-income college students
IWhat piece of legislation created "Head-Start"?
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964
The community actions programs created by the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 were created to run with the______________________of people in poor neighborhoods
Maximum feasilbe participation
What proved to be controversial about the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964?
Maximum feasible participation
Sen Pat. Moynihan stated that "maximum feasible participation quickly evolved into "____________________"
Maximum feasible misunderstanding.
What did the Hyde Amendment to the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964?
required more control be given to local officials in deciding how community action programs(CAP) money would be spent.
What does CAP stand for?
Community Action Program
What did the Medicare Act of 1965 do?
added health insurance to the Social Security program.
What does Medicare provide?
basic health care and hospitalization coverage for people over 65 years old.
What does Medicaid do?
provides health care coverage for needy individuals under age 65.
Who pays a percentage of Medicaid?
Federal government along with state and local governments
Who are covered by Medicaid?
People not covered by Medicare including the blind, disabled, and children living in poverty
What did the Family Support Act of 1988?
attempted to address the trend toward the feminization of poverty.
What caused the feminization of poverty?
1. increase in the number of working women;
2. higher divorce rates;
3. higher rates of illegitimate births;
4. dramatic increase of the number of single-parent households
What did the Family Support Act support?
What is "workfare"?
programs to assist welfare recipients in making the transition into the work force.;
What created the "Jobs" program which was designed to everually replace AFDC with a program in which recipients must work in exchange for cash assistance?
Family Support Act
What was the name of the most controversial legislation of Pres. Clinton?
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996?
Under what law are recipients restricted to 5 years on federal benefits in their lifetime and required state to enroll 30% of their recipients in work programs in 1998, a rate that was to grow to 50% by 2002?
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconsiliation Act of 1996
T or F
The federal poverty level - the dollar amount of annual earnings below which a familty is considered poor- has significantly been reduced.
What are the 2 slightly different versions of the federal poverty measure?
1. poverty thresholds
2. poverty guidelines
What are the poverty thresholds used for?
statistical purposes in preparing estimates of the numbers of Americans in poverty each year.
What are the poverty guidelines used for?
determining financial eligibility for certain federal programs.
Who is attributed the quote," It's the economy, stupid."?
Clinton during his presidential election campaign against Bush in 1992.
List the government policy categories that affect the economy:
1. fiscal policy
2. monetary policy
3. regulatory policy
4. international economic policy
Which economic policy has the clearest impact through decisions that are reflected in the budget?
fiscal policy
What are fiscal policies?
government budgetary choices concerning when and how much to tax, spend, subsidize, and borrow
What are monetary policies?
range of actions taken by the Federal Reserve Board to influence the level of the gross domestic product or the rate of inflation.
What does GDP stand for?
Gross Domestic Product
Describe regulatory policies as they affect the economy:
government regulate aspects of the workplace to achieve helath, safety, and environmental goals.
What er international economic policies?
they are the influences economic relations with other countries through exchange rates, trade negotiations, and international economic institutions like the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization.
What does IMF stand for?
International Monetary Fund
What does WTO stand for?
World Trade Organization
What was the predecessor to the WTO?
What does GATT stand for?
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
What is the primary goal of economic policy?
Produce a vibrant, healthy, and growing economy.
T or F
The federal government's role in making economic policy has decreased since WWII.
False. It has increased
Define "inflation rates"
rate of increase in prices
Devine "stable prices"
low or zero inflation
Define "full employment"
an unemployment rate of 4% or less.
T or F
A "full employment" is defined as a 100% employment rate.
False. It is a 96% or more employment rate, or, 4% or less unemployment.
What did the Employment Act of 1946 do?
formalized the fed government's responsiblity to guide the economy to achieve 3 economic goals.
What were the 3 primary economic goals of the Employment Act of 1946:
1. stable prices
2. full employment
3. economic growth
What are the types of economic growth?
1. substantial
2. sustained
In order to achieve the goals of stable prices, full employment, and economic growth, what is the set of secondary set of economic goals?
1. low and stable interest rates;
2. stabel exchange rates;
3. reduced federal budget deficits and balance-of-trade deficits.
T or F
Progress towards the secondary economic goals seems necessary to achieve the rising living standards that are embodied in the nation's principal economic goals.
What is the document that proclaims how much the government will try to collect in taxes and how those revenues will be spent on various fed. programs?
national budget.
What is the annual shortfall between the monies that government takes in and spends?
T or F
It is only when the Congress passes the required spending bills that the government has a budget.
False. The president must sign the approved bill into law.
Who are the 2 most important actors in the fed. budgetary politics?
Congress and the President
What act conferred the responsibility upon the president of developing a budget?
Budget and Accounting Act of 1921.
What did the Budge and Accounting Act of 1921 do:
1. required government agencies to send their budget request to the president for consideration
2. created an executive budget office the Bureau of Budget
What was the original name for the Office of Management and Budget?
Bureau of Budget
What did the name of the Bureau of Budget change to?
Office of Managment and Budget
What does OMB stand for?
Office of Management and Budget
When did the Bureau of Budget change its name to the Office of Management and Budget?
under Pres. Nixon
T or F
The director of the OMB does not have cabinet-level status.
False. The director of the OMB is a cabinet-level position and serves as one of the President's top advisors
T or F
The president proposes and the Congress disposes.
What act did Congress pass in response to recurring budget battle with Pres. Nixon and to reassert its constitutional mandate to use the budget as an expression of its own policy?
Budge and Impoundment Control Act of 1974
Define impoundment?
either the president's refusal to spend appropriated funds, or his deferral of such expenditures.
When was the first impoundment?
1803 when Jefferson refused to spend $50,000 appropriated by Congress forgunboats on the Mississippi.
What percentage of controllable funds appropriated funds did Nixon impound?
Approx. 20%.
What did the Impoundment Control Act do?
modified the budget process by allowing Congress to establish overall levels for taxing and spending, including breakdowns for national defense, foreign aid, health, infrastructure and agriculture.
What office of Congress is a staff budgetary experts to provide both houses with their own source of budgetary data, and enhances their independence from the executive branch?
Congressional Budget Office
Before taxes on individuals, money to run the fed government came primarily from ____________
What year did the fed government begin to use its power to collect taxes from private corporations?
What year did the fed government begin to collect taxes from individuals?
Who said, "Read my lips. No new taxes."
George Bush, Sr.
T or F
The better the economy, the fewer the revenues generated by the income tax.
What is the name for the imposition of import taxes on foreign goods in an attempt to protect a nation's industry and/or labor?
What is the tax on those who make more money at a higher rate, are often considered the fairest, as they place a larger burden on those people with the greatest ability to pay?
progressive taxes
In general the _____1______the number of tax brackets, the _____2_________progressive the tax.
What are those taxes that tax all people by the same amount, thereby taking a higher fraction of the income of lower-income of lower-income taxpayers?
Regressive taxes
Which taxes are seen as more unfair, progressive or regressive taxes?
regressive taxes
What is the tax on unearned income from rents stocks, and interest?
Capital gains
T or F
Capital gains taxes are seen as regressive taxes.
False. Capital gains taxes are seen as progressive taxes.
Cite examples of regressive taxes:
1. gasoline taxes
2. cigarette taxes
3. alcoholic beverage taxes
What were the important aspects of the Tax Reform Act of 1986?
1. reduced the number of tax rates from 15 to 3
2. eliminated many tax deductions
What is a tax expenditure?
tax deductions
Cite examples of tax expeditures:
interest paid of home mortgages or businesses, and
business-related entertainments
Cite examples of tax deducations (tax expeditures) that were eliminated by the Tax Reform Act of 1986
1. state sales taxes
2. interest paid on credit card and other person debt
3. interest paid on morgages on 3rd or 4th homes
4. reduced deductions for medical expenses
What was the result of the Tax REform Act of 1986?
A simplified more progressive tax code.
Unfortunately, the reforms in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 did what for George Bush, Sr.?
Did not raise enough revenue to cover federal spending.
T or F
Revenue raised by the Tax Reform Act of 1986 were enough to cover fed spending.
What is the second largest source of federal revenue?
Social Security taxes paid by employuers and their employees
What are charges on the sale or manufacture of certain products, such as cigarettes, alcohol, and gasoline?
Excise taxes
What percentage of all federal spending is spent on discretionary spending?
What is the spending Congress and the president must decide to spend for the next year through 13 annual appropriations bill?
Discretionary spending
Cite examples of discretionary spending programs?
1. Social Security
2. Medicare
3. food stamps
4. veterans' benefits
What percentage of spending is mandatory spending?
70 %
Cite examples of discretionary spending?
1. FBI
2. Coast Guard
3. housing and education
4. space exploration and highway construction
5. defense
6. foreign aid
Which example of spending is interest on the national debt?
mandatory spending
US policy influence global trade policy through the ___1___________ and the ____2.___________
1. GATT and
2. WTO
The US policy influences its regions through what??
What are the 2 forces that polciy maker consider in order determine their support for internatonal policies?
1. how their constituents will be affected
2. whether the policy is broadly beneficial, given their understanding of the way the international economy works
When did Congress consider the GATT?
When the Uruguay Round of Gatt negioins start?
Under Pres. Reagan in 1986
Describe what the WTO does:
International economic organization that monitors trade and ensures "fair" practices
Describe the NAFTA:
An agreement between the US, Mexico and Canada that allows for free trade withouth tariffs and restrictions between these nations.
Why did Republicans vote as a block in favor of NAFTA?
its laissez-faire origins.It meant less government interference in international trade, which they favor
What does globalization mean?
all the nations are, to acertain, extent, now part of one big bathub economy
Who prepares the federal budget?
Office of Management and Budget

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