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Global Exam

an extremely difficult exam


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Gregory VII
reform pope: celibacy for clergy, pope appoints bishops, chruch power
Stateless societies
Societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority associated with states
A legendary port city that lays of the flood plain of the Niger river. It is significant because trade flourished there, bringing goods into and out of Western Africa. It was also the center for the vital book trade.
Bhaktic cults
Hindu groups dedicated to Hindu gods/goddesses. The groups were created partly in response to the Muslim religious threat on India. Membership in the cults was open to everyone even women and untouchables. the groups stressed mysticism and personal bonds with Gods. the groups usually worshiped Shiva, Vishnu, and Krishna. They used literature and poetry
Kievan Rus
A monarchy established in present day Russia in the 6th and 7th centuries. It was ruled through loosely organized alliances with regional aristocrats from. The Scandinavians coined the term "Russia". It was greatly influenced by Byzantine
a sudanic state centered between the senegal and niger rivers. It was created by the Malinke people when they broke away from the powerful state of Ghana. Rulers supported Islam. The basis of the economy was agricutlure but gold was plentiful and played a larger role
an important link for traveling and trading. city connected the Byzantium to Russia and Scandinavia. It was the center for Kievan Rus as well.
bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult with their vassals. The first parliment was created in Catalonia but the idea spread all over Europe, most prevalent in places like Spain, Germany, France, and England. These institutions were strongest in England.
the aristocratic landlord class in early Russia. They possessed less political power than their western counterparts
core nations
usually European nations that enjoyed profit form world economy; controlled international banking and commerical services such as shipping; experted manufacturing goods for raw materials
They were a people of Persia who captured Baghdad. They were significant because for a little over a century they controlled the Islamic empire through puppet caliphs and their own "sultan" leaders
Chinggis Khan's grandson, it was he who led the Mongols to capture the Abbasid capital and move even farther westward, conquering more lands.
Greek Fire
weapon that helped that Byzantines beat back Arabs as they tried to siege Constantinople. It was sort of napalm, petroleum, quick lime and sulfur mixture that destroyed Arab ships
the social organization created by exchanging grants of lands or fiefs in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; happened in Middle Ages in Europe. Greater lords provided protection to aid lesser lords in return for military service.
Urban II
that ******* of a pope who made the Crusades happen
followers of a Islamic radical movement. They believed that is was their duty to purify, spread, and protect the religion of Islam. they engaged in holy war or Jihad, justifying their conquest of African kingdoms in the savanna and Spain.
a great Islamic theologian who attempted to fuse Greek and Qu'ranic traditions. His ideas were not always accepted by staunch orthodox ulama
three-field system
a system of agriculture in which one half of the land is left uncultivated each year to maintain fertile soil. It was developed in the 9th century and kept up productivity of crops.
The third abbasid caliph (775-785), who indulged in excess. During his reign the first signs of Abbasid decline were seen. Many assassination attempts were made on him by the angry Shi'a. He had many wives, concubines, and courtiers. He failed to solve the problem of succession or to reconcile with the Shi'a moderates
a slavic kingdom that at times pressed into the Byzantine empire. At other times it was controlled by the Byzantines. It was significant because coining the term tsar for their kings. They are significant mainly because of the constant pressure they exerted on the Byzantium and because of the conquest of Basil II the Bulgarian Slayer.
a central Asian nomadic tribe that raided in the 1220s and eventually destroyed the kingdoms to the east of Baghdad. In the 1250s they invaded the Muslim heartland and by 1258 the Abbasid capital was taken. They went even farther westward but were thwarted.
a trading center on the north coast of Java. Helped spread the Muslim faith yet further through South East Asia
an extensive grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara desert. Served as a point of exchange between North Africa and south Africa. Several trade cities and African states developed here.
Sudanic States
kingdoms that developed during the height of Ghana's power, from the Senegal river to the Niger River. The states were ruled by a patriarch or council of elders. There was a core territorial area and then surrounding subordinate ones. The rulers of sudanic states were considered sacred and separate from their subjects. when islam spread to this area, only Royals practiced it and it was not spread to the people.
Muhammad of Ghur
A brilliant Muslim commander in the last decades of the 12th century who stopped raiding North India and implemented a serious conquest campaign. He successfully captured the Indus Valley and North Central India. He was assassinated in 1206 but his subordinates kept up the conquest of India
a brilliant general under Justinian who made new gains in North Africa and Italy during Justinian's campaign to regain lands in western Europe.
Cyril and Methodius
Christian missionaries sent to what is now the Czech and Slovak republics by the Byzantium. They were later sent to Southern Russia, where they were more successful because of their ability to speak slavic language, this is why they were significant, this region and created a written version of the slavic language. Literature and literacy developed in the region as a result.
A strong Muslim leader during the Crusades, who led during the last decades of the 12th century. Under him, the Muslims reconquered most of the crusader outposts. He died in 1193 but his impact was felt deeply and the Christians never regained strength in the holy land, their last settlement falling in 1291
Harun al-Rashid
He was the second son of al-Mahdi and the most famous of the Abbasid caliphs. He too enjoyed a life of luxury, building fancy mosques, palaces, and treasure troves. He became dependent on a group of Persian advisers. He left no clear successor and after his death civil war broke out over succession
Holy Roman Emperors
Emperors in Northern Italy and Germany, following split of Charlemagne's empire, claimed title of emperor blending religious and classical ideads. They however failed to develop affective monarchies in Germany.
Reformist group, formed after Almoravids, not as warlike and interested more in purification.
a family that took over the monarchy of the Franks based in northern France, Belgium, and Western Germany. They gained power in the 8th century and maintained it until their replacement in the 10th century
Mahmud of Ghazni
He was the 3rd ruler of a Turkic slave dynasty in Afghanistan. He began 2 centuries of raiding in Northern India. He led raids deep into the Indian subcontinent, sacking Hindu temples and giving Muslims a reputation of intolerance and aggression
Byzantine empire (origins)
The empire began when Rome set up and eastern capital, Constantinople, in the 4th century CE. Soon after a separate subordinate emperor began to rule the East from Constantinople. After, the western portion fell, the Byzantium was left to stand on it's own. The empire still held onto latin, Roman political ideas, etc however had it's own greek influenced identity as well.
Malinke merchants that formed partnerships or groups to carry out trade. They spread beyond Mali and throughout western Africa
Agricultural workers on manors who recieved protection from their landlords in return fo rworkign the land and giving a part of their crop to the landlord. Most people during this time occupied this niche. They were severely uneducated and their lives were very difficult.
Russian Orthdox
a branch of the Orthodox Christianity devleoped soon after Russians converted. All major appointments were controlled by the King. The official language was "Russian"
state appointment of bishops
Turkic slaves who at the time of Mongol conquest, ruled Egypt. They were Muslim and in 1260 they defeated the Mongols and stopped their advance westward.
The system of economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant farmers during the middle ages. It involved a series of obligations between manor lords and peasants. The manor lord offered protection in exchange for a portion of crops and peasant remaining on the land.
Mongols who captured Russian cities and destroyed the Kievan state in 1236. However, they left the Russian Orthodox church and aristocracy intact.
Battle of Lepanto
a naval battle fought between a Spanish and Venetian fleet and the German navy. The Spanish won. The battle meant that European navies ahd surpassed the Muslims. The Turks could no longer challenge Europeans on international routes.
a fortified tradetown located on the top of the Malayan peninsula, it is a center for trade. Malacca is significant because it helped spread Islam through south east asia and it's lands
Hundred Years War
An agonizingly long conflict between Fance and England that was essentially a dispute over land. it was important becuz it made the rift between the countries a hell of a lot worse it made warfare more modern
Ottoman Empire
A Turkic empire established in the Asia Minor and eventually extending throughout Middle East; responsible for conquest of Constantinople and end of Byzantine Empire in 1453; succeeded Seljuk turks following retreat of Mongols
the legendary first monarch of Kievan Rus. he was supposedly a native of Denmark
Hagia Sopia
a huge ancient church in Constantinopple created during Justinians reign. It is most noted for it's huge dome, an incredible feat of engineering and architecture at the time.
Muhammad the Great
extended the boundaries of Songhay to include Central Sudan so by the mid 16th century, Songhay dominated the area. a great Askia (songhay ruler)
sworn associations of people in the same business or trade in a single city, stressed security and mutual control, limited membership, regulated apprenticeship, guranteed good worksmanship often est. franchise within cities
members of the military elite who recieved land or benefits from a lord in retrun for military service and loyalty
A lengthy epic poem written by Firdawsi in the late 10th and early 11th centuries. It is also called "Book of Kings". The poem discusses Persian history in great eloquent detail. Shah-Nama has an almost musical quality to it and portions of it are put to song.
Muhammad ibn Qasim
An Arab-Muslim general who led 10,000 horses and camels into the Indian city of Sind because pirates had interfered with Arab sea trading. He was victorious and declared the Indus river valley and the Sind region provinces of the Umayyad empire. He was 17 at the time of his first conquest.
dominant medieval philosophical approach, so called becuz of its base in the schools or univeristies basedd on use of lgoic
Vladimir I
a descendant of Rurik, and a Kievan Rus ruler. He ruled from 980 to 1015 and is significant for converting himself and all of his subjects forcibly to Christianity
Songhay kingdom
a kingdom largely based on agriculture. Commoners kept their pagan beliefs while the leaders adopted Islam. ruled by monarchs. harvested gold from Western Africa forests (not Mali kingdom)
Seljuk Turks
Originally a nomadic tribe from central Asia via Persia. They captured the caliphate and Baghdad from the Buyids in 1055. They were significant not only because they retained control of the remaining portions of the Abbasid empire, but because of their staunch Sunni beliefs they purged Shi'a officials and influence and strengthened the military
the Arabic term for western North African
the Arabic term for Eastern North Africa
Magna Carta
greater charter that was signed by King John of England in 1215. It was devised by an alliance of nobles, townspeople, etc in response to heavy taxes put forth by King John. It confirmed feudal rights against monarchial rulers and the feudal aristocracy.
Hanseatic League
an organization of cities in Northern Germany, southern Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance

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