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French and Indian War
The French and Indian War (1754-1763) was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. The name refers to the two main enemies of the British: the royal French forces and the various American Indian forces allied with them. The conflict, the fourth such colonial war between the kingdoms of France and Great Britain, resulted in the British conquest of all of New France east of the Mississippi River, as well as Spanish Florida. The outcome was one of the most significant developments in a century of Anglo-French conflict. To compensate its ally, Spain, for its loss of Florida, France ceded its control of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
Sir Edmund Andros
Sir Edmund Andros (December 6, 1637 - February 24, 1714) was an early colonial governor in North America, and head of the short-lived Dominion of New England. Andros was born in London on December 6, 1637, son of Amice Andros, an adherent of Charles I and Bailiff of Guernsey. He served for a short time in the army of Prince Henry of Nassau, and in 1660-1662 was gentleman in ordinary to the queen of Bohemia, Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I of England. He then served against the Dutch, and in 1672 was commissioned major in what is said to have been the first English regiment armed with the bayonet.
Phillis Wheatley
Phillis Wheatley (1753 - December 5, 1784) was the first published African American poet whose writings helped create the genre of African American literature.[1] She was born in Gambia, Africa, and became a slave at age seven. She was purchased by the Boston Wheatley family, who taught her to read and write, and helped encourage her poetry.
Peace of Paris 1763
The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. Together with the Treaty of Hubertusburg, it ended the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.[1] The treaties marked the beginning of an extensive period of British dominance outside of Europe.
Mercantilism is the idea that a colony should sell more goods than it buys; and that a colony should sell at higher prices and buy at lower prices. Economic assets or capital, are represented by bullion (gold, silver, and trade value) held by the state, which is best increased through a positive balance of trade with other nations (exports minus imports). Mercantilism suggests that the ruling government should advance these goals by playing a protectionist role in the economy, by encouraging exports and discouraging imports, especially through the use of tariffs.
Boston Massacre
The Boston Massacre refers to an incident involving the deaths of five civilians at the hands of British troops on March 5, 1770, the legal aftermath of which helped spark the rebellion in some of the British colonies in America, which culminated in the American Revolution. A tense situation because of a heavy British military presence in Boston boiled over to incite brawls between soldiers and civilians, and eventually led to troops discharging their muskets after being attacked by a rioting crowd. Three civilians were killed at the scene of the shooting, and two died after the incident.[1]
Great Awakening
The Great Awakenings refer to several periods of rapid and dramatic religious revival in Anglo-American religious history, generally recognized as beginning in the 1730s. They have also been described as periodic revolutions in U.S. religious thought. The term is also used in some respects to refer to American religious revivalism that the Protestant Reformation inspired during and after the 1500s, as well as to identify general religious trends within distinctly U.S. religious culture.
James Oglethorpe
James Oglethorpe (December 22, 1696 - June 30, 1785) was a British general, a philanthropist, and was the founder of the colony of Georgia. He was born in London, the son of Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe (1650-1702) of Westbrook Place, Godalming in the county of Surrey. A social reformer in England, he hoped to resettle England's poor, especially those in debtor's prison, in the New World.
James Otis
James Otis, Jr. (February 5, 1725 - May 23, 1783) was a lawyer in colonial Massachusetts who was an early advocate of the political views that led to the American Revolution. The phrase "Taxation without Representation is Tyranny" is usually attributed to him.
Stamp Act 1765
The Stamp Act of 1765 was the fourth Stamp Act to be passed by the Parliament of Great Britain and required all legal documents, permits, commercial contracts, newspapers, wills, pamphlets, and playing cards in the American colonies to carry a tax stamp. The Act was enacted in order to pay for the maintaining of the military presence protecting the colonies. However, riots erupted as the colonists protested. To make things easier, Parliament appointed tax agents to collect the tax from the colonies. However, there was so much protest and rioting that the act was repealed on March 18, 1766. And there wasn't even a stamp paper ever sold. Ever.
Proclamation of 1763
The Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763 by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War. The purpose of the proclamation was to establish Britain's vast new North American empire, and to stabilize relations with Native Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier. The Proclamation in essence forbade colonists of the thirteen colonies from settling or buying land west of the Appalachian Mountains. This led to considerable outrage in the colonies, as many colonists had already acquired land in that region. Additionally, the Proclamation gave the Crown a monopoly in land bought from Native Americans.
King Philip's War
Armed Conflict between Native Americans and English Colonists in South New England from 1675-1676
The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers, was founded in England in the 17th century as a Christian religious denomination by people who were dissatisfied with the existing denominations and sects of Christianity. Historians generally credit George Fox with being the principal co-founder or most important early figure.[1] The Society of Friends is counted among the historic peace churches.
Johnathan Edwards
Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703 - March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher, theologian, and missionary to Native Americans. Edwards "is widely acknowledged to be America's most important and original philosophical theologian"[1]. He is known as one of the greatest and most profound of American theologians and revivalists. His work is very broad in scope, but he is often associated with his defense of Calvinist theology, the metaphysics of theological determinism, and the Puritan heritage.
Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams (September 27 [O.S. September 16] 1722[2] - October 2, 1803) was an American statesman, politician, writer and political philosopher, brewer, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.[3] Adams was instrumental in garnering the support of the colonies for rebellion against Great Britain, eventually resulting in the American Revolution, and was also one of the key architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped American political culture. He was the second cousin of John Adams.
George Whitefield
George Whitefield (pronounced /ˈʍɪtfiːld/) (December 16, 1714 - September 30, 1770), was a preacher in the Church of England and one of the leaders of the Methodist movement. and an evangalist
Sugar Act 1764
The Sugar Act (citation 4 Geo. III c. 15), officially called the American Revenue Act, passed on April 5, 1764,[1] was a revenue-raising Act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain. The preamble to the act stated that, "it is expedient that new provisions and regulations should be established for improving the revenue of this Kingdom ... and ... it is just and necessary that a revenue should be raised ... for defraying the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing the same."[2] The earlier Sugar and Molasses Act, which had imposed a tax of six pence per gallon of molasses, had never been effectively collected due to colonial evasion. By reducing the rate in half and increasing measures to enforce the tax, the British hoped that the tax would actually be collected.[3]
William Penn
William Penn (October 14, 1644 - July 30, 1718) was founder and "Absolute Proprietor" of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future U.S. state of Pennsylvania. He was known as an early champion of democracy and religious freedom and famous for his good relations and his treaties with the Lenape Indians. Under his direction, Philadelphia was planned and developed.
Salutary Neglect
Salutary neglect'' was an undocumented, though long standing, British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws meant to keep the American colonies obedient to Great Britain. Prime Minister Robert Walpole stated that "if no restrictions were placed on the colonies, they would flourish"[citation needed]. This policy, which lasted from about 1607 to 1763, allowed the enforcement of trade relations laws to be lenient. Walpole did not believe in enforcing the Navigation Acts, established under Oliver Cromwell and Charles II and designed to force the colonists to trade only with England. King George III ended this policy through acts such as the Stamp Act and Sugar Act, causing tensions within the colonies
Pontiac's Rebellion
Pontiac's Rebellion was a war launched in 1763 by North American Indians who were dissatisfied with British policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War (1754-1763). Warriors from numerous tribes joined the uprising in an effort to drive British soldiers and settlers out of the region. The war is named after the Ottawa leader Pontiac, the most prominent of many native leaders in the conflict.
Navigation Acts
The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which restricted the use of foreign shipping and trade between England (later the Kingdom of Great Britain) and its colonies. The Navigation Acts caused resentment in the colonies against England, a resentment that fueled the flames of the Anglo-Dutch Wars and the American Revolutionary War.
Middle Passage
The Middle Passage refers to the forced transportation of African people from Africa to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade[1] and was the middle portion of the triangular trade voyage. Ships left Europe for African markets, where their goods were sold or traded for prisoners and kidnapped victims on the African coast. Traders then sailed to the Americas and Caribbean, where the Africans were sold or traded for goods for European markets, which were then returned to Europe
Committees of Correspondence
The committees of correspondence were bodies organized by the local governments of the Thirteen Colonies during the American Revolution for the purposes of coordinating written communication outside of the colony. These served an important role in the Revolution, by disseminating the colonial interpretation of British actions between the colonies and to foreign governments. The committees of correspondence rallied opposition on common causes and established plans for collective action, and so the group of committees was the beginning of what later became a formal political union among the colonies.
John Bartram
John Bartram (2 June [O.S. 23 May] 1699, Darby, Pennsylvania - September 22, 1777, Philadelphia) was an early American botanist and horticulturalist. Carolus Linnaeus said he was the "greatest natural botanist in the world."
Restoration Colonies
A restoration colony was one of a number of land grants in North America given by King Charles II of England in the latter half of the 17th century, ostensibly as a reward to his supporters in the Stuart Restoration. The grants marked the resumption of English colonization of the Americas after a 30-year hiatus.
Writs of Assistance
A Writ of Assistance is a legal document that serves as a general search warrant.
"holy experiment"
The "Holy Experiment" was an attempt by the Quakers to establish a community for themselves in Pennsylvania. They hoped it would show to the world how well they could function on their own without any persecution or dissension.
Quartering Act 1765
Lieutenant General Thomas Gage, the commander in Chief of British North American forces, and other British officers who had fought in the French and Indian War, had found it hard to persuade colonial assemblies to pay for quartering and provisioning of troops on the march and he asked Parliament to do something. Most colonies had supplied provisions during the war, but the issue was disputed in peacetime. The Province of New York assembly passed an act to provide for the quartering of British regulars, which expired on January 1, 1764.[1]The result was the Quartering Act of 1765, which went far beyond what Gage had requested. The colonies disputed the legality of this Act since it seemed to violate the Bill of Rights 1689 which forbid taxation without representation and the raising or keeping a standing army without the consent of Parliament.
Poor Richards Almanac
Poor Richard's Almanack (sometimes Almanac) was a yearly almanack published by Benjamin Franklin, who adopted the pseudonym of "Poor Richard" or "Richard Saunders" for this purpose. The publication appeared continually from 1732 to 1758. It was a best seller for a pamphlet published in the American colonies; print runs reached 10,000 per year.
Townshend Acts
The Townshend Acts (1767) passed by Parliament on 29 June 1767 refer to two Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1767, originally proposed by Charles Townshend. These laws placed a tax on common products imported into the American Colonies, such as lead, paper, paint, glass, and tea, while giving revenues from these taxes to the British governors and other officials that were normally paid by town assemblies. This could be considered taking the 'power of the purse' of these colonial assemblies.
Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1705] - April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author and printer, satirist, political theorist, politician, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman and diplomat. As a scientist he was a major figure in the Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. He invented the lightning rod, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and a musical instrument. He formed both the first public lending library in America and first fire department in Pennsylvania. He was an early proponent of colonial unity and as a political writer and activist he, more than anyone, invented the idea of an American nation[1] and as a diplomat during the American Revolution, he secured the French alliance that helped to make independence possible.
Albany Plan of Union 1754
The Albany Plan was proposed by Benjamin Franklin at the Albany Congress in 1754. It was an early attempt at forming a union of colonies that would unite English colonists with mainland England to assist in defending the New World during the French and Indian War. The plan was never effected, though after the Revolutionary War, the Albany Plan of Union was used to help write the Articles of Confederation. It established an elected intercolonial legislature without the power to tax.
John Peter Zenger
John Peter Zenger (October 26, 1697 - July 28, 1746) was a German-born American printer, publisher, editor and journalist in New York City.
Cotton Mather
Cotton Mather (February 12, 1663 - February 13, 1728). A.B. 1678 (Harvard College), A.M. 1681; honorary doctorate 1710 (University of Glasgow), was a socially and politically influential New England Puritan minister, prolific author, and pamphleteer. Cotton Mather was the son of influential minister Increase Mather. He is often remembered for his connection to the Salem witch trials.
John Dickinson
John Dickinson (November 2, 1732 - February 14, 1808) was an American lawyer and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Wilmington, Delaware. He was a militia officer during the American Revolution, a Continental Congressman from Pennsylvania and Delaware, a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, President of Delaware, President of Pennsylvania and served from 1782 to 1785 as an ex officio member and president of the board of trustees of the University of Pennsylvania. Among the wealthiest men in the British American colonies, he is known as the Penman of the Revolution, for his Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, where he eloquently argued the cause of American liberty
Dominion of New England
The Dominion of New England in America (1686-1689) was a short-lived administrative union of English colonies in the New England region of North America
Triangular Trade
Triangular trade is a historical term indicating trade between three ports or regions. The trade evolved where a region had an export commodity that was not required in the region from which its major imports came. Triangular trade thus provided a mechanism for rectifying trade imbalances.
Declaratory Act 1766
The Declaratory Act (short title 6 George III, c. 12), was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain in 1766, during America's colonial period; one of a series of resolutions passed attempting to regulate the behavior of the colonies. It stated that Parliament had the right to make laws for the colonies in all matters.
Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians with an invading army led by the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William III of England. It is sometimes called the Bloodless Revolution, but this is Anglocentric as it ignores the three major battles in Ireland and serious fighting in Scotland.[1] Even in England it was not completely bloodless, since there were two significant clashes between the two armies, plus anti-Catholic riots in several towns.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
The Sons of Liberty was a secret organization of American Patriots which originated in the Thirteen Colonies during the American Revolution. British authorities and their supporters known as Loyalists considered the Sons of Liberty as seditious rebels, referring to them as "Sons of Violence" and "Sons of Iniquity." Patriots attacked the apparatus and symbols of British authority and power such as property of the gentry, Customs officers, East India Company tea, and as the war approached, vocal supporters of the Crown.

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