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AP Euro Merriman Terms: World War I

Terms from the book


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Edith Cavell
a British nurse who was accused of helping British prisoners escape. Executed by the Germans which outraged British and French.
Isaac Rosenberg
British poet who died in battle. Wrote Break of Day in the Trenches.
Fourteen Points
created by Wilson. idealistic Blueprint for permanent peace. January 8, 1918. Based on Wilson's understanding of wwi's causes and how future wars could be avoided. Points included open covenants, openly arrived at instead of secret treaties. Freedom of the seas, freedom of trade. Impartial settlement of colonial rivalries. Nonintervention in Russia. Return of full sovereignty to Belgium. Alsace-Lorraine to France. Autonomy(not necessarily independence) for national groups within A-H Empire. Independence of Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Poland. Establishment of an organization or association to settle other national conflicts as they arose. Mainly dealt with the cause of the war that was people wanting natural national boundaries.
Machine gun
a defensive weapon that mowed down line after line of advancing soldiers. Most effective weapon of trench warfare. HEAVY.
Balfour Declaration
named after the British foreign secretary, Arthur Balfour. November 2, 1917. Expressed British willingness to support the future creation of a national home for the Jews as a state in Palestine once the Turks were driven out, provided such a state would recognize the rights of preexisting Arab populations.
Hindenburg Line
impenetrable German second line of defense.
Battle of Caporetto
Italian army was pushed back 75 miles here on the Isonzo River by the Germans
Munitions of War Act
May 1915. Forbade strikes and provided for the requisition of skilled workers for labor in factories, which were converted to the production of war material.
first massive tank attack in the history of warfare launched by the British on November 20, 1917 here.
Aleksandr Kerensky
head of Russian provisional government after revolution.
Council of Workers and Soldiers in Russia. The one in Petrograd contended for power in the vacuum left by the sudden disappearance of autocracy.
John Bull
German posters showed this Ogre-like Brit and said "this man is responsible for your hunger." Just a sign of increased enmity between sides of the war. Scapegoat.
Daylight savings time
introduced for the first time, to conserve fuel
Erich Ludendorff
determined and organized general. Good reputation. More power once Bethmann-Hollweg was dismissed. Decided on a massive German assault along the Somme river that happened on march 21, 1918.
Mustard gas
carried by the wind and burned out lungs. First used by Germans against Brisih at Ypres. Frothing yellow mucus and blue faces.
Supreme War Council
established by Allied powers in October 1917 in a move to coordinate their war efforts. Held regular meetings of the prime ministers of France, Britain, and Italy, as well as a US representative sent by Woodrow Wilson.
Woodrow Wilson
wartime president of USA. Re-elected because "he kept us out of war" because he had adopted a declaration of neutrality, but we ended up going to war anyway. Came up with the Fourteen Points.
Gas mask
offered imperfect protection against mustard gas.
Ferdinand Foch
French Marshal who assumed command of the combined French, B ritish, and American armies.
Battle of Jutland
German and British fleets "stumbled into each other" off Denmark coast. May 31-June 1, 1916. Both sides claimed victory, but British losses were heavier.
enormous battleships that helped fuel the Anglo-German rivalry. Stayed in port.
David Lloyd George
skillfully oversaw the transition from peacetime to wartime industrial production. Then became prime minister in December 1916. Denounced the Bolsheviks.
Paul von Hindenburg
Prussian general for Germany. 67 yrs. Old. Good reputation. More power once Bethmann-Hollweg was dismissed.
first sustained action of Germans
Raymond Poincaré
French President
Jules Guesde
a French socialist who became their minister of commerce.
Home Rule crisis
Ireland wanted home rule. Preoccupied British politicians and the public.
Gavrilo Princip
the assassin who killed Franz Ferdinand. One of seven from the "Black Hand" Serb nationalist group. After a bomb went off and didn't work Princip spotted their car and opened fire
Lord Horatio Kitchener
secretary of war in Britain.
well-organized Russian Communist Party that grew in influence in the major cities and in the army and aimed to seize power and then take Russia out of the war as quickly as possible. Overthrew the provisional government. Leader was Lenin
first commissioned by the US navy. Germany's made the greatest impact. Called U-Boats. Sunk lots of British ships. 188 feet long and range of 2400 miles.
Georges Clemenceau
French prime minister. Denounced the Bolsheviks. Rallied the war effort.
John Pershing
American general. Commander of American troops. Famous for his punitive expedition against Pancho Villa the Mexican bandit. Served in campaigns against Geronimo and against the Sioux. Fought in the Philippines and in Cuba.
Battle of the Marne
saved France in 1914. French counterattacked Germans and the Germans retreated. British forced them to retreat further. Ended the Schlieffen Plan and the offensive war imagined by the Germans.
Home front
concept emerged during wwi. It was civilian support.
Millicent Garret Fawcett
leading British feminist who threw her support behind war
Big Bertha
giant German gun. Could lob shells each weighting up to a ton. Went 24 miles into the air and then impacted deadly.
Clara Zetkin
Germany, 1857-1933. militant socialist who went to jail because she refused to stop denouncing the war and tried to mobilize working-class women against a struggle between capitalist states that pitted worker against worker.
Helmuth von Moltke
chief of German general staff. Reduced the strength of attacking forces in the Schlieffen plan instead of being ballsy. Eliminated Netherlands from the invasion plan.
those who escaped service
Genearl Alexander von Kluck
commander of First German army.
Sir Roger Casement
an Irish nationalist who tried to form an Irish Legion and urged the Germans to send military assistance. When he found out they weren't gonna do that he tried to get others to call off the insurrection but it didn't work. Anyway, he was executed because he was a traitor to the British but a hero to many Irish.
Rosa Luxemburg
Polish socialist living in Germany. Went to prison for her efforts to turn more members of the party against the war. Became bolder near the end of the war.
Colonel T.E. Lawrence
writer and specialist on the middle east. among the British officers coordinating sudden attacks against strategically important Turkish railway from the sacred city of Medina to Damascus, among other targets.
Ferdinand's morganatic wife
Prince Max von Baden
Germany's new chancellor in 1918. Liberal monarchist. Asked President Wilson for an armistice on Oct. 4, 1918.
Robert Nivelle
general. Commander-in-chief of French forces, starting in 1916, when he replaced Joffre. Was promoted rapidly because he led troops who had stormed Verdun's Fort Douaumont.
given to Serbs from Austrians. Denounced Serbian nationalistic activity. Made a lot of demands, and the Serbs accepted 5 completely, 4 pending discussion...only rejected one outright: that the Austro-Hungarian gov. send representatives to investigate
Trench Warfare
dug ditches in the ground to fight; how WWI was fought. Offered some protection from rifle or pistol fire but not from direct artillery hits.
Archduke Franz (Francis) Ferdinand
60 yrs old; heir to Habsburg throne. Disliked by Hungarians because he had the most sympathy for South Slavs out of anyone. Disliked by South Slavs because they wanted all or nothing. Assassinated in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia.
Battle of the Isonzo River
there were twelve of these! In 1916!
William II
German Kaiser
Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
1856-1921. became chancellor of Germany in 1909. stubborn and thought that Germany's strength must be paramount. Doubted A-H could remain a great power. Had a numbing fatalism because his wife died. Dismissed by the Kaiser in 1917.
Belle Époque
what people called the pre-war period, even more so after the war. The good old days.
French plan for war. Rapid attack. Sent armies to Alsace-Lorraine and wanted to engage Germans in combat and drive them back. The way to Berlin would be open while they were doing this.
Lord Northcliffe
the press baron named by the government to provide the public with reports of the war
Joseph Joffre
Marshal. Overseen plans for a full-scale assault into Alsace-Lorraine, followed by a march to Berlin.
Jean Jaurès
popular French socialist leader. Assassinated by a rightist. Supported the war effort in the end.
Siegfried Sassoon
British poet who went to war. Wrote The Hero. Was wounded at the front and then returned to England and denounced the war. Was incarcerated in a mental asylum. Returned to the front due to his buddies. Wounded again.
patriotic energy. Expected by French high command to bring a victory.
Sykes-Picot Agreement
1916. Balfour Declaration contradicted this. Secretly divided Syria and other parts of the Middle East into British and French zones of influence.
Zimmerman telegram
named after the German foreign secretary, Arthur ____. A coded telegram that the United States intercepted in 1916 btwn. Germany(the man) and Mexico(an ambassador). Allegedly it offered Mexico the German help in taking back TX, AZ, and NM if it would go to war against the US. Wilson used this telegram to bolster support for a declaration of war on April 16, 1917.
French gov. relocated her provisionally at the beginning of war
European Jews longed for a homeland here. British government supported them both in principle and because it would hurt the Turks. Realized Jewish state could serve as a buffer between Suez Canal and French-controlled Syria.
became weapons of combat.
"blank check"
given from Germany to A-H. told them to act with the knowledge of full German support.
stuck up from the trench and provided the only safe way of looking across at the enemy lines without being shot by enemy snipers.
Sarah Bernhardt
French theater star who recited poetry to soldiers
dashing and brave airplane fighter people. German Red Baron and Manfred von Richthofen, American Eddie Rickenbacker. Chased each other around skies. Had "dogfights" and the sky combat was in romantic dimensions.
strong points
small fortress-like areas that held the trench line together even if the system was overrun
Schlieffen Plan
obvy named after von Schlieffen. Required the violation of Belgian neutrality and encircling of Paris and then going to defeat Russia.
Victory drive
spring of 1918; Germany's first major offensive since 1914.
Sussex pledge
Germany reaffirmed agreement made after sinking Lusitania to give up unrestricted submarine warfare. Occurred after the U.S. government protested the sinking of the British ship Sussex in the English Channel w/ the loss of American lives.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
officially ended Russian participation in wwi. March 3, 1918. Germans offered a cessation of hostilities in return for virtually all Russian war materiel they could carry. Also, independence of border states of Russian Empire—Finland, Ukraine, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, etc. Germany wanted to dominate those states.
Emperor Charles I
ruler of Austro-Hungarian Empire.
British cruise liner sunk by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland on May 7, 1915. It had American-made ammunition in it going to the Allies. It also had 128 US citizens on it who died. Angered the US a lot and as a result of this the German government accepted American demand to abandon unrestricted submarine warfare.
Irish Republicans
showed the most extreme case of opposition to the war emerging in Britain. They opposed Britain in order to gain Ireland's independence. Organized an insurrection in Dublin on Easter Sunday, 1916, called the Easter Rising.
Wilfred Owen
this man's poetry emphasized contrast between those who cheered from t he home front and the soldiers who suffered
Battle of Passchendaele
near Ypres, the "fields of flanders." Lots of people died. It was rainy and gross. British offensive. They were not very successful.
Creeping barrages
moved just ahead of the attacking army to soften resistance, shelling, mangling terrain
Shell shock
psychological devastation due to the battle raging around soldiers that they suffered. They became unable to act.
Russian foreign minister who didn't want A-H to make a threat against Serbia
Leopold Berchtold
Austrian Foreign minister. Began to take a "hard line" before WWI even though he used to oppose war (c. 1912 Balkan Crisis) convinced Hungarians to support a war against Serbia
Count Alfred von Schlieffen
former chief of German general staff who drew up the plan for war against France in 1905.

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