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2008 History Final for Mr. Genest - Vocabulary

Notes for the World History final! Chapters 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17.


undefined, object
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governmental district in early England
administrative districts of France
Middle Passage
second stage of the triangular trade system, which involved the shipping of slaves across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas
church tax collected from Christians in early times that represented one tenth of their income; later became a gift to a church representing one tenth of a person's income
purchase of a church position, common during early medieval times
wealth earned, saved, and invested to produce profits
expeditions to regain the Holy Land for Christians
persons who do not want to change existing conditions
Triangular trade
system of trade involving three stages, one of which was the transatlantic slave trade
period of time during which those in authority desire a return to the orderly conditions of and earlier era
single printed sheets, distributed by publisheres, that might contain a royal decree, news of a crime, or some other event
canon law
church code of law
Judicial branch
branch of government that interprets and applies the laws
Common law
law based on judges' decisions rather than on a code of statutes
Standard of living
measure of the quality of life of a people or a country
reform movement in the Catholic Church, beginning in the 1530s, that fostered a more spiritual outlook, clarified church doctrines, and pursued a campaign against Protestantism
belief that at the beginning of time God decided who would be saved
Commercial Revolution
changes and developments in the European economy from 1400 to 1750, which improved ways of doing business
institution of the Roman Catholic Church that sought to eliminate heresy by seeking out and punishing heretics
Long Parliament
English Parliament elected in 1640, which reconvened periodically for 20 years
Magna Carta
English document intended to protect the liberties of nobles
Domestic system
manufacturing took place in a worker's home rather than in a shop or factory
church tax collected from Christians in early times that represented one tenth of their income; later became a gift to a church representing one tenth of a person's income
Barter economy
an economy in which goods and services are exchanged for other goods and services without the use of money
Guerrilla warfare
military technique relying on swift raids by small bands of soldiers
special ceremonies at which participants receive the direct favor, or grace, of God to help them ward off the consequences of sin
political system of local government based on the granting of land in return for loyalty, military assistance, and other services
Executive branch
branch of government that enforces the laws
groups that travel together for safety
Geocentric theory
theory that Earth is at the center of the universe
Prime minister
the head of government in Great Britain
radical attempt to change the structure of a country's government and society
extremists who not only oppose change, but genereally would like to return to the way things were before certain changes occured
Joint-stock company
business organization that raised money by selling investors stock, or shares, in the company
class of English population who owned land and had social position but held no title
95 Theses
statements about indulgences
Toleration Act
1689 act of British Parliament granting some religious freedoms to non-Anglican Protestants
person granted land from a lord in return for services
procedure used to submit the constitution of a new government to the people for a vote
elected head of a monastery
activities aimed against. or counter to, a revolution; organized by supporters of the Old Regime
thinker or philosopher of the Enlightenment
way of life in monasteries and convents in which Christians withdraw from the world to lead a life of prayer, fasting, and self-denial
person who specializes in the humanities, the study of grammar, rhetoric, history, and poetry
person who undergoes training to become a candidate for membership in a craft guild
American colonists who opposed independence from Great Britain
period in the 1700s when philosophers believed that they could apply the scientific method and use reason to explain human nature logically
attempt of medieval philosophers to reconcile Christian faith and reason
instrument used to calculate latitude
merchants and professional people from towns and cities
the charging of interest on loans
the sole right to trade in an area
Federal system of government
system of government in which power is divided between central, or federal government, and individual states
government ruled by the clergy claiming God's authority
Market economy
an economy in which, land, labor, and capital are controlled by individuals
document outlining the fundamental laws and principles that govern a nation
Favorable balance of trade
situation that exists when a country sells more goods than it buys from a foreign country
Limited constitutional monarchy
government led by a monarch whose powers were limited by a constitution, and who was required to consult Parliament
persons who have no extreme views, who depending on the issues at hand
Sea dogs
adventurous group of English sea captains who lived in the late 1500s
Scorched-earth policy
tactic of burning or destroying crops and anything else that might be of value to an invader
American colonists who favored independence from Great Britain
import taxes on foreign goods
agreement made between Napoleon and the pope by which Napoleon acknowledged Catholicism as the religion of most French cities, and the church gave up claims to property in France that had been seized and sold during the Revolution
solemn agreement or promise
religious societies of a few people, usually with a preacher as their leader
system under which only the eldest son could inherit his father's property
skilled artisan who worked for a master for daily wages
rise in prices caused by a decrease in the value of the medium of exchange
regional administrator of a French province
Legislative branch
branch of government that makes the laws
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution
love of one's country rather than love of one's native religion
instrument used for navigational purposes, which includes a magnetized piece of metal that points to the north
Vernacular languages
everyday speech that varies from place to place
church's punishment of an entire region, involving closing churches and withholding sacraments
Heliocentric theory
theory that the sun is at the center of the universe
grant of land given by a feudal lord to a vassal
art technique that involves making distant objects smaller than those in the foreground and arranging them to create the illusion of depth on a flat canvas
persons who want to institute far-reaching changes
Merchant guild
organization of merchants
religious revolution that split the Christian church in western Europe and created a number of new churches
Divine right of kings
belief that God ordained certain individuals to govern
distance north or south of the equator
compensation paid to a nation for damages inflicted on it, as in war
Craft guild
organizations of skilled workers engaged in one particular craft
political movement extending the principles of the American and French Revolutions, stressing individual rights and the rule of law rather than the rule of a monarch
draft adopted in France that made unmarried, able-bodied men from 18 to 45 years of age eligible for military service
Popular sovereignty
governmental principle based on just laws and on a government created by and subject to the will of the people
Tax farming
selling the right to collect taxes to private individuals called tax farmers
Balance of power
principle of maintaining equilibrium in international politics
leaders of Parliament who acted as advisers to the English monarch
books that predict the weather and the prospects for growing crops, and also contain such things as calendars, maps, and medical advice
noble who fled France during the Revolutuion
city-dwelling middle class, made up of merchants, manufacturers, and professional people such as doctors and lawyers; in Marxist philosophy, owners of property
gathering of the social, political, and cultural elite in France during the Enlightenment
Habeas corpus
legal right protecting individuals from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment
Scientific method
method of inquiry that includes carefully conducted experiments and mathematical calculations to verify the results of the experiments
belief that truth can be arrived at solely by reason, or logical thinking
government grants of money
pardons from punishment for sin
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494 agreement between Spain and Portugal dividing all newly discovered lands
Enlightened despotism
system of government in which absolute monarchs ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment
long ships used for European coastal trade
principle involving restoring former ruling families to their thrones
traveling singers who entertained people during the Middle Ages
Scientific Revolution
transformation in thinking that occurred during the 1500s and 1600s caused by scientific observation, experimentation, and the questioning of traditional opinions
economic theory stating that there is a fixed amount of wealth in the world and that in order to receive a larger share, one country has to take some wealth away from another country
representatives of the Spanish monarch in Spain's colonial empire

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