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AP American 1807-1877


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1809- Macon's Bill No. 2 (define and the results)
Restored U.S. trade with Britain and France. If either Britain or France formally agreed to respect U.S. neutral rights at sea, then the US would prohibit trade wiith that nations foe.
Enacted in May of 1810.
Nonintercourse Act of 1809
After repeal of embargo act, Madison hoped to end economic hardship while mainiting rights as neutral nation

provided that Americans could now trade with all nations except Britain and France.
Napoleon's deception of Macons Bill No. 2
announced intention of revoking the decrees that had violated U.S. neutral rights. Madison then embargoed trade with Britain (1811)

Napolean no intention of fulfilling his promise, continued to seize american ships
Causes of The war of 1812
Free seas and trade-
Britain and France, no interest in respecting neutral rights
British violations appeared more blatent b/c impressment.

Frontier pressures- wanted the west
destroy Native American resistance on frontier

War Hawks- young congressmen eagerness for war
argued only way to defend American honor, gain Canada and destroy NA.
Election of 1812
Antiwar Republican opposition to war in the north lost to Republican strength in South and West.
Opposition to war of 1812
New England merchants- after the repeal of Embargo act they were making profits from European wars (impressment not big deal) sympathetic to Protestant British than Catholic French.

, Federalist politicians- scheme to conquer Canada and Florida, aim in increasing Republlican voting strength
Quids (old republicans)- violated classic republican commitment to limited federal power and maintenance of peace
The Treaty of Ghent
Christmas eve 1814

-halt to fighting
-return of all conquered territory to the prewar claimant
-recognition of the prewar boundary between Canada and the United States.

Britain made no concessions concerning impressment, blockades, maritime differences
-ended in stalemate
The Hartford Convention (december 1814)
NE federalist radicals use secession as last resort
Delegates from NE rejected radical ideas

To limit growing power of Southern Republicans
2/3rds vote of both houses for any future declaration of war
Results of the War of 1812 (8 things)
1. Survived to wars with Britain--> gained respect from other nations
2. Federalist party came to an end because of talk of secession
3. US accept Canada as a neighbor and a part of British Empire.
4. Talk of nullification and secession set a precedent (used later in south)
5. Abandoned by British allies--> Native Americans surrender large areas of land to white settlement
6. European blockades --> U.S. factories built (industrialism)
7. War heroes (Andrew Jackson, William Harrison) new generation of political leaders
8. American nationalism, growing belief that future for US was in west
Tecumseh; Prophet and Battle ofTippecanoe
brothers attempted to unite all of the tribes east of the Mississippi River.

Battle of Tippecanoe (1811)- US destroyed Shawnee headquarters. US blamed British for instigating the rebellion
The Era of Good Feelings
marked by a spirit of nationalism, optimism, goodwill

result of one party
Tariff of 1816 (what and why)
Before War of 1812, congressed levied low tariffs on imports.

After the war, 1816, Congress raised tariff raites on certain goods for the purpos of protecting U.S. manufacturers from ruin
*1st protective tariff*
Henry Clay's American System
1) protective tariffs (promote American manufacturing/raise revenue)
2) National bank (keep system running smoothly by providing currency)
3) internal improvements (promote growth in West and south)
The Panic of 1819
fault of 2nd bank of US (tightened credit in effort to control inflation)

-many state banks closed
-money deflated
-large increases unemployment,bankruptcies,imprionment (for debt)
*most severe in west, land speculation=many people in debt

result- nationalistic beliefs shaken, changing political outlook.
Fletcher v. Peck (when, what circumstances, results)
(1810 case involvingland fraud in Georgia,
-State could not pass legislation invalidating a contract.
Martin v. Hunters Lease
1816- established the principle that it had jurisdiction over state courts in cases invloving constitutional rights
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819-case concerning a tax that the state of Maryland tried to collect from the 2nd bank of US.

loose interpertation ruled fed gov't had the implied power to create the bank. state could NOT tax a federal instituion because "the power to tax is the power to destroy" and federal lwas are supreme over state laws.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
1819- case invloved law of NH that changed Dartmouth College into public institution. struck down state law as unconstitutional--> contract for a private corporation could not be altered by the state
Cohens v. Virginia
1821- Cohens convicted of selling D.C lottery tickets authorized by Congress. Supreme court upheld conviction. established principle that supreme court could review a state court's decision involving any of the powers of the fed. gov't
The Missouri Compromise- causes (why did they need a compromise)
Missouri's bid for statehood alarmed the N b/c slavery was established there. If came in as slave state, tip political balance in south favor.
Missouri Compromise- Tallmadge amendment
amendment called for
1) prohibiting the forther introduction of slaves into missouri
2) requiring the children of Missouri slaves to be emancipated at age of 25.

would lead to gradual elimination of slavery in Missouri

(southerners thought it was the first step to abolish slavery in all states)
Missouri Compromise- Clay's proposals
3 bills taken together won majority

1. Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state.
2. Maine was to be admitted as a free state.
3. In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36'30', slavery was prohibited.
Florida Purchase Treaty (1819)
Spain worried US would sieze Florida by force (proccupied w/ Latin America) turned over rest of Florida and their claims in Oregon Territory for $5 million and US give up any territorial claims to Spnaish province of Texas
The Monroe Doctrine-British initiative
joint Anglo-American warning to the European powers not to intervene in South America.

Adams believed joint action restrict US opportunities for further expansion in the hemisphere.

1) If US acted alone, Britain could be counted upon to stand behind the U.S. policy
2) No European power would risk going to war in South America (british navy)
Monroe Doctrine
"as a principle in which the rights and intersts of the US are involved, that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for furture colonization by any European powers."

Also, opposed attempts by European power to interfere in affairs of ANY republic in Western Hemisphere.
Transportation in early 19th century- Roads
-Lancaster Turnpike 1790s(connected Philadelphia w/ rich farmlands around Lancaster
-stimulated the construction of other privately built and relatively short toll roads
National, Comberland Road > highway that crossed state lines.
Transportation in early 19th century- Canals
Erie Canal (1825 in NY)

stimulated economic growth

-improved transportation meant lower food prices in the East, more immigrants settling in the West, stronger economic ties between the two sections
Transportation in 19th century- Steamships
round-trip shipping,faster and cheaper

*Mississippi river*
Transportation in EARLY 19th century- Railroads
swiftly changed small western towns into booming commercial centers of the expanding national economy

first unsafe but by 1830s was competing with canals as alternative method for carrying passengers/freight
Mechanical inventions-early 19th century
Eli Whitney- inventing cotton gin (1793)
-devised system for making rifles with interchangeable parts

-Interchangeable parts became basis for mass production
Corborations for rasing capital in early 19th century
1811- NY passed law made it easier for a business to incorporate/raise capital bye selling shares of stock.
Other states followed suit.
Factory system
William Slater- snuck in secrets for building machines built first factory (1791)

-New England emerged as the country's leading manufacturing center because of abundant waterpower for driving machinery
encouraged growth of financial buisnesses sucha s banking and insurance
Labor in early 19th century
Not many immigrants employed in large numbers

had to compete with the lure of cheap land in the west
recruited young farm women and used child labor

Lowell, Massachusetts
Early Unions of 19th century
prime goal of early unions was to reduce workday to 10 hours
obstacles they faced:
1) immigrant replacement workers
2) state laws outlawing unions
3) frequent economic depressions w/ high unemployment.
Commercial Agriculture in early 19th century (2 main things)
Cheap land and easy credit made available by state banks

markets- Railroads opened new markets in the growing facotry cities in the east
Women in early 19th century
-limited to two choices of work usually : domestic service/teaching (factory jobs not comment)
majority of working women single

-marriages arranged by ones parents were less common

-had fewer kids
Economic and social mobility in early 19th century
- wages improved

-economic opportunities greater than in Europ
Slavery in early 19th Century
many felt slavery would gradually disappear

*hopes for quiet end to slavery ended by the rapid growth of cotton
Cotton and the south (early 19th century)
invention of cotton gin made it easy to separate cotton fiber from seeds

planters found cotton more profitable than tobacco and indigo
Age of the Common Man-
This movement was started by Andrew jackson, and it stressed universal manhood sufrage, public education in the West, cheap newspapers, maority rule, and the abolition of debtor prisons
Spoils System
The new concept of political office as a reward filled offices with the presidents partisans
Corrupt Bargain 1824
John Q. Adams won the presidency by appointing Henry Caly as the Sec. of State, Clay placed all his support behind Adams in the House. This deal split the party in two with jackson creating the democratic party, and Adams creating the national republicans.
Kitchen Cabinet
This referred to a group of unofficial advisors to President Jackson. They received this nickname because they met together to discuss problems while in the White House kitchen.
Foote Resolution 1829
It called on Congress to stop land sales completely. It was proposed by eastern factory owners who were afraid a liberal land policy would drain workers to the west.
States Rights Doctrine
Was suggested by hayne, and he suggested a southern/western alliance based onlow tariffs and cheap land.
Hayne-Webster Debates 1829-1830
In the Senate, Daniel Webster (Massachusetts) debated Robert Y. Hayne (South Carolina) about states' rights vs. federalism. This debate began when the Foote resolution called on congress to stop land sales. Hayne attempted to secure a west-south alliance by attacking the resolution. Webster changed the debate to a discussion over nullification (Webster said it was impossible to secede from Union) and prevented any alliance from forming.
Distribution Act 1836
This act allotted all federal revenues in excess of $5 million to the states (according to their population.)
Pet Banks
They were state banks that received funds from th federal government. They were created by President Jackson to limit the power and efficiency of the Second U.S. Bank.
John C. Calhoun
he was a candidate from South Carolina in the election of 1824, but later dropped out and became vice President. He also wrote the South Carolina Exposition and Protest anonymously.
Peggy Eaton Affair
Peggy Eaton was the wife of Secretary of War John Eaton. Calhoun's wife and others subbed Peggy because her father had beena tavern keeper. These subbings by Calhoun's wife, alng with Calhoun's opposition to Jackson's actions in Florida forced Eaton to resign.
Maysville Road
This road's construction was proposed by Henry Clay in an effort to link Virginia and kentucky, but Jackson vetoed the bill because it was Clay's idea.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Caused Jackson to take a states' rights postition.

B. Removal was the goal of Jackson, which was a popular position of the time but seemingly heartless today. Jackson said this would protect the Indians from settlement.

C. His plans were to resettle the Indians west of the Mississippi in the Indian Territories of Oklahoma and parts of Kansas.
Worcester v. Georgia
Cherokee indians developed into a true society and wanted to have their territory recognized and appealed to the Supreme Court. Marshall ruled that the Cherokee were not a foreign state in Cherokee nation v. Georgia, but this case ruled that the state could not control the cherokee on their own territory.
Trail of Tears
This was a mass relocation of 17,000 Cherokee Kindians of Georgia to the Great Plains. six thousand Cherokees died on the way to the relocation camp. Even after the Supreme Court ruling in Worchester vs. Georgia, Jackson still sent the remaining Cherokees to the Indian reservation in the Great Plains.
Tariff of Abominations 1828
The federal governm ent reduced the protective tariff of 116, but South Carolina wnated the tariff lowered to pre-1816 rates. This led to a confrontation between the federal government and South Carolina.
Nat Turner's Revolt 1831
Nat Turner, who was a black slave, heard angels who told him to "act as Moses and free his people from bondage." This prompted him to lead a slave revolt in Virginia, which resulted in the deaths of 60 whites. This rebellion was blamed on The Liberator and caused the banishment of anti-slavery propaganda from the South.
Force Act of 1832
This bill was passed by President Jackson after South Carolina nullified the Tariff of 1832. It enabled the president to use the army to enforce the federal laws in South Carolina.
Compromise Tariff of 1833
This compromise was written by Henry Clay in aneffort to pacify the southern plantation woners and keep the New England manufacturers happy. it reduced the Tariff of 1824 gradually over a ten-year span to the levell of the Tariff of 1816
Panic of 1837
This was a vey erious depression suffered by the U.S. at the beginning of President Van Buren's term. The panic wa caused by English bankers when they called in their loans to American firms. Banks had been reckless in loaning out unsound currency and had caused an inflationary spiral. President Van Buren tried to allevite the depression with the independent Treasury Plan.
Laissez Faire
This was a philosophy created in 1776 by Adam Smith that advocated minimal government regulation of business.
Independent Treasury Plan of 1840/"Divorce Bill"
divorced the government from banking. It repealed the Distribution act and allowed the U.S. governmetn to keeeps its revenues in subtreasuries rather thatn in banks.
Horace Mann
He was an idealistic graduate of Brown University, secretary of the Massachusetts board of education. He was involved in the reformation of public education (1825-1850). He campaigned for better school houses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum. He caused a reformation of the public schools, many of the teachers were untrained for that position. Led to educational advances in text books by Noah Webster and Ohioan William H. McGuffey
Brigham Young
A Mormon leader that led his oppressed followers to Utah in 1846. Under Young's management, his Mormon community became a prosperous frontier theocracy and a cooperative commonwealth. He became the territorial governor in 1850. Unable to control the hierarchy of Young, Washington sent a federal army in 1857 against the harassing Mormons.
antiforeignism" it was a fear of new immigrants coming to America. It was feared the new comers would bring a higher birthrate and poverty to America.
Cult of Domesticity
Widespread cultural creed that glorified the traditional functions of the homemaker around 1850. Married women commanded immense moral power, and they increasingly made decisions that altered the family. Work opportunities for women increased particularly in teaching.
Tammany Hall
In New York, taken over by Irish, home of powerful city machines; 1850s; Helped in growing population of Irish in America
Burned-over district
This is a term that refers to western New York. The term came at a time when revivals were rampant. Puritan sermonizers were preaching "hell-fire and damnation." Mormons. A religion, newly established by Joseph Smith, who claimed to have had a revelation from angel. The Mormons faced much persecution from the people and were eventually forced to move west. (Salt Lake City) After the difficult journey they greatly improved their land through wise forms of irrigation.
Henry David Thoreau
He was a poet, a mystic, a transcendentalist, a nonconformist, and a close friend of Ralph Waldo Emerson who lived from 1817-1862.
He condemned government for supporting slavery and was jailed when he refused to pay his Mass. poll tax.
He is well known for his novel about the two years of simple living he spent on the edge of Walden Pond called "Walden" , Or Life in the Woods. This novel furthered many idealistic thoughts. He was a great transcendentalist writer
American Temperance Society
An organization group in which reformers are trying to help the ever present drink problem. This group was formed in Boston in 1826, and it was the first well-organized group created to deal with the problems drunkards had on societies well being, and the possible well-being of the individuals that are heavily influenced by alcohol.
The Transcendentalist movement of the 1830's consisted of mainly modernizing the old puritan beliefs. This system of beliefs owed a lot to foreign influences, and usually resembled the philosophies of John Locke. Transcendentalists believe that truth transcends the body through the senses, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were two of the more famous transcendentalists.
Lyceum Movement-
this was an adult education movement for dropouts who were curious for knowledge. They came to listen to lectures by travelling reformers.
: A conviction that intuition, imagination, and emotion are superior to reason. A conviction that poetry is superior to science, a belief that contemplation of the natural world is a means of discovering the truth that lies behind meer reality. A distrust of industry and city life and an idealization of rural life of the wilderness; an interest in the more "natural" past and in the supernatural.
The Webster-Ashburton Treaty
A. An issue to settle the border dispute between New Brunswick and Maine.

B. Maine and Massachusetts wanted all of the land as drawn on the Ben Franklin Map from the end of the Revolutioanry War.

C. Avoiding conflict and possible war, Webster easily agreed to the request.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
deal for New Mexico, Texas to the Rio Grande, and Texas with easements and damage payments.

E. Polk was infuriated and recalled Trist. Scott and Trist decided to refuse the order and negotiate.
Wilmot Proviso
(David Wilmot, PN) sought to outlaw slavery in new territories (Free Soil position). This proviso passed the House but failed in the southern dominated Senate- a typical political fallout on southern sectionalist issues.
The Compromise of 1850
admitted California as a free state and used popular sovereignty as a standard to guide slave territories. A tough federal fugitive slave law was passed to help Southerners retrieve their lost property (slaves), and the slave trade was outlawed in Washington D.C.

postponed war for 11 years
Manifest Destiny -
the belief that God wanted the U.S. to continue expanding, and by doing so, the less fortunate people in the western hemisphere could enjoy the blessings of a democratic institution
Whig party -
past National Republicans calling themselves Whigs to suggest affinity with revolutionary radicals. The party was composed of industrialists and merchants from the northeast, wealthy farmers from the west, and southern planters.
Buchanan - Pakenham Treaty of 1846
- determined the border of Oregon to be the 49th parallel to the Pacific, with British to the north, Americans south of the parallel, except for Vancouver Island, which was given to the British.
Freesoil Party 1848 -
formed on a platform favoring the Wilmot Proviso and free land for settlers. They were a group of moderate abolitionists and did not oppose slavery in the South, but they opposed expansion of slavery into new territories. The Republican Party was formed from this idea.

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