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Ancient China, Japan, & Africa


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Name the Chinese dynasties in order
Shang, Chou, Ch'in, Han, Sui, Tang, Sung, Yuan, Ming, Manchu
What were shang most known for?
Irrigation, oracle bones, writing, bronze ware, lunar calendar & other science, written language, shamanism
How did shang dynasty fall?
lost vigor for war, chou overthrew w/ allies
what are the chou known for?
longest dynasty, decentralized gov't, feudalism, competing warlords, brilliant civilization, NOT politics or science
what were the ch'in known for?
founded by Cheng, then called Shih Huang Ti, gave china its name, capital Hsien-yang, conquered far south, built Great Wall of china, highways & canals, burned 1st 2 great classics,
Who was confucius & his ideas?
name: kung Fu-tzu, human nature good but need education, fundamental relationships, good life on order on govt
who was the founder of taoism & his ideas?
lao-Tzu, based on tao, way of nature, rule w/ iron fist, 3 virtues humility, frugality & contentment, believed less govt better
what was the han known for?
started by Liu Pang, 1st golden empire, Wu Ti famous empire, capital: changan, confucianism, tecnological development, i.e. seismograph, "leveling", china's civil service exam, pax sinica, buddhism
what was "leveling" & chinese civil service exams?
"leveling": buy crops in good years, sell in bad to prevent fluxuations in price
exams: standardized, highly important for future professions, based on intelligence
what was the pax sinica?
CHinese peace, open silk routes, accomplished by military campaigns
what were the 5 classics?
c of songs, c of documents, c of changes, spring and autumn annals, ceremonies and rituals
what were the sui known for?
driving out huns, led by Yang Chien, reunite china, formed grand canal
what were the tang known for?
2nd golden empire of china, led by Li Yuan, civil service perfected, spread culture, poetry & arts, like Li Po & Tu Fu, buddhism
what were the sung known for?
restored order after tang fell, led by Chao K'uang-yin, good civilization, landscape paintings, porcelain, & barbarian problems
what were the sungs barbarian problems?
Khitan required annual tribute for not killing capital, jurchen moved behind & squished them, but split china in half
how was china under the control of the mongols?
under rule of Kublai kahn, contacts w rest of world opened, clash of cultures
what was the ming known for?
overthrew mongols & yuan (led by chu yuan-chang)sent naval expeditions then isolation, "Red Turban movement"
what were the manchu known for?
last to rule, opium war, Taiping rebellion, sino-japanese war, european "aid"
why did china go into revolution?
young chinese resented foreign influence, starts october 10, 1911, warlords pop up & sun yat-sen, nationalist leader, couldnt deal w/ them, steps down for shikai, may 4th movement
who were important nationalist leaders?
sun yat-sen, Yuan shikai, & CHiang kai-shek
what were characteristics of early japan
shinto main religion, adopted many chinese ideas, shogun have real power, chief military officer & controlled other areas, samurai protected land & shogun, daimyo landholders & higher social status than samurai
what the fall of feudalism?
oda nobunaga was top daimyo, made plans to take over china, succeeded, then had to withdraw, then tokugawa as shogunate adopted isolation
whats important about tokugawa shoguns?
stabilized japan, isolated japan, made peace w/ daimyo & samurai, commodre perry ended isolation w/ new technology, led to treaty of kanagawa, opening ports
whats up w/ the Meiji govt?
1889 constitution made diet, two houses, & overall gave more freedoms to people, but still an absolute monarchy
and what about that imperialism?
had limited resources, so import resources which was costly, so decided to get colonies, led to sino-japanese war
so what was the sino-jap war?
japan was winner, but russia, france & germany butted in and got land back & divided it up w/ britain
how about japanese industrial revolution?
mixed economy, heavy & light industries, eductaional reforms, poverty high, workers ignored, newest machines & methods
kingdom of ghana was cool right?
survived w/ salt & gold, matrilineal society, did trade w/o camel & camel was revolutionary,but fell into mali
what is mali most known for?
trade, reacehd peak w/ timbuktu & mansa mula
what was the dowry system?
family pay other family to marry daughter, and have to pay more if daughter died
what happened to zimbabwe?
population outstripped food supply, traded gold, built big structures
who were swahili?
brokers, overall culture, controlled sea & trade, spread islam for trading discounts
Preconditions for industrial revolutions
adequate raw materials, spirit of entrepreneurship, successful agricultural system, & source of capital to finance industries
T or F: Death rate during industrial revolution was DECREASING due to medical technology
Effects of the Enclosure Movement
Wealthy landowners fenced in "common lands", landless laborers moved to cities for work, & gov't demonstrated power to influence the IR
Forms of capital
land, money, machines
Most earlier factories built near major:
Who most likely opposed laissez-faire?
factory workers
In order, what were the following men known for, James Watt, Henry COrt, & James Hargreaves
Steam Engine, Puddling Furnace, Spinning Jenny
The reform bills of 1832, 1867, And 1884 on GB resulted in
extending the voting population
Reforms of William Gladstone
Education Act of 1870
Civil Service Reform of 1870
Secret Ballot Act of 1872
Major features of capitalism
Private ownership
Market economy
Profit motive
Gruop that reacted to IR by smashing machinery & burning factory owners' houses
Characteristics of Romantic Movement
Attention was paid xlosely to feelings of love, beauty, nature, & things that could not rationally be explained
What stage in the demographic transition model was the birth rate high & death rate low
Stage 2- beginnings of Industrial Revolution
What was the Dreyfus Affair?
During 3rd French Republic, famous political crisis centered on accusations of treason vs. a French military officer
T or F: Charles Dickens & Emile Zola were part of the Realist Movement
The Repeal of the Corn laws benefited which group?
Factory workers
A cause for the Crimean War was the French & British obejections to what?
Russian foreign policy towards the Ottoman Empire
Paris commune was supressed by whaqt army?
French Army
The Treaty of London was focused on which nation's neutrality?
What did Saint Simon believe in?
That the management of wealth by experts would alleviate poverty
What did Owens believe in?
A better & human industrial environment will increase productivity & profit
Fourier set up what?
Phalanxes & communities
Marx believed in what?
The conditions were the "roots of the tree" when it comes to conflict, & eventually after the revolution, their will be a classless society and no government
Smith would have been against which philosophy?
Philosophy of Mercantilism
Who was Gladstone?
Liberal Prime Minister who supported Irish Home Rule
Malthus believed in what?
The population will eventually outstrip the food supply
What did Riccardo state?
That is wages increase, so would population, so the wages should stay minimum
Who was Cavour's most significant non Italian ally?
Napoleon III
The Risorgimento was the name of what?
Movement to unify Italy & a reference to the great achievments of past Italians
The Schleswig-Holstein question was an issue between who?
Austria & Prussia
What was the Dual Alliance of 1879?
Defensive pact between Germany & Austria, adressed German concerns over growing anti-German sentiment in Russia, & the Italians will later join in 1882
Prussia's defeat of Austria resulted in the creation of what
the North German Confederation
France was induced to declare war on Prussia in 1871 by what?
Ems Dispatch
Congress of Berlin resulted in what?
Transfer of Cyprus from the Ottomans to the British, Recognition of Romani, Serbia, & Montenegro as independent states, & Austria gain of Bosnia & Herzegovina
Who was the "Sick Man of Europe"?
Ottoman Empire
Why did Bismarck support universla male suffrage?
He believed masses would back his conservative policies
Who orchestrated the unification of Italy around Piedmont-Sardinia
Which secret society under Mazzini believed work by Italians would bring unification?
Young Italy
Which army under Garibaldi helped overtake Naples & the end papal resistance?
Red Shirts
Who was the "Iron Chnacellor" who used realpolitik?
What did the Ausgleich create to help stabilize eastern central Europe?
Dual Monarchy
What were Russian peasant Communities?
Bismarck assured what land as compensation to France for staying out of the Austro-Prussian war?
Alsace & Lorraine
Napoleon created what to conduct an econo mic war vs. GB?
Continental System
What was a key feature of the Napoleonic code?
careers were open to those who demonstrated talent
Liberals of the early 19th century sought what?
constitutions, freedom of the press, & reprensentative governement
Who was the dominate personality at the COngress of Vienna?
The Decembrist revolt was led primarily by who?
Military officers
Why did the July Revolution of 1830 start?
Charles X issued the four Ordinances
What are the Carlsbad Decrees are an example of what?
conservatism in action
What were Prince Metternich's goals?
Preventing French agression, restoring the balance of power in Europe, & restoring royal families tot he thrones of Europe
T or F: Charles X enacted liberal reforms
False, duh!
Who was the Hungarian leader during the Revolutions of 1848?
Louis Kossuth
The revolutions of 1848 relcted whose interests?
Liberlas, nationalists, & the middle class
What was the Frankfurt Assembly?
Delgates from the 39 germanic states interested in unification, created a liberal constitution.
What were the revolts in Prague centered on?
A desire to use Czech language in schools & businesses
Why is Napoleon called "all things to men"
he tried to please everyone, balanced favors to one group w/ favors to another.
What did liberals advocate?
Broader political participation, extend representation to propertied classes
T or F: Louis Napoleon, ruled as king of a constitutional monarchy, who respected the wishes of the legislature.
Stateless societies in Africa were what?
Organized around kinship & lacking the concentration of political power & authority
When was the flying shuttle invented?
When was the Wealth of Nations published?
When was the Congress of Vienna?
When was the July Revolution?
When was the Communist Manifesto published?
When did Henry Bessemer first use his converter?
When did the Meiji Restoration begin?
When was the Franco-Prussian War & the Italian Unification?
When was the Republic of China declared, ending Imperial China?
When was the Chinese communist party established?
What was the order of French Rulers?
Charles X
Louis Phillippe
National Assembly
Where was the Decembrist revolt & waht kind of revolt was it?
It failed in Russia & was liberal
What was the Spanish Revolt about?
Ferdinand VIII promised the Verona Constitution, but didnt deliver, so it failed & was liberal
Where was the July revolution & waht kind of revolt was it?
It succeed in France vs. Charles X, & was liberal
Where was the February Revolt
It succeeded in removing Louis Phillippe from France
What revolt happened in 1831?
Belgium split from Holland, and is agreed as long as it stays neutral.
What did Louis Napoleon do?
He made the 2nd French Republic & then later Empire, encouraged IR, had a weakness for foreign affairs, Alsace & Lorraine lost to Geramany, & was ousted after the Franco-Prussian War
What 6 things helped GB industrialize?
High Population
Gov't Support
What are some differences between domestic & industrial?
Inventions, set work hours, no uniqueness, & bad conditions

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