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Arch 210


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Hubsch's essay In What Style Should We Build
Surveys past styles, not to pick the best one but to discern basic principles of any style
This invention allowed for more inhabited height; Safety brakes influential to dynamic popularity
Admired works by Soufflot, Ledoux in Paris. French architects urged him to study ancient architecture directly. Saw one building - Maison Carree (republican rome)
Washington DC
Planning ideas from baroque, rome and versailles
Paris Opera
Focus of an urban Island; Streets set it apart, new avenue connect to the louvre; District developed with fine hotels and retail
Believed Stylistic Chaos (greek? gothic? new?) meant modern world lacks a coherent "world view"
suggests surveyors divide land into 6-mile squares ('townships') with 36 'sections'
Prairie Style Houses - organic relation to site with a horizontal emphasis; Viollet Le Duc
Wrote "The true principles of pointed or christian architecture"
Arts and crafts dilemma
hand crafted objects were expensive but luxurious. Craft look was easy to mass produce cheaply
Victorian Ideal
Home as sanctuary; women and children are protected from harsh, immoral world
Directed the Bauhaus - Alter social structure of art and architecture by teaching both fine and applied art
Professor at Berlin Bauakademie - Like Schinkel and Hubsch, seeks synthesis of Greek and Gothic, structure and style as solution to polarized debate
Jeanneret's most inspirational site was the __________ in athens
Like Barcelona, Defensive walls defined city form; walls were torn down and then new development started. Unlike Paris, old city was left alone
Wrote Science, Industry and Art
Whats good about Greek and Gothic - Their unity between skin and bones
Grid structures U.S. geography: state & county lines, railroads, towns, farms
Mission of Modern france and medieval history
restore and protect important medieval buildings
Built Bauakademie's new building in 1830s
Wrote "Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture"
Bauakademie's New Building
"Prussian" Brick construction system of frame & infill
Believed independent farmers living on the land were the social foundation of democracy
Gothic Ornament
reflects northern tribal aesthetic
Stop using historical styles! Let architecture reflect our time, modern life and construction technology
Architects: Stop pretending buildings arent symbols. Decide how and what to communicate
he inspired a british anti-industrial movement: handmade objects are more beautiful and make a better society
New construction for Fascist Rome ________ History
Glass Tower
After WWII, _________ feasible because of AC and insulated glass; symbol of international diplomacy, idealism and big business
Washington DC and Paris
Cities where Streets point to the monuments
Considered "urban lungs" giving healthy recreation and contact with nature for city dwellers: "morally beneficial"
Building should look like classical column - base, shaft, and capital
Cottage Residences
begins american love affair with suburban living
First to switch from agrarian to industrial economy
Abstracted Geometric classicsm: harsher, more modern, but clear associations with ____________
King Ludwig of Bavaria
Munich = Modern Capital for a Modern State, Parthenon = Perfect Model - its role in building ancient greek unity was appropriate for the German cause.
Wrote "General Theory of Urbanization"; first urban theory instead of a list of city requirements
The international style
reduces modern architecture to 3 artistic principles: No symmetry, no ornament, and no visual weight
Speer and Hitler
Their Vision was for an axial boulevard through gigantic triumphal arch to largest pantheon copy ever
Mom's house
Ironic use of traditional Home elements; not just conventional
Jefferson's Home: first and longest project. Palladian but more like a palladio. Set on top of a hill dominating the landscape (villa rotunda); focus of house extended into landscape
Iron Columns
Used in brand new gothic style church in paris: takes aesthetic of lightness even further
Designed to provoke debate, to be radical, controversial and inspire action
Fagus Factory Celebrates the curtain wall; floating glass
Le Corbusier
The house is a machine for living in designed to deliver health, beauty, good living, and enjoyment
Viollet Le Duc
medieval mindset with modern capacity. Imagines composite structures of masonry and metal. Think iron struts supporting huge stone, tile, brick vaults would mean larger spaces, less material, lighter loads, and less cost
Questions as far as what _________ a skyscraper is.
Not one fixed 'truth' but a model of how form evolves: Social needs and technological advances means new forms
Bauakademie's New Building
Ornament is mostly color, pattern and rhythms of the brick
Decided extreme abstraction was an error. Needed balance between Structure, history and poetry
Studied philosophy and mathematics before architecture
One of three ruling fictions: Architecture can embody truth of its origins (laugier), geometric perfection (alberti, le corbusier) or rational method (durand), but faith in reason is faith, not reason
Designed by Sir Charles Barry (classically trained architect) with Pugin being a design consultant. Had to be Gothic.
Began as Gothic Romanticist - saw medieval workshops as social ideal of collective work: a community building its identity.
Use roman past to proclaim italy's destiny
Free craftsmen interpret models creatively
Unlike Nazis, ______ fascists accepted Modern Architecture
Greek Classicism
"Belongs" to Germany as much as Greece
synthesized multiple ideas about modern architecture into an influential doctrine; most influential model of the modern architect's identity
Most ____ Projects practical not symbolic
Beecher Sisters
Published designs for improved urban housing; emphasis in the efficient mechanical core of services
Ornament like graffiti and tattooing is typical of children, primitive cultures and criminals
Must be unity between who is making it and how it looks
Cologne Cathedral
Supported by Kings of Prussia and Bravaria
Architecture should be an organic result of culture; nature is a universal source of beauty
Believed in Heroically Monumental national Architecture
Most prominent leader of arts and crafts movement. author, product designer, and socialist
Moderne Arkitektur - Modernity: not ornamental style but expression of construction
Felt americans should build like Naval Architects
Le Corbusier
Essay " Five Elements of his new architecture"
French Pride
Rationality, Engineering, Industry
Modern City
Major Architectural challenge: how to improve the ______ _____
Gardener and greenhouse designer. Designs glass and iron structures using all mass produced components. Designed the Crystal Palace.
True Gothic
Outward Forms + Internal Elements =
Publiched 1828 Essay - "In What Style Should We Build?" which ignites controversy
Appalled by the crystal palace and refused to go inside
official academy opinion
Felt gothic style inappropriate even for new church buildings
style not just image but _______
Tears down Barcelona Walls and creates a plan that is 10 times the original size; Imposes axial avenues and nodes over a grid of streets
Mostly symmetrical and orderly plan which reflected Barry's Classical training. Medieval feel through Pugin's ornament and decoration
Wrote "The end of the classical, the end of the beginning, the end of the end"; argues architecture is trapped in a renaissance mentality
Bridge = commuters = office buildings = _______
Seven lamps of architecture
Book - Laws of architecture are those of morality and ethics
Designed to look as if it evolved naturally
Johnson and Hitchcock
MOMA Catalog - The International Style: Architecture since 1922
New, needed Viennese Institutions (town hall, university, parliment) located around a "beltway"
Viollet Le Duc
Appointed at Beaux Arts as a modernization of arts policy. Disaster - Quit after 2 months
Believed a building was not one technology but needs all four (fire, mound, roof, enclosure)
Most important architect in 19th Century Germany
Hubsch's essay In What Style Should We Build
Belief in Progress - more building experience means better building technology
Hubsche's Book on Greek Architecture
Style reflects place, time, culture, and materials
Grew after Napoleonic invasions
Cause of German nationhood
Vienna Academy
First to support Modernism
Nazi Party
Had strong architecture feelings and how Germany would be portrayed
The Opera
Paris - Triumph of Beaux-Arts planning and monumentality; separate entrances for the emperor, carriages and pedestrians
Produced designs of "Pure Radical Abstraction"
Colonial Style
"Georgian", modified english palladianism
Washington Mall
Used by Vaux and Olmsted for Central Park in NYC
Americans adopted _______ for both churches and homes
Links Architecture with fashion
generous ornament
A _______ Structure: basement and attic - mechanical, ground floor and mezzanine - most public functions, layers of offices going up as high as technology permits
Winckelmann's Influence
If Greek high classicism is the "Best Ever", why choose anything else?
Style rejected by the academy in France. Some appreciation; structure and spatial openness.
Strasburg Cathedral
Intensive Feelings of the German People
wrote "The tall office building, artistically considered" - How should a skyscraper look? Should be every inch a proud and souring thing, aesthetic of height
Free Craftsmen pointed arch
Nazi projects for national monuments: __________ -scale stage sets for political spectacles of domination and unity
Structural Rationality
Gothic as Ideal - not just a style; way of building that makes sense
Post Functionalism - Whats gone: ________ in stable, single meaning
Introduced new wide roads connecting train stations ringing the city, cutting through bad areas, leading to important monuments in Paris
Successful classical style architect
Part of Dresden's republican uprising of 1849, Refugee in Exile in Paris and London; Couldn't build so he thought and wrote
Johann Herder
Attacks Winckelmann - "Why should we always imitate foreigners, as if we were greeks or romans?"
grew up at Versailles; trained as painter and engineer
His Picture book showed how great medieval england was and how horrible it is in the 19th century. Links decline of Faith, design and society
Crystal Palace
responsible for new building technology means new sociology of construction. "Miracle Building"
Important influence on American Architects
rationality; objectivity - direct expression of modern reality, not individual creative expression
decorated Sheds are more practical and easier to read
The function of ornament is to make you happy. Classical ornament is bad - invented to make plagiarists of its architects, slaves of its workmen and sybarites of its inhabitants
Wrote a book on greek and gothic construction: Argues there were two basic ways to enclose volume - Greek Trabeation (post & beam) and Gothic Arcuation (vaults)
Felt the stones of venice best embodied by the gothic. Favorite flavor of gothic was venetian. Color should come naturally from the materials - no paint
Returns to the question: What is the meaning of Architecture?
best early designs are non buildings; loved luxury, refinement (like Loos)
landscape gardener influenced by english picturesque theory
Hubsche's Book on Greek Architecture
Architecture should be liberated from "chains of antiquity"
Post Functionalism - Whats left: ____________multiple meanings, fragmentation
Structural "skeleton" and artistic "skin" are separate systems, but "skin" should express (reveal and explain) and nature of the "bones"
Influenced by Le Corbusier's call to mass produce houses and industrialize architecture itself.
Likes Growded messy decorated cities: visually interesting; Less is more = less is a bore
Contributes to the search for an American Style
Le Corbusier
Like Ledoux - Architect as prophet to transform society
Critical of haussmann's approach to city planning; felt haussmann impossed image of order over unresolved social needs and issues
Viollet Le Duc
His method of design included Program + Site Analysis, then Plan. dont impose symmetry. Determine best enclosure for plan. Then Create elevations. The Result is an organic plan - a natural not formal design process
Viollet Le Duc
Put in charge of restoring Vezelay. Learned about medieval design and construction by restoring churches.
Georg Forster
Praised Cologne Cathedral for its "thrill of the sublime"
Morris and Company
Company's goals: keep tradition of hand made objects alive, let style derive from production and nature, and reform middle class taste.
meant to spread his "gospel" of architecture
Wrote Four Elements of Architecture
Real Modernism
A sensibility based on the fundamental displacement of man; state of alienation, tension or absence
Hunchback of Notre dame
A book that praises gothic cathedrals as emblems of french culture. Inspired Viollet Le Duc to study architecture
Form Follows Function - Follows Bottischer, Greenough, and Viollet Le Duc
bad inside good outside
exterior is good, true architecture is freely hand made
Renewal of _________ as a modern city meant several poor parisians displaced over 18 years. Targeted the poor and served the Bourgeoisie
Asked "Every principal age has left behind its architectural style. Why should we not seek to discover a style for our own age?"
Le Corbusier
The architect: create the doric order for a new age
Monumental Factory suggests dignity of workers
Northern Colonies
Architecture consisted of english vernacular traditions (in woods, brick)
Heinrich Hubsch
Traveled Italy and Greece for 4 years, preferred medieval and byzantine to classical architecture
made peace with the Vatican by clearing houses to form a Straight street leading up to the Vatican
UVA Campus
Classical dignity, decentralized design, separate distinct pavilions extend into the landscape; focus of campus was library
Company Iconic buildings served as
famous essay "Ornament and Crime" - Racist rant showing cultural anxiety
Five Points
(Le Corbusier) Raise Building on Pilotis, Free Plan, Free Facade, Ribbon Windows, Roof Garden
Le Corbusier
Modern architecture should be as aesthetically pure and timeless as the parthenon
Crystal Palace
Buildings Started Construction revolution. Sublime Scale
New Engineering Technology: Build fast, cheap, light, _____
Viollet Le Duc Sumitted a design for The Opera but ___________ won the competition instead
The Opera
Most important public building in late 19th century Paris; Multiple entrances depending on social status
Believed Technologies and aesthetics were linked - Fire to Ceramics, Mound to Masonry, Roof to Carpentry, Enclosure to Textiles
Paris market
Area of Paris Redesigned after crystal palace as all iron & glass
Chicago Skyscrapers
Investments for rental, not as corporate logos
Cultural Movement inspired by French Avant-Garde Painting by
Plan for DC included a grid overlaid with axial boulevards
Professor of architecture at Dresden Academy of Fine Arts - Built Synagogue, Royal Theater
The way people build reflects the way people believe and way community comes together
Morris and Company
Business based on an artists colony: furniture, textiles, wallpaper, interior design.
happiness from ________ (ruskin's ideas)
Used classical style for Washington's sculpture but opposed classical style for American Architecture
Felt the only acceptable style for the true expression of Chirstianity was Gothic
Architecture is classical and ornate. Expensive but simple elegance; plain exterior, fancy interiors
Hubsche's Book on Greek Architecture
Greek style cant and shouldnt be translated to different places
Rome is an appropriate model for architecture of new US government institutions
Wrote book on Greek Architecture
Appointed perfect of the Seine; Made responsible for city modernization
First to Europe to link gothic style to "national" identity for Political Reasons
Beecher: See the house through a woman's eyes: _________ through space, planning, and ergonomics in the kitchen, work place, and utilities
Hubsch's solution. The first modern style. Short lived style, long lived question
Type of architecture continuously used in England and part of search for Germany's own architecture
Southern plantation owner and enlightenment era idealist - first person to present ideas of what american architecture should be
Viollet Le Duc
Became critical of people he hires and more frustrated with people from Beaux Arts
Skyscraper evolves in both NYC and _______
Crystal Palace
Structure not built by craftsmen but assembled by unskilled laborers
Believes it is crucial to relate house and nature
Paris Bohemian
Joins artistic avant-garde; helps start L'Esprit Nouveau - radical journal on art & architecture; becomes Le Corbusier
One of three ruling fictions: Architecture is timeless through universal value( perfect past styles) or pure presentness (zeitgeist) but no one moment can provide eternal validity
Hubsch's essay In What Style Should We Build
Any Style requires Solidity and Suitability (Firmitas & Utilitas)
Straight Street
Like Popes in Rome, Napoleon wanted to Regularize Paris; Image: Orderly facade, protected arcades for pedestrians
Medieval Guild
model for healthy integration of production, art and society. Wont make society better but better stuff.
Grand Staircase
At the Opera, all entrances led to the _______________ _______: The stage where the Parisians showed off for each other
Time period where the first writings praised Gothic as a "German" Style
Wrote essay "On German Architecture" 1772
City as organism
managed, structured growth to accommodate people's social, economic and physical needs; Block corners chamfered: every intersection is a piazza
Like Jefferson, argued country life is better than city life because it makes people moral, strong and patriotic
Downing and Vaux
landscape Design of the mall: natural designs unpopular, replaced with formality
Despite rhetoric, doesn't oppose all ornament
The Buildings in gardens face and define the street; Prophetic of the 20th century Freeway
Rome-like Urbanism: America Needs at least one ________
Correct Style for the New State
Strong, Simplified Classicism for public institutions; Dignity without Extravagance
Viollet Le Duc
book on house design: Defines a design method in common use today
Greek Trabeation and Gothic Arcuation
Both were equally valid principles: Greek symbolism and Gothic space
greater strength, less material than stone, brick or wood. Mass production makes them abundant and cheap.
Ornament trasnforms images of plants, flowers as geometric patterns (weatherproof garden in the city)
Reduce architecture to its essence to discover its aesthetic potential; Less is more, god is in the details
Viollet Le Duc
after 1863; Less interested in gothic style and more in applying gothic principles to modern construction
Impressed by Marshall Field Wholesale Store; skyscraper with simple exterior style, heavy stone & arches, floors visible as horizontal layers
Eyes which do not see
Chapters which present ships, airplanes, and automobiles as new icons of design (Le Corbusier)
The glass Tower
Le Corbusier's Domino structure + Gropius' curtain wall + american height = Miesian Perfection
Mussolini used Rome's archaeology and architectural history as ____________
Unlike Le Corbusier - Saw architecture as engine of social revolution
Wrote "American Architecture" - US should stop looking to Europe for culture and styles, Unique geography, culture and institutions require new style of architecture
Wrote a book on Greek Architecture - Skin and Bones
Victoria and Albert
Needed a structure for the international exhibition of industrial products that had to be enormous, fast, economical and removable
Promotes and embodies architect as an intellectual
Modern Architecture
Serves many idologies: Fascist party headquarters, socialist revolution, postwar US Capitalism
Critical of colonial buildings: new nation should not borrow symbols from england - his architectural ideas came from both england and france
Wrote the "seven lamps of architecture"
Novelist; founded a school for girls; better homes = better society, both can be improved through design
Southern Colonies
Aristocratic models for owners
Temple to great germans overlooking Danube
Place Royale
Paris was overcrowded and dense; First open space in Paris
The Difference between Architecture and Building
Hubsch's essay In What Style Should We Build
begins decades of debate "Not just greek vs roman vs gothic" - Asks "Do new times demand a new style?"
Published Book entitled "Contrast or a parallel between the noble edifices of the middle ages and corresponding buildings of the present day, shewing the present decay of taste" - Leans toward medieval buildings
No ornament means less time and effort; gives workers more leisure and pay
Architecture must be a modern gentlemen; simplicity and refinement define status
New Rome: Abstracted, ___________ rather than direct copy
First professor of art history at oxford university
French volunteer in U.S. Revolution; chosen by Washington as planner, Jefferson = consultant
Viollet Le Duc
Restored several churches including Notre Dame.
Viollet Le Dec
Writes 10 Volume Encyclopedia of Medieval Architecture
Cottage residences
Downing: a variety of houses that suit and express owner's status
mental tendencies
good ornament reflects builders' _________
Vienna Secession
Sponsored art shows; no single style, generally structured naturalism
Wasmuth Portfolio
Abstract drawings of wright buildings; emphasize wright's geometry
Form should reflect a direct response to function; also uses human body as an example of good design (organic structure)
Roman Republic
New US Government structure modeled on _______________
Viollet Le Duc
Argues Gothic aesthetics are distinct from the classical - Not inferior
Berlin's new architecture school, modeled on Paris' Ecole Polytechnique
Modern Classicism
Image of timeless perfection that transcends academic copying, aesthetic goal
One of three ruling fictions: architecture looks like architecture via symbolism (classical temples, factories), but just pretending
School - emphasis on image of solidity, stability, history
German Architects
Their Style was responsible for Nation-Building
Napoleon III
Came to power on law & order, pro-business platform; secure, stable Paris requires a New Paris
made gothic a pejorative term; Barbaric
"Spirit of the age"; new architecture reflects a new social and spiritual reality
Also pursued the zeitgeist but not a social visionary like Gropius; Avant-garde Aesthetics, no politics
Friedrich Wilhelm II, King of Prussia
Schinkel's most influential work
With the addition of the Opera, this city set the standard for an impressive Modern City
strength and endurance
Viollet Le Duc
Praises the gothic for its elasticity. Vaulting holds forces in equilibrium. Efficient engineering - great height and volume, minimal material. Consistency between ornament and structure
Like Le Corbusier, pursuit of beauty and perfection
Arch/Eng sent to Paris and studied Haussmann's Changes to Paris; Employed to Change plan for Barcelona
Ornament follows not human design but god's. based on nature (plants, animals)
Search for organic american architecture influenced Frank Lloyd Wright as well
Designed university of Virginia - Public education was crucial for public participation in democracy
Hubsch's essay In What Style Should We Build
Reflects Hegel - philosophy of evolving, advancing culture
Revisits the primitive hut - Goal was not classicism but "best" style
Von Klenze
"There was, is and will only ever be one architecture"
Vers Une Architecture
Published book compiled out of Esprit Nouveau essays
Viollet Le Duc
Writes on Gothic construction and design principles: Gothic becomes subject of archaeological interest
________ the details: acropolis, temples = simple geometric forms, procession through site
Street circles old city, provides links to suburbs but keeps them separate
A new style must evolve. Reflect new building technologies or else everything is just a costume; Truly modern forms will emerge from a modern material: Iron
Le Corbusier
The Purified City - Whats good for the single house is even better for the city
New York city
To break up the dense development, a park is suggested as a break in the grid

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