This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

world history wanlin prepsheets chapters 14, 15, 16, and 17


undefined, object
copy deck
navigational instrument used to determine the relative height of stars and planets.
merchants, manufacturers, and professionals of the city-dwelling French middle class.
person who specializes in the humanities.
the drafting of men into military service.
bartholomeu Dias
he was hte first to sail around the Cape of Good Hope. Although he was forced to turn around he discovered the route to the Indian Ocean
thomas hobbes
english philosopher and author of Leviathan who believed that anarchy would result unless the monarch was given absolute power.
george I
Sophia's son, the first of the Hanoverian dynasty of great britain. born in germany and were unfamilliar with british government and customs. ruled until 1727, spoke no english.
enlightened despotism
system of government in which absolute monarchs ruled according to the principles of the enlightenment.
single printed sheet, usually containing news.
standard of living
measure of the quality of life of a people or a country.
compensation to the nations for damages inflicted on them
catherine the great
she gained the name great because of her foreign policy which allowed Russia to add more than 200,000 square miles of territory to her empire. She also supported art and literature, favored the education of women, and built hospitals.
foreign minister of Austria and chairman at the Congress of vienna.
Principle that all former ruling families should be returned to their thrones.
Charles V
he ruled as king of spain and as HOly Roman emperor until 1556 when he gave u his throne and divided his vast lands between members of his family.
denis dederot
edited and published the first edition of the encyclopedia.
issac newton
combined and related the contributions of several earlier scientists to explain the laws of motion and the universal gravitation that control the planets.
judicial branch
branch of the US government responsible for interpreting the laws.
philip II
The son of CHarles V was born adn educated in Spain. He ruled Spain until his death in 1598. Spain's financial problems grew as he pursued his leadership position as head of the Counter Reformation. He sent the Spanish Armada against England in 1588, but it ended in disaster.
oliver cromwell
leader who took power after charles I was beheaded; became essentially a military dictator.
helicentric theory
theory that the sun is at the center of our solar system.
john cabot
venetian sea captain whose voyages gave England a claim in North America.
johannes gutenberg
book printer who used movable type.
pragmatic sanction
the rulers of Europe would promise to allow Maria Theresa to inherit the Hapsburg lands intact, even though the law is some lands required that the inheritance go to a male.
violent attempt to change the structure of a country's government.
declaration of the rights of man
the document adoptd byu the national assembly, that stated and defined the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity.
mary queen of scots
elizabeth's closest relative and heir. in 1568, she fled to england adn was imprisoned by elizabeth, and after plotting with phillip II's ambassadors to kill Elizabeth and seize the english throne, was killed.
study of grammar, rhetoric history, and poetry.
congress of vienna
the allied countries met to settle political and territorial questions following the end of the napoleonic wars.
sea dogs
group of english sea captains who were both traders and pirates.
american colonists who favored independence from Britain.
henry hudson
explorer who searched for the northwest passage and who explored Hudson bay in northern Canada
3rd estate
the commoners of French society prior to the revolution. the class that was divided into the bourgeoisie, laborers and artisans, and peasants.
spanish armada
in 1588 England defeated the spanish navy and from that point on controlled the seas until world war I. 1914.
scorched-earth policy
policy of burning and destroying crops and everything else that might be of value to invaders
olympe de gouges
led a group of women who wrote a declaration of rights for women that was rejected by the national assembly
nicolaus copernicus
a polish scientist who first developed the heliocentric theory but was unable to prove his ideas in 1543 with the instruments available to him at the time.
joint-stock company
company that raises money by selling stock or shares in the company to investors.
procedure by which a governemtn measure is submitted to the people for a vote.
johannes kepler
he was able to prove mathematically that the sun was the center of the solar system and that planets revolved around it in ellipses not perfect circles like Copernicus believed.
merchants and professional people who were represented in teh House of Commons.
universal manhood suffrage
principle that every man had the right to vote, regardless of whether he owned property.
government ruled by a clergy claiming God's authority.
He was the first to prove that the new world really was a distinct landmass, separate from Asia. After sailing around around the southern tip of South America he sailed westward acrosst he Pacific and reached the Philippine Islands, claiming them for Spain.
belief that God had decided, at the beginning of time, who would be saved.
popular sovereignty
belief that government is created by and subject to the will of the people.
absolute monarchy
system of government in which the ruler determines policy without consulting either the people or their representatives.
document outlining the fundamental laws and principles that govern a nation.
group of advisers, most of them heads of departments, that meets with a head of government.
leonardo da vinci
applied his knowledge of mathematics and science to his paintings; painted the Mona Lisa
extremists who oppose a change and want to turn the clock back to the time before certin changes occured.
he crossed the Isthmus of Panama and claimed the South Sea (Pacific Ocean) for Spain.
agreement between napoleon and the pope that acknowledged catholicism as the religion of most French citizens and in which the church gave up claims to its pre-revolutionary property.
toleration act
law that granted fredom of conscience to those Protestants who were not members of the Anglican Church
martin luther
he believed that the only thing that counted was an inner faith in God and that was the only way to attain salvation. He challenged the teachings of the Church and was declared a heretic by Pope Leo X and was excommunicated. 1517.
maria theresa
daughter of Charles VI. she inherited Austria and the other Hapsburg lands.
peter the great
he decided to remodel rusia along western european lines. peter built a completely new city, St. Petersburg, and in 1703 moved the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg, bringing the center of Russian government closer to the nations of western Europe.
scientific revolution
transforming in thinking during the 1500's caused by experimentation and by questioning traditional opinions.
political movement that extended the principles of the American and French Revolutions with their ideals of individual rights and the rule of law.
members of the House of Commons who, though without titles, had social position and owned land.
french word for 'emigrants', french nobles who fled to other european countries.
francisco pizarro
he led a Spanish expedition from the Isthmus of Panama to the Inca Empire in what is now Peru and in 1532 seized it for Spain.
elizabeth I
monarch from 1558 to 1603 who established a strong central government while respecting the rights of parliament.
technique of painting that creates an illusion of depth on a flat canvas.
the napoleionic code
a system of french laws formulated by napoleon that became the foundation of many european legal systems.
thomas more
wrote Utopia, in which he described an ideal society.
coup d etat
seizure of power by force.
vasco da gama
he also sailed around the Cape of Good Hope eastward across the Indian ocean, landing in India in 1498.
thomas jefferson
he was th eprincipal author of the American Declaration of INdependence.
tax farming
system of taxation in which the government sells to private individuals the right to collect taxes.
charles I
monarch whose religious restraints led to thousands of Puritans leaving England during the 1630's for a new life in America.
pardon from punishment for committing a sin.
solemn agreement
treaty of paris
this document brought an end to the american revolution
one tenth of a person's income that is paid to the church.
galileo galilei
he invented the telescope and with it proved the accuracy of the heliocentric theory, but he was forced to recant his findings because it was contrary to the teachings of the Catholic Church.
author of The Prince, a book that taught his philosophy that the ends justify the means.
louis XVI
french king during the french revolution
import tax on foreign goods.
Love of one's country rather than of one's native region.
louis xiv
he established a strong absolute monarchy in France. He fought four wars in order to establish natural borders for France but forced his country into financial ruin.
sir francis drake
first English sea captain to sail around the world.
creative movement, begun in Italy in the 1300s, that centered on a revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome.
john calvin
founder of the Calvinist movement which believed in Predestination. It created a community of people who ere expected to follow the highest moral standards. These standards placed great emphasis on devoutness and self-discipline.
helped popularize British ideas in France wtih his Letters on England.
james I
monarch who believed in the divine right of kings and who ordered a new translation of the Bible into English.
navigation act of 1651
marked the beginning of England's policing of the seas.
louis XVIII
french monarch who was restored to the throne by the allies after napoleon was defeated.
religious group consisting of a few people gathered together, usually with a preacher as their leader.
jean-jacques rousseau
wrote in the social contract that all people are born good but that environment, education, and laws corrupt them.
john locke
English philosopher who believed that people have certain rights that the state should protect.
charles II
monarch whose religious restraints led to thousands of Puritans leaving England during the 1630's for a new life in America.
geocentric theory
theory that earth is the center of the universe.
habeas corpus
latin for 'you shall have the body' . it protected individuals against illegal arrest and unlawful imprisonment.
michelangelo Buonarroti
sculpted biblical figures; famous for painting frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
limited constitutional monarchy
system of government in which a king or queen sits onthe throne but does not have absolute power, and in which a constitution limits the monarch's power.
horatio nelson
british admiral whose fleet destroyed the combined french and spanish fleets at Trafalgar.
bill of rights
first 10 amendments to the US constitution
rene descartes
wrote Discourse on Method, in which he argued that everything, even one's existence should be doubted until proved.

Deck Info