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Features of Niches


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What are the features of Niches?
-Consists of one group
-helps define who group members are
-trust within group/ exclusionary
-entry critera often demands more skills than job requires.
-Weight of tradition in their favor
What leads to discrimination in Niches?
a desire to be with others of one's kind or to maintian social distance from som stigmatized other.
Under what conditions to a complementary economy exist?
only when the economic orientations of two groups diverge.

Once thier economic apirations converge competition ensues.
Why does so much antagonism characterize the econounters between whites and blacks in the niche market?

What are some African American Niche's?
-Niche becomes a sort of group property
-Made progress on R.R.'s as pullman porters. (Often college educated)
-During wartime labor shortages.
-Public sector employment (post office, Mass transit, telephone co.)
What is the Jewish Niche story?

When and from where did Jews immigrate?

What did Waldinger say?
-Worked in Garment Industry
-Worked as petty merchents often in black neighborhoods.
-Immigrated from Russia, 1880's
-Educated 2nd generation-public sector work very important. (Waldinger)
What is the current Jewish Niche?
Post industrial (Legal services, publishing, advertising, PR and theater).
-Education brought them in conflict with other groups. (Public education in 1950's conflict with African Americans.)Jewish quotas in good schools.
How did chinese get to NYC?
-NY chinatown on lower east side, sought less hostile enviorments away from calf. where Asians were prohibited from working in many sectors
What was 1960's chinese niche?
-Trade, mostly resturants
-focused on serving needs of chienese community.
What are the four theoretical explinations for the underclass and who champians them?
-Culture (Oscar Lewis)(Ogbu)
-Racism (Douglass Glasgow and Alphonso Pinkney)
-Welfare (Charles Murray,Lawrence Mead)
-Economics (William Julius Wilson)
What is the culture argument about the underclass?
OSCAR LEWIS "culture of Poverty"
-lack of impulse control and inability to delay gratification. Developed as a defense mechanism agianst thier poor economic position. Consequence of persistant joblessness. Would become permenent with time.
How was welfare seen to be the culprit in creating the underclass?
Charles Murray (the bell curve)
-Liberal welfare state rewards not working and perpetuates single parenthood.
Lawrence Mead adds- Welfare did not teach good citizenship, cause it didn't require anything from the poor.
What is the economic theory of the underclass?
Wiliam Julius Wilson
-Outmigration of the middle class.
-Changing nature of the economy from industrial to service sector.
-lack of marigable black males
What did Massey and Denton say about the cause of the underclass?
-Incomplete without residential segregation.
-Also these theories especially outmigration of middle class, deflect attention from the real issues.
Timeline of Ghetto construction
-pre 1900's black and whites lived side by side in rural south. In 1870 80% of blacks still lived in rural S.
-Great migration between 1880's and 1920's along with eastern and southern europeans.
What are the two major measures of segregation?
Index of Disimilarity (D) and index of iscolation.
Which has higher segregation? Blocks or wards?
Blocks are more segregated
Creating the Ghetto (1900-1940)
Industrialization in the North unleashed changes that promoted segregation between social groups.
-WWI in 1914
-Beggining of great migration
-large recruitment campagin in south to get workers to move North.
-Boll weevil
-S blacks used as N. Strikebreakers.
-riots 1900 and 1920
Were black ghettos the same as ethnic enclaves?
No. Only 54% segregation for Poles.
82% in black neighborhoods at the same time.
-Never homogenus
-not as iscolated from non-immigrants.
-transitory stage-people assimilated out over two or three generations.
What was blockbusting?
-Realistate agents move in black families and stir up fear, induce whites to sell cheap.
-resold to blacks with little options turning the property into expensive apts.
What was the FED govt's role in segregation?
-FHA and VA loans moved whites to burbs
-HOLC 1933 program to increase homeownership, construction and industry. Refinanced urban mortgages during depression so people wouldn't forclose
What was the HOLC's role in promoting redlining?
-rating system adopted by FHA,VA,banks
-helped selective outmigration to burbs
-undid integration that existed in cities.
-Suburban loan organizations prmoted restrictive convenents.
What are some factors in suburbanization and segregation?
-highway system
-Blacks moving into different suburbs from whites. (Camden counts)
-economic and voting power concentrated in burbs.
Theory of oppositional culture. (John Ogbu)
voluntary minorities (immigrants and autonomus-religious)
vs. Involuntary. AA's, Mexicans,PR's and Native Americans.
-See dominant U.S. society in adveserial terms.
-success is seen as abandoning group "acting white."
What is the theory of sterotype threat?
Psychologist Claude Steele:
-An unconscious fear of living up to negative sterotypes.
-leads to disidentification with academic success. (NOT THE SAME AS DEVALUING).
What is the theory of peer influence? What are the catogories of peer influence?
Contextual:those stemming from the social, demographic, or economic compostition of student body.
Proximate: stem from influences of specific people in friendship circle.
What is attachment Theory?
what are the 3 components?
Vincent Tinto group retention.
-requires effective integration.
adjustment to social and academic evro
congruence, degree of fit academicly and ideologicly.
Iscolation-lasck of close personal ties with faculty or students
what's the deal with male-female ratios?
15% difference with Latinos, 11% for whites, 20% for Asians, 50% for African Americans.
-Problems with male marriagable pool for both poor and upperclass African Americans.
What are some characteristics of minority students?
-first in family to go to college.
-lack accumulated wealth (Home values)
-mother more likly to work
-more single parent families
-more SES diversity in black than Latino students.
What are 3 major leagle breakthroughs on discrimination?
The Civil rights act of 1964: Outlawed racial discrimination in employment.

The Fair Housing act of 1968: Banned discrimination in housing.

The Gauttraux and Shannon Court decisions
What are the four types of capital minority students tend to have less of?
-Financial capital-can buy help
-Social capital-networks, peers, relationships
-cultural capital-feels comfortable, knows lingo, norms and tastes
-human capital-education, skills, knowledge (of how system works)

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