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Mississippi History - 2


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Define sectionalism.
an allegiance to local interests
What was the name of a controversial and colorful newspaper editor who helped make life interesting in the territorial capital of Washington?
Andrew Marschalk
What were 16 section land used for?
It was given to the people to pay for public education.
What was the Land Ordinance of 1785 and what did it provide?
It provided the US with an orderly process for the sale of land owned by the federal government. It also provided that the land be divided into townships and sections.
Washington was the site of the trial of what person who killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel several years earlier? what else was he accused of and what was the result?
Washington was the site of the trial of Aaron Burr...he was also arrested and accused of planning to separate the western states from the US, but he was acquitted of treason.
Who was the largest segment of the population of Mississippi when the US began to govern?
Native Americans
What was the name of the first institution of higher learning in Mississippi and when did it begin operation?
Jefferson College, it began operation in 1811 in Washington, closed during the civil war and reopened in 1866 as a prepatory school and before closing in 1964 was known as Jefferson Military College. It is now administered by the MS Dept of Archives and History
What were the size of the townships and sections according to the Land Ordinance of 1785?
Townships were 6 miles square with 36 sections...each section was 1 square mile or 640 acres. Later legislation reduced the size of the lots making it easier for people to afford.
What was an additional problem with land titles in MS other than a majority of land was held by Native Americans?
Settlers held land titles issued by all three earlier governments of French, English and Spanish, also some land grants from the state of Georgia. These often overlapped. Also many settlers had "squatted"--moved onto the land cleared it and built cabins. Resolving these claims took years.
In 1812 what boundaries made up the Mississippi territory?
In 1812, it was extended north to the Tennessee line after Georgia gave up its claims. MS's boundary east of the Pearl River was extended south to the Gulf of Mexico when the Spanish lost their hold on West Florida
How long did Mississippi's territorial period last before it could move to stage three and be admitted to the US?
1798-1817, little less than twenty years
Who is George Poindexter and what is he known for?
He served as a territorial delegate to Congress, a representative to Congress and a governor. He killed a man in a duel in 1811 and for years he was accused of breaking the rules and firing his pistol too soon
What happened to the Natchez District under the Spanish rule?
The District prospered...the population tripled from 2,000 in 1785 to 6,900 in 1798.
Who was the Spanish governor that encouraged American immigration with generous land grants and a tolerance of Protestant religions?
Manuel Luis Gayoso de Lemos
What was the land development like in the Natchez District and what cops were produced?
It was originally heavily wooded, but once cleared the land was fertile. Crops were tobacco, indigo, cotton--which eventually became the most important crop and in 1800 they exported 3million pounds (1/6 of total US cotton exports), also grew corn
What were important sources of food, other than the crops?
Hogs and Cattle-- (cattle round-ups in TX had their origins in MS)
In the late 1700s and early 1800s what was the confusion over control of the Natchez District?
Spain controlled the District, but the US claimed it because it had once been British territory(it was acquired during the American Revolution), also the issue known as the "right of deposit" was also a problem b/w Spain and US
What problems did the Americans incur with Spain controlling the Natchez District (MS river and Port of New Orleans) after the Revolutionary War?
The settlers needed the Ohio and MS river to ship their goods down
What was Pinckney's Treaty?
In 1795, Pinckney's Treaty (Treaty of San Lorenzo), granted Americans the right to "deposit" their goods in New Orleans and then load them onto ocean going ships
When and What was the American Revolution?
In July 1776, when the American colonists declared their independence from Great Britain
When did the US finally gain control over the Natchez District from Spain?
Spain surrendered its hold, but it wasn't until 1798 that the US took control of this region (over 20 years after the American Revolution in 1776)
What were the earliest French settlements in Mississippi?
Fort Maurepas, Fort Rosalie and Fort St. Pierre
What treaty ended the Revolutionary War?
The Treaty of Paris in 1783
Why was the "right to deposit" important?
Settlers in the Ohio River region needed a way to get their goods to by road was slow,difficult and expensive..they needed to ship their good down the MS river to New Orleans so they could be loaded on ships and sent all over the world
What was the Mississippi land and terrain like when the US began to govern?
largely a frontier, wooded and home to deer, turkey,snakes (some deadly), and bear, roads were like trails(difficult to travel in wagons),bridges over creeks were unknown
What two cities is the Natchez trace a principle route between?
Natchez and Nashville
What were establishments called stands used for?
On the Natchez Trace, stands served as motels for weary travelers
When the US began to govern MS, what was the settlement,Natchez like?
It was a thriving but small town on the southwestern border of MS, was a major port for those who sailed up and down the MS river, and is was the center of trade from which merchants provided supplies to the outlying settlers.
What was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787?
It established the framework for the government of the territories, with one exception, the basic provisions controlled the admission of MS and other territories to the US
What was the exception that the Northwest Ordinance contained that controlled admission to the US?
It prohibited slavery...territories south of the Ohio River did not contain this provision.
What were the three stages to becoming admitted to the US under the Northwest Ordinance?
1.the president,w/ the approval of Congress, appointed a territorial governor, three judges and a secretary to the governor. When the population of the territory reached 5,000 adult free men then the second stage began...
2.The voters could elect an assembly to pass laws and a territorial delegate to represent them in Congress. The governor and judges would still be appointed. When the territory had 60,000 (excluding Indians not taxed)the the third stage began
3 The voters elected delegates to a constitutional convention, which wrote a state constitution. After Congress approved of the Constitution the territory became a state.
Who was the first territorial governor of Mississippi?
Winthrop Sargent
Who was the first secretary to the governor of Mississippi?
John Steele
Who were the first three judges appointed in Mississippi?
Peter Bryan Bruin, Daniel Tilton and William McGuire
Which one of the first three appointed judges actually lived in Mississippi?
Peter Bryan Bruin
What was Winthrop Sargents background prior to being the first territorial governor of Mississippi?
He had served as secretary to the governor of the Northwest Territory and acted as governor when the appointed governor was not in residence.
What did Sargents opponents claim about the laws that Sargent and the judges made?
That the laws were too strict, gave too much power to the governor, and were not based on the law of other states
In the national political climate of the 1700s the Republican were led by whom?...the Federalists?
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison led the Republicans and President John Adams and Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists
What was the political party of Sargent? What political party were most of his opponents in MS associated with?
Sargent was a Federalist and his MS opponents were Jeffersonians
Who did President Jefferson appoint as governor and where was the capital of the territory moved to?
Jefferson appointed W.C.C. Claiborne governor and he moved the capital of the territory from Natchez to Washington several miles to the east.
What was the most complicated and important dispute over concerning Mississippi's most important resource during the late 1700s?Who controlled the majority of the disputed resource?
titles to Mississippi land. The Choctaw and Chickasaw possessed most of the land. Although some Indian land had ceded or been sold, there was pressure on the US to acquire all of their land.
What was the name of the important military post in Washington,MS in the early 1800s and what two famous soldiers spent time there:
Fort Dearborn...and Andrew Jackson and Winfield Scott spent time there in the 1800s
In 1776, because of deteriorating relations, what did the colonists in America do? when did it affect the Natchez District?
In July 1776, the colonists declared their independence from Great Britain. It wasn't until 1778 that it affected the Natchez District
Who is James Willing?
In 1778, James Willing, a former resident of the District, led American troops down the Ohio and MS rivers, seized Natchez, burned houses and then proceeded to New Orleans where he received a friendly reception.
Who was the 1783 Treaty of Paris between and what did it do?
It was between the US and Great Britain. Great Britain recognized the independence of the US and established the southern boundary of the US east of the MS river at 31 degrees north latitude. Spain refused to give up the Natchez District
For what reason did Hernando De Soto come to MS?
searching for gold in silver
Why did the French come to southeastern North America?
They were looking for a water route west to the Pacific Ocean
________,_________,and __________ established colonial settlements in eastern North America...the ________ were in Florida, the ____________ along the East Coast, and the _________ in Canada
Spain, England, and France established colonial settlements in eastern N.A. The Spanish were in Florida, the English along the East Coast, and the French in Canada
Spanish, England and France were ________ and _______________ in Europe, America, and Asia between 1667 and 1783.
they were rivals and they fought a series of wars in Europe, AMerica and Asia...
What three (3) consequences did the wars between Spain, France and England have in America?
1.The territory controlled by each country changed
2.the colonists in AMerica sought allies among the Native Americans and different tribes supported different countries
3.Mississippi was ruled first by the French, then by the English, and finally by the Spanish
The U.S. did not gain control of Mississippi until what year?
Why did the French want to control Mississippi?
They wanted to dominate the fur trade w/ the Native Americans and keep the English confined to the East order to do this they had to control the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys.
In 1699, who did the French government send to the Gulf of Mexico to establish a colony?
Pierre le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville, of Canada
On February 13, 1699, where did Iberville land on his quest for the Gulf of Mexico to set up a colony?...then what did he do?
Ship Island...he then located the mouth of the MS river and contacted the Natchez Indians...he then sailed back to Ship Island and built Fort Maurepas on the present site of Ocean Springs.
Who picked up the letter Tonti left for LaSalle fifteen years after it was left with the Natchez Indians?
Pierre le Moyne
What was the first European settlement in Mississippi?
Fort Maurepas on the present site of Ocean Springs
Iberville after settling Fort Maurepas sailed for France, leaving behind...?
eighty men, including his younger brother Jean Baptiste le Moyne, Sieur d'Bienville
Iberville made several trips to the MS Gulf Coast, which was known as "Louisiana" before his death, on one of those trips he established a colony where?
Mobile, Alabama
When did Pierre le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville die?
Why did Iberville eventually abandon Fort Maurepas?
Because it had a poor water supply, few people with whom to trade, poor soil for farming, and no easy access into the interior.
While Iberville was gone, who governed and defended the French settlements and what new base did he establish?
His brother, Bienville, and in 1718 he established a new base called New Orleans at the mouth of the MS river
As they sailed up and down the MS river, several Canadian were killed by the Natchez Indians,...what did Bienville do about this?
He seized several chiefs as hostages until the murderers were executed.
What two Forts did Jean-Baptiste le Moyne, Sieur d'Bienville build?
In 1716 he established Fort Rosalie at the present site of Natchez and For St. Pierre where the Yazoo river joined the MS at present-day Vicksburg.
What happened in 1729 in the small community around Fort Rosalie when the local governor demanded that the Natchez Indians surrender a nearby village? what did the Indians do in retaliation?
The Natchez Indians attacked Fort Rosalie, killed two hundred white inhabitants, and freed almost three hundred black slaves. The French retaliated, destroying the Natchez as a separate tribe, with the survivors fleeing to the Chickasaw in North MS. Troops remained, civilians left b/c there was no one to trade with.
What was common between the Europeans and the Native Americans in early America?
Both the Europeans and the tribes were not united and fought amongst themselves.
How did the French and British, who often fought with each other, obtain allies among the Indians?
They bought allies with trade goods, especially guns and gunpowder
What Indians sided with the French? Which ones sided with the English?
The Choctaw sided with the English and the Natchez, Chickasaw and Creed sided with the English.
The Chickasaw raided __________ land and seized people and took them to ________________ to be _______________________.
The Chickasaw raided Choctaw land and seized people and took them to Charleston, South Carolina, to be sold as slaves.
In 1736 the French and Choctaw attacked the Chickasaw at Ackia,near Tupelo, what happened?
they were defeated
What war was fought to wee who would control the Ohio and MS river valleys? how long did the war last? who was the war between?
The French and Indian War, (1754-1763), the war was between France and Great Britain
Where did much of the fighting take place in the French and Indian War?
In North Mississippi
What were the Choctaw Indians doing during the French and Indian War? what happened?
The French and British supporters among the Choctaw were fighting a civil war. The French supporters among the Choctaw won their war, bur the French lost the larger, more important War.
What is a treaty?
A formal agreement between two or more nations.
What were the terms of the 1763 Treaty?
France gave all of its territory east of the MS river, except New Orleans, to Great Britain
What was the British influence on Mississippi before 1763?
British traders from Charleston had traveled among the Choctaw and Chickasaw for decades, even though the Choctaw preferred the French.
In 1763, Mississippi was an official part of the province of ...?
West Florida, an unimportant and remote area of the British Empire
In 1763, West Florida consisted of...
the southern halves of alabama and Mississippi as well as part of Florida; the capital was Pensacola. The colony of Georgia claimed the region as well.
Great Britain encouraged settlement around Natchez, known as the Natchez District, and veterans of the French and Indian War received what? what was the result by 1774?
Land grants in the District of Natchez and were often requred to bring additional settlers with them. By 1774 approximately 3,000 people, both black and white, lived in the District.
What happened to the Natchez District in September 1779?
After Spain declared war against Great Britain, the Spanish governor of Louisiana captured Natchez
French colonists settled in Quebec Canada in what year? how did they get to the south? what were they looking for?
1608...they used the rivers and the Great Lakes to travel west and south...they were looking for a water route west to the Pacific Ocean
What two things did the French accomplish on their travels looking for a water route west to the Pacific Ocean?
They built up the fur trade and introduced Native Americans to Christianity
In 1673, which two people sailed down the Mississippi river and reach the site of present-day Rosedale?
Louis Jolliet, a trader, and Father Jacques Marquette.
What did Louis Jolliet, a trader and Father Jacques Marquette figure out at the end of their quest to find a water route to the Pacific Ocean?
They concluded that the Mississippi river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico, not the Pacific Ocean, and they turned back.
In 1682, what four people came down the Mississippi River and claimed the region for France?
Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, Henri de Tonti, along with Father Zenobius Membre.
Describe five (5) characteristics of a clan marriage.
1.They lived close to the wife's family
2.children were considered members of the mother's clan
3.a boy's closest relative was not the father, but the mother's brother
4.Men held important religious and political positions
5.occasionally had more than one wife
What happened after Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, Henri de Tonti, and Father Zenobius Membre do after they came down the MS River and claimed the region for France?
They visited with the Natchez Indians
LaSalle and tonti returned to Canada, then LaSalle returned to France and later LaSalle eventually died trying to establish a settlement at the mouth of the MS; Tonti went up and down MS looking for LaSalle and even left a letter for him w/ the Indians at the mouth of the MS river.
What were the purposes of the Indian mounds?
The Woodland tribes used them for burial grounds, but the moundbuilding Missippian culture built religious buildings and home of chiefs on top of their mounds
Who were the Spanish and French explorers of Mississippi?
Spanish - Hernando DeSoto
French - Louis Jolliet, a trader and Father Jacques Marquette, a missionary
Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de LaSalle, Henri de Tonti, and Father Zenobius Membre
Practice of having more than one wife, usually the wives were sisters, is called what?
Where did early Mississippi Native Americans build their villages?
They build their villages near streams and creeks where the land was easier to farm
What was the role of men in the early MS Native American villages?...the role of women?
MEN cleared the land, held high political positions, hunted dear and bear, constructed buildings and fought other tribes
WOMEN did most of the agricultural work: planting, weeding, and harvesting, women made pottery, gathered food from the woods and along the banks of streams and tanned hides
The religious beliefs of the southeastern Indians centered on what?
The sun and on the sacred fires, which represented the sun on earth.
Native Americans believed in many spirits associated with _________ and ___________.
Nature and Animals
What is ishtohbohl?
A stickball game of the Choctaw Indians that had great religious significance and was originally accompanied with many ceremonies
Describe the Choctaw game of ishtohbohl.
It was a contest between villages. The object was to carry or throw a ball between two goal posts. The ball could only be touched by rackets, each team had the same number of players
What is chunky?
An Indian game where a round stone was rolled down a field and the players threw sticks close to where the stone would stop rolling
In the 1600s and 1700s the Natchez Indians lived where?
They lived between Warren and Wilkinson Counties along the Mississippi River.
Who was the ruler of the Natchez Indians?
The "Great Sun" who had political and religious authority. He rode in a litter and had numerous wives. When he died at least some of his wives and other members of the tribe were killed and buried with him.
What did the earliest French observers call the upper and lower class of the Natchez?
The upper class was known as the "suns" and the lower class was known as the "stinkards".... a sun had to marry a stinkard.
The voyage of who sparked the European exploration fo North and South America and who were they followed by?
The voyage of Christopher Columbus...and they were followed by settlers
What did Native Americans have to do when the European explorers began to invade their homes and land?
defend their lands and cultures.
Who were the first Europeans to visit Mississippi?
The Spanish in 1539 and 1542
Where did Hernando de Soto land and where did he go from there?
He landed around Tampa, FL, went as far north as North Carolina before turning west and south.
Who explored the southeastern part of North American in search of gold and silver?...what did his expedition include? how did he get the things he needed for the expedition?
Hernando de Soto, his expedition included 600 soldiers-many mounted on horses and hogs were brought along as food. He obtained supplies, guides and people to carry the supplies by holding Indian chiefs hostage until they provided him with what he needed
How did Hernando de Soto survive, in 1540 north of Mobile, an Indian attach that almost ended Hernando de Soto's expedition?
Because the Indian did not know how to fight mounted soldiers, they were defeated
What happened when De Soto got to Mississippi...and what happened when they got to the Mississippi River?
They were forced west by an attack by Native Americans... when they reached the MS river, they built boats and crossed it.
When did De Soto die?
De Soto died in 1542.
What happened to DeSoto's men after he died?
They tried to walk to Mexico, but they decided to return to the MS river where they were pursued by the Indians. The survivors, less than half of the men, reached the Gulf of Mexico and sailed to Mexico. Along the way the Spanish killed about 4,000 Indians in battles.
Why did the Spanish never return to Mississippi?
Because of the stubborn resistance of the Native Americans and because they did not find any gold or silver
What was the most important, but unexpected, result of DeSoto's expedition?
Diseases spread from the Spanish to the Indians who had no immunity and caused epidemics to occur which caused a significant number of deaths.
What Europeans were the first to come to Mississippi, the French or the Spanish?
Spanish, the French came after them
What crops did the Choctaw and Chickasaw raise?
Maize (corn), beans,peas, squash pumpkins
Name two southeastern Indian tribes that shared the beliefs, practices, and customs of the Mississippi tribes.
The Cherokee and the Creek
What are clans?
Groups of related families.
What did clans do within the village?
They punished criminals, protected individuals from violence, sought revenge for the killing of a member, approved marriages which always crossed outside clan lines
When did the first Spanish explorers travel through the southeast?
The sixteenth century
When the French explored the Mississippi Valley in the 1600's, what had happened to the moundbuilders?
They were only a memory. Their descendants were the Native Americans that Europeans found in Mississippi.
Most of the Native American societies in Mississippi, such as the ______, ______, ________, and ________, were fairly small.
Choula, Pascagoula, Tunica and Biloxi
What were the largest Native American societies in Mississippi?
The Choctaw, Natchez, and the Chickasaw.
With the exception of ____________, the languages of the American Indians in Mississippi were related to those spoken by the other tribes of the Southeast.
Describe the government of most of the Mississippi native American tribes.
Each village governed itself and sent representatives to the tribal councils, which made important decisions. A strict hierarchy of individuals regulated such issues as seating at the councils, titles of individuals and the tattoos a man could wear.
What is a mingo oumu and a tichou mingo?
A mingo oumu is a Choctaw Indian WAR CHIEF...and a tichou mingo is a Choctaw Indian SPOKESMAN for the Council.
Describe the temple mound underneath the great sun.
The temple mound was 9 ft high, rectangular in shape and approx. 80 ft long and 50 ft wide. The base for temple buildings were where the bones of the dead leaders were kept
What did the presence of copper tell us about the moundbuilders?
They were part of a wide-ranging trade system.
What is the Cole Creek culture?
A transitional culture that had characteristics of both the Woodland and the Mississippian period.
Where is the largest Indian Mound found...where is the second largest Indian mound found?
Largest - Cahokia, Missouri
2nd largest - Emerald Mound in Natchez, Mississippi.
The moundbuilding Mississippian culture existed between the 8th and 17th centuries and instead of building mounds they built what?
The built religious buildings and the homes of chiefs on top of their flat, rectangular mounds.
What is the Nanih Waiyah?
A mound found along the Pearl River in southeastern Winston County that connects to the early history of the Choctaw Indians.
How big is the Nanih Waiyah mound?
22 ft high, 218 ft long, and 140 ft wide
What is the "Great Sun"?
A mound built on top of another mound in Natchez and was 12 ft high
The history of early Native Americans is generally divided into four periods...they are what?
Paleo, Archaic, Woodland, and Mississippian
Who followed the large animals such as mammoths and mastodons which they hunted for food and clothing...and are they found in Mississippi?
The Paleo Indians...few traces of Paleo Indians have been found in MS
During the Archaic period, the climate became what?
warmer and drier and the large animals died out.
Why do we know so little about the Men and women during the Archaic period...and what little do we know?
They had no writing system....and we do know that they used stone tools, gathered fruits and nuts, and hunted deer and turkey with spears.
What did Native American develop during the Woodland era?
They developed highly organized societies in the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys.
What are moundbuilders?
The Woodland tribes who built burial mounds over tombs and sometimes shaped those mounds like birds or animals.
Where did moundbuilders live and what did they do?
They lived along rivers and streams and learned how to farm and did not depend on hunting as much...they produced many styles of pottery and used both copper and stone tools.
Give two examples of places that have names derived from the name of Indian tribes.
Yazoo and Biloxi
Who were the first Europeans to explore Mississippi?
The Spanish and French
Who discovered the Mississippi River and what did he lose his life searching for?
Hernando de Soto and he lost his life searching for gold
The French traveled up and down the river doing what?
Trading furs and introducing Christianity to the Indians
Where did the French settle?
Natchez, MS
After the French settled in Natchez, the British, Spanish and Americans later shared this region with who?
Choctaw Indians
In what year did the U.S. organized the Mississippi Territory and for what purpose?
In 1798, organized to encourage the orderly settlement of this part of the frontier.
Who fougnt in the War of 1812?
The US and the Greek Indians in the eastern part of the territory. The Creek successfully attacked Fort Mims, but troops led by General Andrew Jackson defeated the Creek and more land opened up for settlement
As the MS territory population increased, Congress divided the Mississippi territory into two states, creating a new territory named _________.
Alabama, which became a state in 1819
What is the purpose of a constitution? in what territory was Mississippi's first constitution written?
It sets up the framework of a government and determines its powers and limitations. Mississippi's first constitution was written in the territorial capital of Washington, MS
What were some of the powers and limitations that were set up in the first constitution of Mississippi?
legislative branch gven more power than the executive branch, state legislator, the governor and the lt gov. were elected, other state officeholders were appointed, judges appointed for life. Only property owners could hold office, men who paid taxes or served in the military could vote, the number of senators per county was based on the number of white taxable inhabitants, blacks and non-tax-paying whites were not counted.
When was Mississippi admitted to the US?
Mississippi became the 29th state admitted to the US on December 10, 1817
Who was the first governor appointed when Mississippi was admitted to the US?
David Holmes, the appointed territorial governor, became the first governor of the state of MS
What seemed to be the most important political issues in the MS territory?
land owned by the Indians, sectionalism in the Natchez District and the resentment of the settlers east of the Pearl River
How did the federal government regulate the sale of land?
Developed the Land Ordinance of 1785 which provided the land be divided into townships and sections
When did the American Revolution begin and end?
It began in 1775 and ended in 1783
What notable events occurred in Mississippi history in the years: 1539, 1673, 1682, 1699, 1795, 1798 and 1817?
1539 - De Soto's expedition
1673 - Jolliet and Marquette explore the Mississippi river
1682 La Salle and Tonti explore the Mississippi river
1699 - Fort Maurepas built by Iberville
1795 - Pinckney's Treaty
1798 - Mississippi Territory established
1817 - Mississippi becomes a state
Missi Sippi are Indian words meaning...
Great River
What did the Spanish call the Mississippi River?
River of the Holy Spirit (Rio de Espiritu Santo)
Name the three largest Native American tribes that lived in the Mississippi area when the Europeans arrived.
Choctaw, Chickasaw and Natchez
Thousands of years ago, most of North America was covered by what, which ended when?
Ice, the ice age ended about 8000 B.C
Was DeSoto's expedition successful? What effect did it have on Native Americans?
No, he was searching for gold and silver and did not find any. He held the Indian Chiefs hostage to get what he needed and the Indians mounted several attacks but were defeated and the Spanish brought diseases which along with the attacks killed off a significant part of the native population
Describe how Mississippi was governed between 1798 and 1817?
The second stage leading up to admission into the US - The president with the approval of Congress appointed a territorial governor, three judges and secretary to the governor, the voters elected an assembly to pass laws and a territorial delegate to represent them in Congress
Describe the villages of the Mississippians.
Their villages were located along streams where the soil was fertile and easily worked with digging sticks, and tools with blades of bone and stone.
In the eighteenth century, describe the make-up of the Choctaw Indian Council.
The Choctaw had a chief and six subordinate chiefs.
What descendents of early Native Americans were the largest tribes in the state when Europeans and Africans first arrived?
The Natchez, Choctaw and Chickasaw Indian tribes
What do Anthropologists call marrying outside the clan?
What were the Mississippians major crops?
Maize (corn), beans, and squash
Why did sectionalism become an important issue as more settlers arrived?
The Natchez District dominated politics and settlers east of the Pearl River resented this influence. Since the Natchez District had many slave owners Whites in the east believed that the whites in the west used their wealth and claves to run the gov't for their own benefit
With which tribe(s) did the French have the best relationship?
The Choctaw Indians
What three foreign countries explored Mississippi at one time or the other?
France, Spain,and England
The earliest Americans came from...
List three characteristics of the moundbuilders.
1. they hunted and fished for food
2. they constructed burial mounds
3. they used copper tools
The first European settlement in MS was established by...
List three examples of jobs done by Indian men.
1.construct buildings
2.hunt for food
3.fight other tribes
Which statement is NOT true about Native American communities:
1.important decisions were made
by the clan Indian boy's closest
relative was his mother's brother
3.after marriage, a couple
lived with the husban
The answer that is NOT true is
3. after marriage, a couple lived with the WIFE'S family, NOT the husbands family
What crops grown by Native American groups?
maize, beans and squash
The first territorial governor of Mississippi was David Holmes.
FALSE, it was Winthrop Sargent

The first governor of the state of Mississippi was Andrew Jackson.
FALSE, the first governor of the STATE of MS was David Holmes
The US and Spain negotiated Pinckney's Treaty in 1795. What did the US gain from this treaty and why was it so important?
Since Spain controlled the MS river and port of New Orleans, the US gained the right to deposit their goods in New Orleans and then load them onto ocean-going ships. Bcause the only other way to get their goods to market was travel by roads which were slow, difficult and expensive, they had to be able to ship goods down the Ohio and MS rivers to New Orleans
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 provided an orderly process for the sale of federal land. What were the provisions of the Northwest Ordinance?
The Northwest Ordinance established the framework for the government of territories, it controlled the admission of MS and other territories to the US, set out the admission process of becoming part of the US. Because of Indians owning majority of land and settlers holding land titles under earlier governments and squatters, land claims overlapped. The US created the Land Ordinance of 1785 which set out an orderly process for the sale of land owned by the federal divided the land into townships and sections, 16 section land was set aside for public education

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