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Geography Exam 2 2


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What is the name of the land known as fire and ice?
Kamchatka Peninsula
The variation of the continental effect on air temperatures in the interior portions of the world's landmasses. The greater the distance from the moderating influence of an ocean, the greater the extreme in summer and winter temperatures. Continental int
this landform has low elevation and low relief
this landform has high elevation and low relief
Literally means landscape description, but commonly refers to the total physical geography of a place; includes all of the natural features on the Earth's surface, including landforms, climate, soils, vegetation, and water bodies.
Polar climates
E climate
arid climates
B climates
tropical/equatorial climates
A climates
temperate/subtropical climates
C climates
snow climates
D climates
The treeless plain that lies along the Arctic shore in northernmost Russia and Canada, whose vegetation consists of mosses, lichens, and certain hardy grasses.
This man wanted to be victorious over the Tatars
Ivan the Terrible
Opportunists and pioneers, these people sought the riches of the eastern frontier, chiefly furbearing animals.
strategic frotified waystations; settlements where people would trade
big river of transport; it started trading network, industry, and transportation
Volga River
An extraordinary leader, was in many ways the founder of modern Russia. It was this persons desire to remake Russia - pull it from the forests of the interior to the waters of the west, to open it to the outside influences, and to relocate its population
Peter the Great
What is important in the name St. Petersurg?
it was named this because Germany was prosperous
Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border; it confirms the state's determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.
forward capital
this was the port city of Odessa, and the whole northern coastal zone of the Black Sea fell under Russian control
Crimean Peninsula
This person made Russia a colonial power, but the Russians eventually gave up on their North American outposts. - wanted to get Russia further to the south
Catherine the Great
The drive torward the creation and expansion of a colonial empire and, once established, its perpetuation.
this produced substantial ethnic Russian minorities in all the non-Russian republics
a process in which state planners assigned the production of partcular manufactures to particular places
command economy
a soil that develops in temperate to cold moist climates under coniferous or heath vegetation; an organic mat over a gray leached layer
podsolic soil
podsolic soils are connected with which type of climate and type
taiga and Dw climates
A very black topsoil, rich in humus, typical of cool to temperate semiarid regions, such as the grasslands of European Russia.
chernozem is connected with which type of climate and type
steppe and B climates
Permanently frozen subsoil, occurring throughout the Polar Regions and locally in perennially frigid areas.
subarctic, evergreen coniferous forest of northern Eurasia located just south of the tundra and dominated by furs and spruces.
A treeless area between the icecap and the tree line of Arctic regions, having a permanently frozen subsoil and supporting low-growing vegetation such as lichens, mosses, and stunted shrubs.
A vast semiarid grass-covered plain, as found in southeast Europe, Siberia, and central North America.
What was the state religion of the Soviet Union?
The theory that cities able to control irrigated farming over large hinterlands held political power over other cities. Particularly applies to early Asian civilizations based in such river valleys as the Chang, the Indus, and those of Mesopotamia.
Hydraulic civilization theory
Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture.
cultural hearth
Tha spatial spreading or dissemination of a culture element (such as a technological innovation) or some other phenomenon (a disease outbreak). For the various channels of outward geographic spread from a source area.
What is the largest Muslim country in the world?
Which country within the Middle East region is the largest in terms of both population and area? (This country is also best endowed with natural resources and is the location of Mesopotamia, which lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.)
Which country is also known as Persia? (From 1979 this country was ruled by a shah who was a modernizer and reformer, until he died in 1989, and there was a return to religious rule under the ayatollah Khomeini.)
Across how many time zones does the modern state of Russia span?
11 time zones
What is the meaning of the term kremlin and where is it located?
fortress; on the River Moscow
Where is St. Basil's Cathedral located and why was it constructed?
Moscow; constructed by the order of Czar Ivan the Terrible to celebrate his famous victory over the Tatars
What event signaled the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railroad?
when a bridge over the Amur River at Khabarovsk closed the last link in the rails
What body of water is described as "the deepest lake in the world?"
Lake Baykal
What is the significance of the rag trees and what group adorns them?
mark sacred spots; Buryats
Who are termed the "old believers" and where are they found today?
they are descendants of traditionally oriented Orthodox Christians who fled from Western Europe; Ulan Ude
What is the strategic military importance of the city of Vladivostok?
home base of the Russian Pacific Fleet
What region is referred to in the tour as the "land of fire and ice?"
Kamchatka Peninsula
Who are the people known as the Koryaks and where do they live?
wear traditinal head dress for special occasions and perform dances that portray aspects of everyday life; northeastern Siberia
What is revealed to be the meaning of the Arabic word "Sahara?"
In which important mountain chain does this virtual tour begin?
Algeria's Atlas Mountains
What are "barchans" and "rhourds" and how are they formed?
barchans=cresent-shaped dunes - formed by local wind patterns
rhourds=star-shaped dunes - formed from swirling wind patterns
Which group founded the city of Ghardaia in the 11th century?
What are the landscape features termed "Hamda" and "erg?"
Hamada=barren plateau
erg=sturdy plain
Who are the "Men of the Blue Veil" and what colors are their veils?
they are the Tuaregs and their veils are indigo
What factors have resulted in the Sahel becomind desertified?
it is drought ridden, grazing territory, firewood collection
What goods can you see being sold by the shopkeeper in Niamey?
cold drinks, jewelry, shirts, handkerchiefs, bras,..
What major crop is grown between the Sahel and savanna regions?
What disease could you catch while swimming in the Niger River?
schistosomiasis aka bilharzia
An official policy of the former Soviet government emphasizing candor with regard to discussion of social problems and shortcomings.
group of duracrats looking to change Russia economicaly; one way - build infastructure, second - industrialize, third - collective agriculture
Df has what kind of climate type?
Dw has what kind of climate type?
winter draught
What is the evaporation formula used for?
to find the climate type
ex. Dw or Df
Yakutsk has what type of climate?
St. Petersburg has what type of climate?
The immediate and short-term conditions of the atmosphere that impinge on daily human activities.
The long-term conditions of aggregate weather over a region, summarized by averages and measures of variability.
is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. Historically one of the most ancient and important cities of the region, the center of Rus' civilization, survivor of numerous wars, purges
was the early, mostly East Slavic state dominated by the city of Kiev
Kievan Rus
is a city in North-Western Russia
5 pillars of Islamic Faith
Islamic Creed
There is only "one God", Allah, "Muhammad", The "Koran", "Life on Earth", The "Final Judgment"
Tenets of Islam
God, especially in Islam.
Arab prophet of Islam. At the age of 40 he began to preach as God's prophet of the true religion.
A city of western Saudi Arabia near the coast of the Red Sea. The birthplace of Muhammad, it is the holiest city of Islam and a pilgrimage site for all devout believers of the faith.
The doctrine or belief that there is only one God.
The worship of or belief in more than one god.
religion term that has a message for everyone; apllicable to all people
universal religion
religion term that has a message for a group
ethnic religion
A member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali and his descendants as the legitimate successors to Muhammad and rejects the first three caliphs.
The branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors of Muhammad.
The spatial spreading or dissemination of a culture element or some other phenomenon. For the verious channels of outward geographic spread from a source area.
spatial diffusion
A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by trickling down from larger to smaller adoption units. An urban hierarchy is usually involved, encouraging the leapfrogging of innovations over wide areas, with geographic distance a less impor
Hierarchial Diffusion
The spreading of an innovation or idea through a fixed population in such a way that the number of those adopting grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.
Expansion diffusion
known for its strict observance of the Koran and flourishing mainly in Arabia.
Wahhabism - unitarianism
Iraq, Jordan, Israel, Syria, Lebannon
Middle East
Western Sahara, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Mali, Niger
Maghreb - Sahara
Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen
Arabian Peninsula
Egypt, Sudan, Somalia
Egypt and the Lower Nile Basin
Turkey, Iran
Empire States
Afganistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikastan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan
An upland region between northeast Israel and southwest Syria northeast of the Sea of Galilee. Fortified by Syria after 1948, the area was captured by Israel in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War and formally annexed by that country in 1981.
Golan Heights
A region of northwest Africa comprising the coastlands and the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.
A desert region in the southeast interior of the Arabian Peninsula. Virtually without water and uninhabited, it was first visited by an English explorer in 1932 but has not yet been completely explored.
A river channel, about 193 km (120 mi) long, of southeast Iraq formed by the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and flowing southeast to the Persian Gulf. It forms part of the Iraq-Iran border, and navigation rights to the channel have long be
an area between Israel and Jordan on the west bank of the Jordan river; populated largely by Palestinians; Jewish and Atab settlement
West Bank
a coastal region at the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean bordering Israel and Egypt; small Jewish community, poverty stricken
Gaza Strip
a strategically important strait linking the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; The narrow strait controls oceangoing traffic to and from the oil-rich Gulf States.
Strait of Hormuz
a peninsula in northeastern Egypt; at north end of Red Sea
Sinai Peninsula
a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
Suez Canal
wide inlet of the Mediterranean Sea on the north coast of Libya
Gulf of Sidra
a peninsula of northeastern Africa (the easternmost part of Africa) comprising Somalia and Djibouti and Eritrea and parts of Ethiopia
Horn of Africa
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
oil has not been mapped yet
oil resourses
something that has been mapped, cataloged and people know it exist - Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, United Arab Emirates
oil reserves
An Arab of any of the nomadic tribes of the Arabian, Syrian, Nubian, or Sahara deserts.
"land amidst the the rivers," had fertile alluvial soil, abundant sunshine, ample water, and animals and plants that could be domesticated
A leader of an Islamic polity, regarded as a successor of Muhammad and by tradition always male.
a legal system based upon traditional Islam; The code of law based on the Koran.
a consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service

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