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American History Midterm


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Successes of Reconstruction
New schools for freed slaves
13-15 Amendments
Tipped scales for blacks--gave them the chance to work for wages
Failures of Reconstruction
No industry in the south
Jim Crow laws
they became too lenient on enforcing laws
Hayes vs. Tilden
20 votes in question,
commitee of 15 men: 7 democrats, 7 republicans, 1 independent,
the independent resigned (as as not to be the deciding vote) and they replaced him with another republican,
they voted along the line and Hayes obviously won,
the south was outraged, so in the first policy of Hayes' presidency, he agreed to remove troops from the south,
thus ending reconstruction
conquered provinces theory for reconstruction
what congress originally wanted: since the south split itself illegally, they should not be a part of the union anymore
lincoln's 10% plan
for any state, 1/10 of the qualified voters must take a loyalty vote to become a state again
wade-davis bill
congress' second attempt at a reconstruction plan: former confederate officials return to power in their states if they take a loyalty oath
***the johnson plan
lincoln's plan died along with him so johnson came up with a new one:
1) repeal ordinances of succession
2) merge their debt with the union's war debts
3) ratify 13th amendment
***13th amendment
prohibits slavery
radical republicans on reconstruction
opposed johnson's plan,
resented speedy recovery of the southern states to power,
determined to establish their own party in the south,
hoped that industry would stay in the north
black codes
controlled the new freedmen--
could not hold public office, serve on jurys, bear arms, etc
freedmen's bureau
protected civil rights of the freedmen and cared for abandoned lands
joint committee on reconstruction
studied reconstruction (15 radical republicans)
***civil rights act of 1866
gives citizenship to blacks--overran johnson's veto of this bill (he feared rebellion)
***14th amendment
still has not been ratified in all states to this day--
citizenship given to everyone born in the US, cannot deprive any male of the right to vote, former confederates barred from holding pre-war offices once more, confederate debt consolidated with the north's debt
--many states thought this amendment was unconstitutional--
1866 congressional elections
radical republicans won almost every available seat
reconstruction acts
divided up the south into 5 military districts headed by a general who controlled reconstruction
impeachment of johnson
radical republicans came up with the "tenure of office act"-- a president cannot remove office holders without senate's consent
--the sec of war refuses johnson's command and johnson fires him
--the house impeached the president with 11 charges
--senate missed 2/3 vote by 1 vote so he wasn't impeached
carpetbag governments
people from the north who moved to the south to make a difference or gain an upperhand economically
blacks and whites who wanted to reform the south--very committed to their cause
white men of the south who tried to change how things were
***15th amendment
you cannot deny someone the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude
founded in 1866, became instrumental in terrorizing the countryside (esp blacks),
wanted to tip the scale by scaring the blacks into not voting
enforcement acts
1870, 1871:
tried to put a damper on the KKK
general amnesty act of 1872
disliked the construction:
allowed former confederates to hold office once again
supreme court decisions after reconstruction
1) 1875--discrimination is public places is okay as long as froce isn't used
2) if you own your own business, you could do what you want/serve who you want
the solid south
b/t 1876 and 1920, there was never a republican that carried a single state in any election
the bourbons
white southern men becamse part of the "european royal family": vote the way their dad/grandad votes, teach their sons to vote democratic
***disfranchisement of blacks
literacy test, poll tax, property requirements, grandfather clause
prob with literary test
some blacks now literate and some whites still not
prob with the poll tax
many whites were poor and couldn't afford it
prob with property requirement
not all whites owned property after the war
success of grandfather clause
if your grandfather votes in 1860, then you are allowed to--
no registered southern black in 1860
"the new south"
henry grady
problems remaining after reconstruction
1) southern economy had not escaped the control of northern financiers
2) southern political leaders remained far more interested in sectional than national problems
3) many farmers, both black and white, still lived in poverty
4) minful of heavy personal losses during the war and reconstruction, most southern voters refused to accept tax programs that would have provided much needed funds
election of 1868-- grant vs. seymore
democrats-- horatio seymore, repubs--grant
campaign-- seymore against reconstruction, grant for it
elect grant because he and the repub party saved the union
grant won
black friday
under grant
stock market died, price of gold plumetted
credit mobilizer
under grant
railroad system, stock issues
tweed ring
under grant
william tweed, millions of dollars
election of 1872--grant cs greely
salary grab
under grant,
congress coted themselves a 50% pay increase and payback
sanborn contracts
under grant
department of treasury and revenue taxes
whiskey ring
under grant,
tax revenues on sale of whiskey
belknap scandal
under grant
supplies supposed to go to indian tribes went elsewhere
hardowrking and honest, represented the views of businessmen
radical republicans
liberal republicans,
headed by james blaine and james garfield
election of 1880--hancock vs garfield
garfield (garfield= pres, half breed; chester = vp, stalwart)
garfield assassinated by a stalwart who wanted chester (arthur) as pres
pork-barrel appropriations
add-on to a bill--
you vote for one, you vote for another hidden bill which is usually unrelated to the first
pendleton act
under chesterstopped giving positions as political rewards
tariff of 1883
15 person committee reduced the average teriff by 2%
election of 1884-- cleveland vs blaine
blaine didn't campaign, cleveland won, "best pres since lincoln", qualified cabinet
extending the civil service list
under cleveland
used to be 100,000 jobs being given out as political favors-- cleveland constructed a list of 20,000
repeal of the tenure of office act
under cleveland,
was the act used to impeach johnson,
gave presidency more power-- can dismiss people for lack of action
pension controversy
under cleveland
congress granting pensions to veterans of the civil war (350,000 names--collected by men who worked on commission)--
cleveland personally reduced the list to 200 names
presidential succession act
cleveland's vp died-- this act provided what happens if the pres or vp dies
electoral count act
under cleveland
says the house and senate vote seperately in case of voting controvery
department of agriculture
became a cabinet position under cleveland
election of 1888-- cleveland vs harrison
republican revival, harrison won
mckinley tariff
average tariff increases 50% on everything
reed rules
reed= speaker of the house, changes how congress is run with voting
billion dollar congress
under harrison
congress spends too much money
election of 1892--cleveland vs blaine
second time this pair runs against eachother,
cleveland= only pres to win twice unconsecutively
panic of 1893
business failure-- causes: deficit, european investors withdrawal, currency without backing, people panicked
coxey's army
jacob coxey took 100's of men to DC and petitioned for congress to fix the economy
wilson-gorman tariff
inclusion of raw materials on the free list, reduction of rates on finished good, repeal of bounty to the domestic producers of unprocessed sugar, imposition of a tax of 2% on income of $4K+
income tax
determined unconstitutional under cleveland
election of 1896--brian vs mckinley
mckinley (who campaigned from his front porch) won
election of 1900--brian vs mckinley
second time they ran vs eachother,
mckinley's new vp is roosevelt, mckinley wins,
he is later assassinated and roosevelt becomes pres is 1901
new RR lines and inventions: 1873-1880
tripled amount of track being build-- steel, track guage changes, air brake, meant you could stop the train when you wanted, RR pullman cars (sleeping, dining, parlor, etc)
invented air brake
george westinghouse
govn't aid for the RR
congress granted a charter to the union pacific to run rail to the west coast-- joined with the already present central pacific
granted free use of land, timber, minerals, and a 10 square mile plot of land for the track (later doubled to 20): congress gave them $16,000 for every mile across the plains , $32,000 for plateaus, and $48,000 for mountains
rr construction methods
union takes irish and central takes asian immigrants to build track-- nonstop work, harsh conditions, families often followed their worker hudbands/fathers-- when they got to the end (utah, where it merged) they were stuck there
govn't stimulus to build rr
private investors, borrowed money from state govnts, small towns often paid to have tracks laid in hopes of becoming a a boom town (often didn't get what they paid for)
***effects of transcontinental rr system
influence on manufacturing and trade-- finished goods, imports, exports cross country; population-- people moved west; politics-- politicians had to pay attention to the west now
laissez faire
to let people do as they choose
oil leaders
rockefeller and harkness
steel leaders
carnegie and gary
rr leaders
vanderbilt and hill
banking leaders
morgan and cooke
social darwinism
only the sure/fittest/smartest will survive-- it is natural for some to fail
theory by sumner
the pool
used by railroads-- agreed to est price, regulate output, and markets for all
the trust
rockefeller-- standard oil trust: board owned companies and all stock
holding company
owns other companies but doesn't actually produce anything
sherman antitrust act
tried to control big business and offset supreme court rulings
RR strike of 1877
began when eastern rrs announced a 10% wage cut,
state militias called out,
100 ppl died,
america's first major national labor conflict
enforcing the monroe doctrine in mexico
disallowing european countries from setting up more colonies
william seward's defining moment in 1867
1) purchase of alaska-- thought of as a bad move at the time
2) formal occupying of the midway islands--naval post
3) eventual acquisition of the hawaiian islands-- strategically setting up the US in the pacific ocean
alabama claims
a ship built by the british and given to the south during the civil war
treaty of washinton
ratified in senate in 1871,
1) the submission of the alabama claims to an international tribunal
2) making of a new arrangement to protest the rights of American fishermen operating off the shore of canada
3) settlement by arbitration of the disputed water boundary between british columbia and the state of washington
venezualian boundary adjustment
gold discovered--
created a dispute over who owned the land-- US or UK?
attitude of latin american nations
resentful toward our interference and how we thought we were superiour (we started filtrating their country with missionaries, for example, to teach them religion)
blaine's pan-american policy
no sec of state since henry clay had worked harder than james blaine to promote the interests of the US in latin america--
blaine wanted to dictate what would take place: every aspect of your lives should look like ours
we thought we had the perfect country/perfect solution
missionaries and mariners
trying to christianize the heathens (missionaries) and finding/using goods (mariners)
emergence of the new imperialism
1) mariners and missionaries
2) settlement of the west--explorers wanted new lands to discover
3) search for new markets for faster trade routes, sea routes, selling markets, etc
4) importance of sea ports-- more business savy and safer
hawaiian imperialism
took over sugar plantations, overthrew queen and started a revolution and set up a revolutionary govnt, expansionists wanted to annex hawaii under mckinley
***open-door policy
est trade with china-- how would this effect us economically? all these countries would work together to keep the trade routes to china open no matter what
***boxer rebellion
group of chinese (ultra-patriotic) wanted to drive us out at any cost-- they attacked the capital so we call up our military to "save" china
the situation in cuba
american policy, cuban insurrection, cuban war of independence-- cuban rebels vs. spaniards
cleveland's attitude toward military intervention in the war with spain (cuba)
wanted to stay neutral
de lome letter
1898, letter appeared in the NY journal: spanish minister writes a friend in cuba about mckinley's anger and bitterness
***sinking of the maine and 4 views on it
in cuba, 6 days after the de lome letter, 260 ppl died
1) spanish loyalists sunk it
2) cuban revolutionists (wanting us to engage on their side)
3) accident
4) american imperialistic move (make us engage in war)
mckinley's war message
peace at any price
war on two fronts
1) philippine campaign (war)-- if we were to grant independence for one, then we'd grant independence for all
2) caribbean campaign-- teddy roosevelt became war hero (bc of sensational propoganda)
treaty of paris
confirmed the terms of the armistice concerning cuba, puerto rico, and guam. demanded that spain also cede the philippines to the US
umpton sinclair
"The jungle"-- about the chicago meat packing plants,
because of this book, ppl thought we would become a meatless society
muckrakers on a mission to fix society-- helped teddy pass legislation
permits about 10% of the voters to initiate a petition/law and submit it to the politicians (easier at city level than district or state)
10% of voters can put a change of a law on a ballot to be voted on during an election
25% of voters to remove someone from office
***direct primary
primary before an election (before this, it was all party-driven political bosses)
***17th amendment
senators will be directly elected by the people (before, they were hand selected out of the most popular)
sommission plan
segregating the functions of the city into 5 groups, all headed by a commissioner who directed their peice of the city and then came back and discussed it with the others
city-manager plan
has commissioners, but also has a city manager who everyone works under-- he calls all the shots (city manager vs major and commissioners who don't do as much as they used to/want to)
***19th amendment
women's suffrage (took 50 yrs to get it off the congressional floor-- ratified in 1920)
proposed idea of 19th amendment
susan b anthony
socialist challenge
1) enactment of unemployment insurance
2) reduction of workday hours
3) govnt ownership of RR lines, telegraph co.s, telephone firms, and other public utilites
4) nationwide adoption of the initiative, referendum, and recall
5) implentation of proportional representation
socialist party of america
socialist labor and socialist democratic joined to creat the socialist party of america
headed by debbs
denounced progressives as ppl who tinkered but didn't fix
teddy roosevelt's first state of the union message
1) greater control of coporations by the fed govnt
2) more authority for the interstate commerce commission
3) conservation of natural resources
4) extension of the merit system in the civil services
5) construction of an isthmian canal
6) vigorous foreign policy: "big stick"
coal strike of 1902
long hours, low wages, being forced to live in company houses and trade at company stores, refusal to recognize unions
white house conference of 1902
between mine owners and john mitchell (pres of united mine workers)--
came to terms: 10% wage increase, 9 hour work day, no union recognition still
election of 1904-- jennings brian vs teddy
roosevelt wins-- he could do no wrong
election of 1908-- taft vs jennings brian
taft wins-- wants to mesh progressives and conservatices in repub party back together
payne-aldrich tariff
lower tariffs, lower rates by 40% caused angst from repub party and congress
ballinger-pinchot controversy
ballinger's actions-- debate over selling reserved land
pinchot's dismissal
joe cannon, speaker of the house
revolt of 1910
repubs and democrats sided to change the speaker's power in appointing committee members
mann-elkins act
commerce court to deal with rate cases was formed
physical caluation act
robert lafayette
validated the value of land owned by the RRs-- wanted to cerify how much the RRs were charging
postal savings bank act
post offices became baks
***16th amendment
gradual increase of income tax
departments of commerce and labor
split and each became a cabinet position
election of 1912-- wilson vs taft bs teddy (progressive party)
wilson won b/c repubs were split b/t taft and teddy
edward house (col. house)
became wilson's trusted advisor (no offical position)
WWI allies
GB, france, Russia, US
WWI central pwrs
germany, austria-hungary
british maritime policy
wanted to prevent us from trading with the enemy (or neutral countries),
they thought they had the right to seize neutral ships in time of war-- they said they would compensate for the inconvenience of those on board
geerman maritime policy
declared the water around GB as a war zone-- fair game to seize any ships in there
sinking of the lusitania
british liner, 128 american died, silson tried to issue a note to the germans to tell them to play fair-- jennings brian resigns as sec of state protesting they're a seconf away from getting involved in the war,
german ambassador responded: passenger liners no longer attacked unless they believe they have contraband on board
sussex affair
french liner in the english chanel attacked, 2 american injured, wilson sent an ultimatum-- we would sever diplomatic relations if any ships other than warships were attacked-- sussex pledge: germans would not sink liners w/o warning and saving lives
ntnl defense act
provided for military expansion-- double its size
army appropriation act
est council for ntnl defense-- planned for nation's resources in event of war
shipping act
built warships in case of war
election of 1916-- hughes vs wilson
wilson: "he will keep us out of war"
wilson won
the House mission
col. House
created this to bring the birtish, french, and german leaders together to talk about peace
peace without victory
wanted the groups to state their purpose/war aims-- they said no peace w/o victory
germany's resumption of submarine activity
disregard for the sussex pledge, we sever diplomatic relations with the germans-- killed the crews of 5 american ships
zimmerman note
confiscated by british intelligence-- Arthur zimmerman (german prime minister to mexico) was busy trying to get mexico to joing the war against us in exchange for all their lost land-- wilson released the note and the US was outraged
wilson's war message after zimmerman note
the german submarine campagin was a war against mankind-- we must go to war to make the world safe for democracy
selective servie act of 1917
all men 21-31 must register
later changed to 18-45
war industries board
took over industry-- right equip, right materials to produce right amount of goods
war labor board
no work stoppages, no disagreements/strikes
food administration
headed by herbert hoover
reduced waste, fixed price on food, meatless and wheatless days
emergency fleet corp
we built 2 ships for every ally vessel sunk by a german sub
commitee on public info
released news presses, films, etc-- never spoke negatively
espionage act, sedation act
required you to be pro-american
Wilson's 14 pt plan
8 recommendations for adjusting postwar boundaries and est. new nations to replace austria-hungary and ottoman;
five principles to govern international conduct in the future-- freedom of seas, open treaties, reductions in arms, free trade, impartial mediation;
league of nations
league of nations
would help implement wilson's 14 pts and resolve future controversies,
US refused to join
treaty of versailles
surrender areas to france, transfer german colonies to diff ally pwrs, reduce army, relenquish subs, ships, planes, guns, pay $56 1/2 bill. for damanges,
germans signed under protest

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